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through his sufferings with less danger. I have sometimes known this cruel operation to have been performed two or three times on the same. horse, before he would carry bis tail as it was thought he ought to do. I am happy to say, Sir, that this practice is not near so common as it was a few years ago,-but it ought to be done away altogether.

I am, Sir, yours, &c.


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To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor.

SIR, Not having been acquainted with your excellent “ Visitor," till within the last few months, I was not aware that a Gardener's Calendar had already been inserted; and, unfortunately, not having the first volume to refer to, it is impossible for me to ascertain what your former correspondent on the subject has said; but, as it seems that my directions were approved, I have continued them ;-and a dash of the pen * will easily erase any superfluous matter.

FEBRUARY. Plant early potatoes, if the ground be tolerably dry.

In open weather, transplant all kinds of hardy forest trees and shrubs; for removing 'hardy fruit trees to a wet soil, the latter end of this month, is better than autumn.

Sow peas and beans.--" In cottage gardens," says Loudon, “ the bean is very profitably grown among cabbages and potatoes, and the pea may occupy a

* We have been sparing in this use of our pen; though, from the smallness of our work, we are frequently obliged to take this liberty with oar Correspondents." ED.

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space to be filled up in autumn with winter greens."

Sow onions and leeks, in the beginning of the month, but do not venture the main crop before the last week; the best kind for the first sowing is the white Spanish: for the crop, the Strasburg and Deptford.

Sow Savoy seed in the last week: the dwarf may be recommended from its size, and is proper for present sowing, though the yellow is bardier, and equally good.

Sow white, green, or Egyptian cosş lettuce in the last week. The onion and lettuce seed may be mixed with a little short topped radish seed.

Drill round-leaved spinach between crops of peas, beans, or young cabbages.

Train and prune fruit trees before the buds swell.

Defer making strawberry beds, till next month, as it is better for this purpose than February.

Prepare clay to be used in grafting next month, by mixing stiff clay with a quarter of its bulk of fresh horse dung, a little cat hay or grass, and a little water. The whole should be well beaten together, and turned, and mixed every three or four days.

OBSERVATIONS. Potatoes.-Almost every district possesses particular kinds suited to the nature of the soil, but the following sorts are well adapted for general cultivation. Fox's seedling and early manly for first, the nonsuch and early champion for second earlies; the latter is particularly large, prolific, and mealy. In cutting the sets, reject the small cluster of eyes at the end, as these produce weak uuprofitable shoots. Always cut the sets from full grown well ripened potatoes. Early potatoes should be cut at least a fort, night before they are wanted, as, if the wounded surface becomes dry before planting, they are less liable to decay.

Planting Trees and Shrubs. --Beforeplanting, trim the small roots and fibres, cat away sach roots as cross each other, smooth the ends of those which have been broken or crushed in removing, and prune the branches moderately, cutting the twigs away. It* is a bad prác* tice to water transplanted trees, excepting when it is necessary to remove them at an improper season. Tie those that are in danger of being blown down, to a stake with a hay 'rope, passing it between the tree and stake to prevent friction. As this is a great planting season, a little advice on the choice of kinds may not be unacceptable.

Gooseberry and currant shrubs may be properly planted round the quarters; and the latter may be put against rails and walls of any aspect. The varieties of gooseberry are numerous and local, but the following kinds are well known and generally approved: the conquerorand amber yellows, the walnut, large rough and smooth reds, and the walnut and globe greens. With respect to currants, the common black, the white and pale-red Dutch, and large champagne red, are good sorts. .

Raspberry shrubs occupy the least ground when planted in rows, and are most readily propagated-by, transplanting suckers: the large red and yellow Antwerps are good bearers ; the twice-bearingsmooth-cane is valued, as bearing two crops every year.

Of the apple, some kinds require particular soils and aspects : but the hawthorndean and codling will bear almost any where. The royal codling, pearmain, and grey russet are great bearers, and the Ribstone pippin is excellent, both in this respect, and in favour. The hawthorndean, besides being an excellent apple, when grafted on a paradise stock, comes sooner into bearing than any other kind what

The codling and some other kinds may now be raised from cuttings of young wood, and such will not require grafting. i Standard pear trees should be seldom pruned, and are long before they bear.


Quere.-.Why? ED.

The jargonelle, summer bergamot, and swan's egg may be recommended for cottage culture.

For plums, the magnum bonum, blue damson, and Orleans: the wine sour may be added for baking.

Of cherries, the May duke, black heart, and morello; but the latter is not good in its raw state, unless kept till October.

Peas. I would recommend the charlton to be sown now in preference to any other kind, as being an excellent pea, a great bearer, and only a few days later than the frame, which is an unproductive sort. The blue Prussian and dwarf marrow are generally esteemed; but the latter end of this month is quite early enough to commence sowing the latter, Peas should be manured with road scrapings and well rotted vegetables. The general fault, in sowing all kinds of seeds, is sowing them too thick,—this must be particularly avoided with peas.

Beans. The early and large long-pods are good bearers; the Sandwich toker, and broad Spanish are by gardeners considered as the most profitable, and are sown from the beginning of this month till the end of May. If a little train oil be stirred in amongst early peas and beans, a few days before sowing, vermin will not attack them.

Training and Pruning.-In training the apricot, attend to the general directions given last month; cut out the old naked branches, retain a proper supply of wood with spurs and young shoots ; shorten the latter one-fourth, or one-half, according to their strength, but do not cut below all the fruit buds unless to obtain a supply of wood; and, in general, retain a leader at the end of each branch, unshortened.

In training plum trees, lay in the branches hori. zontally, and at fall length ; use the knife sparingly, only removing the fore-right and irregular shoots : where more wood is wanted, pinch off the points of the neighbouring young sboots. Where the cherry tree is trained, care must be taken not to crowd the branches, as, if this is done, the blossoms will not set. Preserve good bearing branches uncut, train young shoots to fill up vacant spaces, and to replace old branches, as they are cut out. When possible, re. tain the shoots, especially the leaders of the branches, unshortened. Cūt the fore-right shoots, so as to leave a little projection on the branch, which will bear fruit; but, in morellos, cut them entirely out. The branches of the morello may be laid in as closely as six inches, as it bears the fruit on the last year's wood, cut out older wood to make room for this, and be careful to retain a proper supply for next year.

E. W. B.

A young Nurseryman, Birmingham, Jan. 5, 1824.



WHEN we look at the formation of different animals, it is impossible to help admiring the wonderful manner in which the Creator has made them all, and by what various methods he has furnished them with the means of supplying their wants, or of protecting themselves from their enemies. The Porcupine is a harmless, inoffensive animal; and seems to wish to be at peace; and, in case it should be attacked by any other animals, it has no strength of limbs to enable it to resist. It is, therefore, supplied with a very extraordinary kind of defence,--a covering of hard, sharp quills, all over its body. It is a common notion, that the Porcupine has the power of shooting out those quills to a distance against its enemy;

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