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but this is a mistake. His quills generally lie down close to his body, but if he is attacked, he will lift them up; and thus the sharp erected prickles present a good defence against the attacks of any animal which would injure him. When the Porcupine casts his quills, he shakes them off with such force, that they fly to the distance of several yards ;-it might have been this circumstance which first gave rise to the reports of travellers of the general power of this animal to shoot off his quills against bis pursuers. These quills are from pine to fifteen inches in length. Wbenever the Porcupine is offended, he stamps forcibly on the ground, with his bind feet, somewhat in the manner of a rabbit. In this act, he shakes all his quills, but more particularly those about the tail ; and makes, at the same time, a sort of grunting noise. The usual method of defence adopted by these animals is to lie down on one side, and, at the approach of an enemy, to rise up quickly and gore him with the erected sharp quills of the other side ; but the keeper of the Tower says that whenever any one attacks his Porcupine, the animal turns round and runs backward against his 'enemy. M. Le Vaillant thought that there was some poisonous quality in the quills: he says, in his Travels, that one of his men was ill for more than six months of a wound which he received from a Porcupine ; and that a gentleman of the Cape of Good Hope nearly lost his limb from a wound which he received, whilst be was teasing one of these animals.

The Porcupine is a native of Africa, India, and the Indian Islands; and is sometimes to be found even in Italy and Sicily. It has its habitation under ground, divided into several different rooms, and it leaves two holes, one for entrance, and the other to escape by, in case of necessity. It sleeps during the day, and goes out at night for food. It lives sbiefly upon fruits, ruots, and vegetables. The Porcupine, as we have said, is an inoffensive

animal, and never begins an attack; but, if it is pursued, it generally climbs up the first tree that it can reach, and there remains till the enemy is tired of waiting for him. If, however, it cannot escape, and is roused to self-defence, it makes the fiercest animals afraid of it. The Porcupine is generally about two feet long.

Chiefly from Bingley's Animal Biography.



I HAVE often wondered how the art of grafting was ever found out. I am aware that it is no new discovery, but that it was well known to the ancients : yet it has always seemed to me a very extraordinary discovery. A piece of fresh stick stuck carelessly into the ground, instead of dying and rotting, lives, and puts forth leaves ; and this, once seen, would soon give a notion that this was a proper way of propagating trees. But that any one should sup, pose that a shoot from one tree, could be fixed into the stock of another tree, and that it would thus grow, and become a part of that tree, is a notion which one should hardly have supposed would have come into any man's mind to expect. When once tried indeed, and found to succeed, we cannot wonder that it should go on ; and experience would presently shew that certain shoots would grow on certain stocks; and this method would be found to be $0 convenient that it would of course be continued. But the first discovery is what surprises me. However, as I firmly believe that a gracious Providence does encourage the exertions of men, by opening to their minds the knowledge of such things as are needful or convenient, I shall wonder no longer, i

It does, however, seem strange to many persons, that the shoot of a fruit-tree-should grow better on

the stock of another tree, than in the ground. Indeed it is believed by many persons, that cuttings of fruit-trees will not strike root in tbe ground at all. This, bowever, is not true. I cannot help thinking that any tree would grow from a cutting. The two best apple-trees I have in my garden, both came from cuttings. I bad, about seven years ago, a shoot from an apple-tree given me by way of a riding-stick. I did not beat my horse much with it, both out of mercy to him, and to my stick. When I got home, I cut the stick into two pieces, and stuck them in the ground : and they are now goodsized trees, and flourishing bearers. The proper time is February, before the young buds shoot. Though I think, with care, that all trees might strike root from cuttings, I do not say that they would all do it with equal ease.

Mine were struck under a hand-glass in good earth. I think, of apples, those of the codling kind strike root most easily. Of course, we must expect that a tree from a cutting should be longer in coming to a good size, than one grafted on a stock already of a considerable height. I do not mention what I have said as a discovery, or even as an improvement; but little experiments of this kind are interesting, and give an additioual pleasure to the delightful employment of gardening.



To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor.

SIR, I HAVE always been pleased and delighted, in the perusal of your useful Miscellany; and, to extend its usefulness, I have occasionally employed some of my leisure hours in translating parts of it into Welsh.

I don't recollect seeing in your work the following lines on Prayer, which I think are simple and appropriate. The insertion of them, will, I am sare gratify most of your readers, and will greatly oblige the Transcriber, your constant reader and admirer,


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Prayer is the simplest form of speech

That infant lips can try;
Prayer 's the sublimest strains that reach

The Majesty on high,

Prayer is the Christian's vital breath,

The Cbristian's native air;
The watch-word at the gates of Death,

He enters Heaven with prayer.

Prayer is the contrite sinner's voice

When turning from bis ways,
When angels in their hymns rejoice,

And say—“Behold, he prays!”

The Saints in prayer appear as one

In word, in deed, in mind,
When with the Father, and the Son,

Their fellowship they find.

O Thou, by whom we come to God,

The life, the truth, the way;
The path of prayer thyself has trod,

Lord, teach us how to pray.
Diras Dindle, Nov. 26, 1823.

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From a Tract entitled, Considerations on Hu.

manity, as a Christian duty, towards Animals." By the Rev. G. A. Hatch, M.A.

It is a Christian duty for all persons to be attentive to feed and nourish those poor animals which contribute to their business or their pleasure; not to work them beyond their strength, not to suffer that they should be beaten unmercifully, or be maimed, or injured in any respect, through wantonness or passion. We are to think of the feelings of every thing that has life,-all beasts, birds, and fishes, every insect that flies, and every reptile that crawls on the earth. It ought to be a part of the education of children to give a merciful direction to their feelings, teaching them not to be thoughtless of the sensations of any thing that has life, and guarding them against sports or amusements by which any animals may be wantonly afflicted. “ Ye therefore who love mercy,

child To love it too."

teach your

SNOW A SUBSTITUTE FOR EGGS, To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor.

Sir, I send the following for the Domestic Economy of your readers, from “ Domestic Cookery,” by a Lady,

p. 137.

“ Snow is an excellent substitute for eggs, either in puddings or pancakes. Two large spoonfuls of snow instead of one egg. The show may be taken up from any clean spot before it is wanted, and will not lose its virtue; though the sooner it is used, the

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