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ternal; whilst moss, wool, fine hair, and form the warm internal part of these the softest animal and vegetable downs, commodious dwellings:—
Of vernal songsters—some to the holly hedge,
The cavern-loving wren sequestered seeks
NATURALISTS' cALEN DAR
CHEAP WEATHER GUIDE. To the Editor of the Every-Day Book. Cornhill, March, 1826.
Sir, The following observations on the leechworm were made by a gentleman who kept one several years for the purpose of a weather-glass:
A phial of water, containing a leech, I kept on the frame of my lower sash window, so that when I looked in the morning I could know what would be the weather of the following day. If the weather proves serene and beautiful, the leech lies motionless at the bottom of the glass, and rolled together in a spiral form.
If it rains, either before or after noon, it is found crept up to the top of its lodging, and there it remains till the weather is settled. If we are to have wind, the poor prisoner gallops through its limped habitation with amazing swiftness, and seldom rests till it begins to blow hard.
If a storm of thunder and rain is to succeed, for some days before it lodges, almost continually, without the water, and discovers very great uneasiness in violent throes and convulsions.
In the frost, as in clear summer weather, it lies constantly at the bottom; and in snow, as in rainy weather, it pitches its dwelling upon the very mouth of the phial.
What reasons may be assigned for these circumstances I must leave philosophers to determine, though one thing is evident to every body, that it must be affected in the same way as that of the mercury and spirits in the weather-glass. It has, doubtless, a very surprising sensation; for the change of weather, even days before, makes a visible alteration upon its manner of living.
Perhaps it may not be amiss to note, that the leech was kept in a common eight-ounce phial glass, about threequarters filled with water, and covered on the mouth with a piece of linen rag. In the summer the water is changed once a a week, and in the winter once a fortnight. This is a weather-glass which may be purchased at a very trifling exp. and which will last I do not know
ow many years.
- I am, &c
NATURALISTS CALENDar. Mean Temperature . . .44 - 82.
Øpril 5. Swallows IN 1826.
Our friend J. H. H. whose letter on wildfowl shooting, from Abbeville, is in vol. i. . 1575, with another on lark shooting in France in the present volume, p. 91, writes from Southover, near Lewes, in Sussex, on this day, 1826, “How delightful the country looks 1 I shall leave ou to imagine two swallows, the first I ave seen, now preening themselves on the barn opposite, heartily glad that their long journey is at an end.” The birds come to us this year very early.
Pump with two Spouts.
In a letter of the 5th of April, 1808, to Dr. Aikin, inserted in his “Athenaeum,” Mr. Roots says, “In the year 1801, being on a tour through the Highlands of Scotland, I visited the beautiful city of Glasgow, and in passing one of the principal streets in the neighbourhood of the Tron church, I observed about five-and-twenty or thirty people, chiefly females, assembled round a large public pump, waiting their separate turns for water; and although the pump had two spouts for the evacuation of the water behind and before, I took notice that one of the spouts was carefully plugged up, no one attempting to fill his vessel from that source, whilst each was waiting till the rest were served, sooner than draw the water from the spout in question. On inquiry into the cause of this proceeding, I was informed by an intelligent gentleman residing in the neighbourhood, that though one and the same handle produced the same water from the same well through either of the spouts, yet the populace, and even better informed people, had for a number of years conceived an idea, which had been handed down from father to son, that the water when drawn from the hindermost spout would be of an unlucky and poisonous nature; and this vulgar prejudice is from time to time kept afloat, inasmuch, as by its being never used, a kind of dusty fur at length collects, and the water, when suffered from curiosity to pass through, at first runs foul; and this tends to carry conviction still further to these ignorant people, who with the most solemn assurances
I was an useless reed; no cluster hung
Robed me in silver: day and night I pined
Sermon AT St. ANDREw's.
For the Every-Day Book.
Our old acquaintance with the saints is not broken: but they are sad intruders on the beauties of the world, and we part from them, for a little while, after the annexed communication of an attempt to honour them.
The following anecdote, under the article “Black Friars,” in Brand's “History of Newcastle-upon-Tyne,” as a specimen of the extreme perversion of mind in the Romish clergy of former times, is curious, and may amuse your readers as much as it has me. Prolific gales Warm the soft air, and animate the vales. Woven with flowers and shrubs, and freshest green, Thrown with wild boldness o'er the lovely scene A brilliant carpet, of unnumbered dyes, With sweet variety enchants the eyes. Thick are the trees with leaves; in every grove The feathered minstrels tune their throats to love.
Richard Marshall, who had been one of the brethren, and also prior of the house, in the year 1521, at St. Andrew's, Scotland, informed his audience there, that Pater noster should be addressed to God and not to the saints. The doctors of St. Andrew's, in their great wisdom, or rather craftiness, appointed a preacher to o: this tenet, which he did in a sermon from Matt, v. 3. “Blessed are the poor in spirit.” “Seeing,” says he, “we say good day, father, to any old man in the street, we may call a saint, pater, who is older than any alive: and seeing they are in heaven, we may say to any of them, “hallowed be thy name;' and since they are in the kingdom of heaven, we may say to any of them “thy kingdom come :' and seeing their will is God's will, we may say, “thy will be done,’” &c. When the friar was proceeding further, he was hissed and even obliged to leave the city. Yet we are told, the dispute continued among the doctors about the pater. Some would have it said to God formaliter, to the saints materialiter; others, to God principaliter, to the saints minus principaliter; or primario to God, secundario to the saints; or to God strict?, and to the saints late. With all these distinetions they could not agree. It is said, that Tom, who was servant to the subF. of St Andrew's, one day perceiving his master in trouble, said to him, “Sir, what is the cause of your trouble?” The master answered, “We cannot agree about the saying of the pater.” The fellow replied, “To whom should it be said but to God alone?” The master asks,
On this day in the “Perennial Calendar,” Dr. Forster observes, that it may be proper to notice the general appearance of the wild and less cultivated parts of nature at this time. In the fields, the bulbous crowfoot, ranunculus bulbosus, begins to blow. Daisies become pretty common, and dandelions are seen here and there by road sides, and in fields, on a warm soil, are pretty abundant. The pilewort, ficaria verna, still decorates the thickets and shady green banks with its bright yellow stars of gold. It may be observed generally, that the flowers found at this time belong to the primaveral Flora; those of the vernal being as yet undeveloped. By the sides of rivers, streams, and ponds, along the wet margins of ditches, and in moist meadows, and marshes, grows the marsh marigold, caltha palustris, whose golden yellow flowers have a brilliant effect at a small distance.
A gentleman indulges the editor with the following account of a singular household utensil, and a drawing of it, from whence a correct engraving has been made; together with a letter from the late lord chancellor Thurlow, which from his distinguished hand on a singular occurrence, merits preservation.
To the Editor of the Every-Day Book. Aprit 3, 1826.
Sir, I shall be happy to communicate any thing in my power, connected with antiquities to the Every-Day Book, which I have taken from the beginning, and been highly pleased with ; and, first, I send you a drawing for insertion, if you think it worthy, of a carving, in my possession, on an ancient oak board, two feet in diameter.
Øntitut Carbing. It represents the letters 3. 5. c. in the centre, surrounded by this legend, viz.
As this legend reads backward, and all the carving is incuse, it was evidently intended to give impression to something; I imagine pastry.
An original letter is now before me, from lord chancellor Thurlow, to a Norfolk farmer, who had sent him a hare, and two and a half brace of partridges, enclosed in a large turnip of his own growth. The farmer had not any p. knowledge of his lordship, but,
ing aware he was a Norfolk man, he rightly conceived that his present would be looked upon with more interest on that account. The following is a copy of the chancellor's letter:
- Bath, Dec. 31, 1778. Sir, I beg you will accept of my best thanks for your agreeable present. It gave me additional satisfaction to be so remembered in my native country; to which I, in particular, owe every sort of respect, and all the world agrees to admire for superiority in husbandry. I am, Sir, Your most obliged And obedient servant, Thurlow. Having transcribed his lordship's answer, you are at liberty to do with that, and the drawing of my carving, as you please; with this “special observance,"