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five-pence should have a penny more to make the six-pence; that he who collects ten-pence should have two-pence given him to make up the shilling; and that he who, by continued prudence and care, saves one or two shillings shall be allowed to put his money into the Savings Bank, and thus have the means of increasing the sum as a store against going to service, or any other important occasion.”—(From “ Friendly Advice on the Management and Education of the Children of Labourers," &c.)
We think that this is very useful advice ;-we are aware that many good people are afraid that this spirit of economy may lead to a covetous love of money,—which is, itself, a very great crime. And, indeed, the truth is, that every thing, however good, may be perverted to a bad purpose,-and this teaches us the necessity of constant watchfulness over our own hearts; which indeed must be the proper disposition for creatures in a state of trial. Prudent care however is not covetousness.Money is not to be saved merely from a love of saving :-it is to be saved, that it may be afterwards spent. It is to be saved from needless and useless expense, to be afterwards laid out in what is necessary and useful. And, when we consider all the severe temptations, all the wicked dispositions, and all the horrible acts that persons are led into by that distress which is brought on by want of prudent management, it surely must be wise and Christianlike, to endeavour to prevent these miseries ;guarding, at the same time, as we have said, against possible dangers of an opposite kind.-We may remark too, that extravagant expense does really produce the very same evils that covetousness does, --it prevents us from doing any thing for the relief and assistance of our fellow-creatures. Indeed, however strange it may appear, extravagance and covetousness often arise from the very same dispo-. sition :-a disposition, that is, to gratify our own desires, without regard to the wants and necessities of others.--A prudent man, wbilst he cousults his own happiness, leaves himself the power of likewise helping his fellow-creatures.
THE COTTAGER'S GARDEN DIRECTORY.-JULY. Sow, in a sheltered situation, the large white Dutch kidney bean, which will continue bearing till the autumnal frosts destroy the plants. Soak the seed in water for a few hours, and water the drills in which it is sown. In .the first week, sow round spinach on a shady border; and, in the last week, prickly spinach on poor ground with a warm aspect. Sow, in the first week, York and sugar-loaf cabbage for autumn, and, in the last week, for winter and spring. Sow a little carrot seed for succession, and turnips for full crops. It is better to wait a little for rain, than to sow turnips in dry weather; but, should the season prove permanently dry, water the seed beds. Sow them on ground which was well manured last year, but no manure should be dug into the seed beds, at the present time. Sow the white Russian, and other kinds of turnip-rooted radishes. Sow, before the 10th, a little purple or green Cape broccoli for spring use. The beds should be well watered, and the seedlings only once transplanted.
general, it will be found necessary, for the sake of preventing the plants being devoured by snails, to dust the leaves with a little fresh slacked lime. Sow Batavian endive. Sow the last crop of peas, which should be of early kinds only, as the Charlton and Hotspur. Sow the seeds of hardy annual flowers, which, if the winter prove mild, will form stronger plants than if sown in spring.
Transplant savoys, broccoli, and cabbages, for spring, and cauliflowers for autumn. Plant celery
in drills for blanching, and the smallest plants into beds to acquire strength.
Supply all plants that require it, especially cucpmbers and gourds, with plenty of water: to receive it, small basins should be formed in the earth, around their stems. Destroy weeds before they go to seed, taking great care to keep manure-heaps free from them, lest, along with the manure, their seeds should be introduced into the garden. As soon as the tops of onions begin to flag and turn yellow, bend them down within about two inches of the root: and, when the leaves of onions and garlick are quite withered, pull the roots up, and spread them in a shady place to dry, and afterwards rub off the fibres and the dry husky skin. The best way, perhaps, of keeping oniors is, to form them into long bunches, by platting or tying the tops together, and then to bang them up in a dry place. Take away from wall trees all foreright and ill-placed shoots, training the others into their proper situations: when this is properly executed, there will not be any necessity to cut leaves from the branches in order to expose the fruit to the sun, a practice, which not only injares the trees, but prevents the fruit acquiring its full size. Inoculate trees, and saddle-graft apple and pear trees. Cut down decaying stems of flowers. Dig the beds. Hoe the walks, and, in the last week, trim hedges, and cut box edgings. Keep every thing as neat and clean as possible.
Inoculation.-An account of the general method of budding has already been given, but the following, invented by Mr. Knight, is more expeditious. The operation is performed in the manner already described, excepting that two bandages are used instead of one. One of these bandages is applied above the bud, the other beneath it, and, as the only use of the lower one is to secure the bud, it is removed as soon as the wound' heals, which usually takes place in a month. The other bandage, by checking the ascent of the sap, causes the bud to vegetate immediately after ; a circumstance which otherwise does not take place till the following spring. Budding should always be done in cloudy weather.
Saddle-grafting. The head of the stock is to be cut off in a very sloping direction. The scion, the thickness of which ought not to exceed half that of the stock, is to be split upwards about two inches, placing the split a little on one side of the pith. The strongest division, which, of course, contains the pith, is then to be pared thin, and introduced between the bark and the wood of the stock, as is directed, page 128, for crown-grafting. The other half of the scion is to be fitted close to the wounded part of the stock : thus the scion, so to speak, sits astride upon the stock. Bandage and clay as usual. This method is practised, almost exclusively in Herefordshire, upon the apple and pear, and seldom fails, when performed this month, upon the young wood, as soon as it has acquired a sufficient, degree of firmness.
E. W. B.
RECEIPT FOR PRESERVING BUTTER.
To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor.
SIR, The following receipt, for preserving butter, is, perhaps, the best that has yet been given to the public, and may prove useful to many cottagers who keep a cow.
E. W. B.
Take two parts of the best common salt, one of sugar, and one of saltpetre; beat them up together, and blend the whole completely, Take one ounce of this composition, for every sixteen ounces of butter; work it well into the mass, and close it up, for use.—Dr. Anderson's Recreations in Agriculture.
Scriptural Encouragements to Diligence and Per
The desire of the slothful killeth him, for his hands refuse to labour.
He that is slothful in his work, is brother to him that is a great waster:
Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty.
It is good to be zealously affected in a good thing.
The substance of a diligent man is precious.
Let us not be weary in well doing; for, in due season, we shall
if we faint not. So run that ye may obtain.
Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering, for he is faithful that promised.
He that endureth unto the end shall be saved. Giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue.
Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.
From the National School Magazine..
PRUDENTIAL MAXIMS. The foolish philosopher long sought for, a stone which should turn lead into gold. A wise labourer. found out that industry was the true philosopher's stone.
Early to bed, and early to rise,