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SEEING. But as the world's Sun doth effect beget

First, the two eyes, which have the seeing posit, Diff'rent, in divers places ev'ry day;

Stand as one watchman, spy, or centioel, Here autumn's temperature, there summer's heat; Being plac'd aloft, within the head's high tow'r;

Here flow'ry spring-tide, and there winter grey. And though both see, yet both but one thing tell. Here ev'n, there morn; here noon, there day, there These mirrors take into their little space night,

[some dead;

The forms of Moon and Sun, and ev'ry star, Melts wax, dries clay, makes flow'rs, some quick, of ev'ry body, and of ev'ry place, Makes the Moor black, the European white;

Which with the world's wide arms embraced are: Th’ American tawny, and th' East Indian red:

Yet their best object, and their noblest use, So in our little world, this soul of ours

Hereafter in another world will be, Being only one, and to one body ty'd,

When God in them shall heav'nly light infuse, Doth use, on divers objects, divers powers ;

That face to face they may their Maker see. And so are her effects diversify'd.

Here are they gaides, which do the body lead,

Which else would stumble in eternal night: SECTION XII.

Here in this world they do much knowledge read,

And are the casements which admit most light 2


Her quick’ning power in ev'ry living part,

Doth as a nurse or as a mother serve; And doth employ her economic art,

And busy care, her household to preserve. Here she attracts, and there she doth retain;

There she decocts, and doth the food prepare; There she distributes it to ev'ry vein,

There she expels what she may fitly spare. This pow'r to Martha may compared be,

Who busy was, the household things to do :' Or to a Dryas, living in a tree:

For e'en to trees this pow'r is proper too.

They are her furthest reaching instrument,

Yet they no beams unto their objects send;
Bat all the rays are from their objects sent,

And in the eyes with pointed angles end.
If th' objects be far off, the rays do meet

In a sharp point, and so things seem but small:
If they be near, their rays do spread and fleet,
And make broad poiots, that things seem great


Lastly, wine things to sight required are;

The pow'r to see, the light, the visible thing, Being not too small, too thin, too nigh, too far,

Clear space and time, the form distinct to bring. Thus see we how the soul doth ase the eyes,

As instruments of her quick pow'r of sight: Hence doth th' arts' optic, and fair painting rise;

Painting, which doth all gentle minds delight.

And though the soul may not this pow'r extend

Out of the body, but still use it there;
She hath a pow'r which she abroad doth send,

Which views and searcheth all things ev'ry where.



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This power is sense, which from abroad doth bring Now let us hear how she the ears employs :

The colour, taste, and touch, and scent, and sound, Their office is, the troubled air to take; The quantity and shape of ev'ry thing

Which in their mazes forms a sound or noise, Within Earth's centre, or Heav'n's circle found. Whereof herself doth true distinction make. This pow'r, in parts made fit, fit objects takes ; These wickets of the soul are plac'd on high,

Yet not the things, but forms of things receives; Because all sounds do lightly mount aloft ; As when a seal in wax impression makes,

And that they may not pierce too violently, The print therein, but not itself, it leaves.

They are delay'd with turns and windings oft. And though things sensible be numberless, For should the voice directly strike the brain, But only five the sense's organs be ;

It would astonish and confuse it much; And in those five, all things their forms express, Therefore these plaits and folds the sound restrain,

Which we can touch, taste, feel, or hear, or see. That it the organ may more gently touch. These are the windows, through the which she views As streams, which with their winding banks do play,

The light of knowledge, which is life's load-star: Stopp'd by their creeks, run softly through the # And yet while she these spectacles doth use, So in th' ear's labyrinth the voice doth stray, (plain:

Oft worldly things seem greater than they are." And doth with easy motion touch the brain,


This is the slowest, yet the daintiest sense; Much like a subtle spiders, which doth sit
For e'en the ears of such as have no skill,

In middle of her web, which spreadeth wide ; Perceive a discord, and conceive offence;

If aught do touch the utmost thread of it,
And, knowing not what's good, yet find the ill. She feels it instantly on ev'ry side.
And though this sense first gentle music found, By touch, the first pure qualities we learn,

Her proper object is the speech of men; Which quicken all things,bot, cold, moist, and dry: But that speech chiefly which God's heralds sound, By touch, hard, soft, rough, smooth, we do discern:

When their tongues utter what his spirit did pen. By touch, sweet pleasure and sharp pain we try.
Our eyes have lids, our ears still ope we see,
Quickly to hear how ev'ry tale is prov'd:

Our eyes still move, our ears unmoved be;
That though we bear quick, we be not quickly OF THE IMAGINATION, OR COMMON SENSE.

These are the outward instruments of ser.ce;
Thus by the organs of the eye and ear,

These are the guards which ev'ry thing must pass, The soul with knowledge doth herself endue :: Ere it approach the mind's intelligence, " Thus she her prison may with pleasure bear, Or touch the fantasy, wit's looking-glass. Having such prospects, all the world to view.”

And yet these porters, which all things admit, These condait-pipes of knowledge feed the mind, Themselves perceive not, nor discern the things:

But th' other three attend the body still; One common pow'r doth in the forehead sit, For by their services the soul doth find,

Which all their proper forms together brings. What things are to the body good or ill.

For all those nerves, which spirits of sepse do bear,

And to those outward organs spreading go, United are, as in a centre, there;


And there this pow'r those sundry forms doth

Those outward organs present things receive, Tur body's life with meats and air is fed,

This inward sense doth absent things retain; Therefore the soul doth use the tasting pow'r

Yet straight transmits all forms she doth perceive, In veins, wbich through the tongue and palate spread, Unto an higher region of the brain.

Distinguish ev'ry relish, sweet and sour.
This is the body's nurse; but since man's wit
Found thart of cook’ry to delight his sense,

More bodies are consum'd and kill'd with it,
Than with the sword, famine, or pestilence.

WHERE fantasy, near hand-maid to the mind,

Sits, and beholds, and doth discern them all;

Compounds in one, things diff'rent in their kind; SECTION XVII.

Compares the black and white, the great and

NAT, in the nostrils she doth use the smell : Besides, those single forms she doth esteem,
As God the breath of life in them did give;

And in her balance doth their values try;
So makes he now this pow'r in them to dwell, Where some things good, and some things ill do

To judge all airs, whereby we breathe and live. And neutral some, in her fantastic eye. (seem, This sense is also mistress of an art,

This busy pow'r is working day and night; Which to soft people sweet perfumes doth sell;

For when the outward senses rest do take, Though this dear art doth little good impart,

A thousand dreams, fantastical and light,
"Since they smell best, that do of notbing smell.” With flutt'ring wings do keep her still awake.
And yet good scents do purify the brain,
Awake the fancy, and the wits refine:

Hence old Devotion incense did ordain,
To make men's spirits apt for thoughts divine.

Yer always all may not afore her be;

Successively she this and that intends;

Therefore such forms as she doth cease to see,

To memory's large volume she commends. LASTLY, the feeling pow'r, which is life's root,

Throagb ev'ry living part itself doth shed 3. The spider's touch how exquisitely fine,
By sinews, which cxtend from head to foot;

Feels at each thread, and lives along the line. And, like a net, all o'er the body spread.

Pope's Essay ou Man.



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This ledger-book lies in the brain behind,
Like Janus' eye, which in his pol! was set :

The layman's tables, storehouse of the mind;

THE INTELLECTUAL POWERS OF THE SOUL. Which doth remember much, and much forget.

But now I have a will, yet want a wit, lere sense's apprehension end doth take;

T'express the working of the wit and will; As when a stone is into water cast,

Which, though their root be to the body knit, One circle doth another circle make,

Use not the body, when they use their skill. Till the lasi circle touch the bank at last.

These pow'rs the nature of the soul declare,

For to man's soul these only proper be;

For on the Earth no other wights there are

That have these heavenly powers, but only we.



But though the apprehensive pow'r do pause,

The motive virtue then begins to move;
Which in the heart below doth passions cause,

WIT, REASON, UNDERSTANDING, OPINION, JUDGMENT, Joy, grief, and fear, and hope, and hate, and love.

The wit, the pupil of the soul's clear eye, These passions have a free commanding might,

And in man's world the only shining star,
And divers actions in our life do breed;

Looks in the mirrour of the fantasy,
For all acts done without true reason's light,
Do from the passion of the sense proceed.

Where all the gath'rings of the senses are.
But since the brain doth lodge the pow'rs of sense,

From thence this pow'r the shapes of things abstracts, How makes it in the heart those passions spring? Which are enlight'ned by that part which acts;

And them within her passive part receives, The mutual love, the kind intelligence "J'wixt heart and brain, this sympathy doth bring.

And so the forms of single things perceives. From the kind heat, which in the heart doth reign,

But after, by discoursing to and fro, The spirits of life do their beginning take;

Anticipating and comparing things, These spirits of life ascending to the brain, (make. She doth all universal natures know, When they come there, the spirits of sense do

And all effects into their causes brings. These spirits of sense, in fantasy's high court,

When she rates things, and moves from ground to Judge of the forms of objects, ill or well;

ground, And so they send a good or ill report

The name of reason she obtains by this: Down to the heart, where all affections dwell.

But when by reason she the truth hath found,

And standeth fix’d, she understanding is.
If the report be good, it causeth love,
And longing hope, and well assured joy:

When her assent she lightly doth incline
If it be ill, then doth it hatred move,

To either part, she is opinion's light: And trembling fear, and vexing griefs annoy.

But when she doth by principles define

A certain truth, she hath true judgment's sight. Yet were these natural affections good,

(For they which want them, blocks or devils be) | And as from senses, reason's work doth spring, Jf reason in her first perfection stood,

So many reasons understanding gain; That she might Nature's passions rectify.

And many understandings, knowledge bring,

And by much knowledge, wisdom we obtaina

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And yet these sparks grow almost infinite,

Ev'n so the king his magistrates do serve, Making the world, and all therein, their food; Yet commons feed both magistrates and king : As fire so spreads, as no place holdeth it,

The common's peace the magistrates preserve, Being nourish'd still with new supplies of wood. By borrow'd pow'r, which from the prince doth

spring. And though these sparks were almost quench'd with · Yet they whom that just One hath justify'd, [sin, The quick’ning power would be, and so would rest; Have them increas'd with heav'nly light within; The sense would not be only, but be well: And like the widow's oil, still multiply'd.

But wit's ambition longeth to the best,

For it desires in endless bliss to dwell.



And some,

And as this wit should goodness truly know,
We have a will, which that true good should

Though will do oft (when wit false forms doth show)

Take ill for good, and good for ill refuse. Will puts in practice what the wit deviseth :

Will erer acts, and wit contemplates still: And as from wit the pow'r of wisdom riseth,

All other virtues daughters are of will.

Will is the prince, and wit the counsellor,

Which doth for common good in council sit; And when wit is resolv'd, will lends her pow'r

To execute what is advis'd by wit.

And these three pow'rs three sorts of men do make;

For some, like plants, their veins do only fill; And some, like beasts, their senses' pleasure take;

like angels, do contemplate still. Therefore the fables turn'd some men to flow'rs,

And others did with brutish forms invest;
And did of others make celestial pow'rs,

Like angels, which still travel, yet still rest.
Yet these three pow'rs are not three souls, but one ;

As one and two are both contain 'd in three;
Three being one number by itself alone,

A shadow of the blessed Trinity.
Oh! what is man, great Maker of mankind !

That thou to him so great respect dost bear!
That thou adorn’st him with so bright a mind,

Mak’st him a king, and e'en an angel's peer! Oh! what a lively life, what heav'nly pow'r,

What spreading virtue, what a sparkling'fire, How great, how plentiful, how rich a dow'r

Dost thou within this dying flesh inspire ! Thou lear’st thy print in other works of thine;

But thy whole image thou in man hast writ:
There cannot be a creature more divine,

Except (like thee) it should be infinite!
But it exceeds man's thought, to think how high

God hath rais'd man, since God a inan became :
The angels do admire this mystery,

And are astonish'd when they view the same.

Wit is the mind's chief judge, which doth control

Of fancy's court the judgments false and vain : Will holds the royal sceptre in the soul,

And on the passions of the heart doth reign. Will is as free as any emperor,

Naught can restrain her gentle liberty: No tyrant, nor no torineut hath the pow'r

To make us will, when we unwilling be.


To these high pow'rs a store-house doth pertait,

Where they all arts and gen’ral reasons lay ;
Which in the soul, e'en after death, remain,

And no Lethean flood can wash away.

Nor hath he giv’n these blessings for a day,

Nor made them on the body's life depend : The soul, though made in time, survives for ay;

And though it hath beginning, sees no end.






This is the soul, and these her virtues be;

Her only end is never-ending bliss,
Which, though they have their sundry proper ends, Which is, the eternal face of God to see ;
And one exceeds another in degree,

Who, last of ends, and first of causes is:
Yet each on other mutually depends.

And, to do this, she must eternal be. Our wit is giv’n Almighty God to know;

How senseless then and dead a soul hath he,
Oor will is giv'n to love him, being known : Which thinks his soul doth with his body die :
But God could not be known to us below, (shown. Or thinks not so, but so would have it be,

But by his works, which through the sense are That he might sin with more security?
And as the wit doth reap the fruits of sense, For though these light and vicious persons say,

So doth the quick’ning pow'r the senses feed : Our soul is but a smoke, or airy blast,
Thus while they do their sundry gifts dispense, Which, during life, doth in our nostrils play,

" The best the service of the least doth need.” And when we die doth turn to wind at last :


Although they say, “ Come let us eat and drink; Water in conduit.pipes can rise no higher

Our life is but a spark, which quickly dies :" Than the well-head, from whence it first doth Though thus they say, they know not what to think; Then since to eternal God she doth aspire, (spring:

But in their minds ten thousand doubts arise. She cannot be but an eternal thing. Therefore no heretics desire to spread

“All moving things to other things do move, Their light opinions, like these epicures;

Of the same kind which shows their nature sucb:** For so their stagg'ring thoughts are comforted, So earth falls down, and fire doth mount above,

And other meu's assent their doubt assures. Till both their proper elements do touch. Yet though these men against their conscience strive, And as the moisture, which the thirsty earth

There are some sparkles in their finty breasts, Sucks from the sea, to fill her empty veins“, Which cannot be extinct, but still revive;

From out her womb at last doth take a birth, That though they would, they cannot quite be And runs a lymph along the grassy plains: beasts.

Long doth she stay, as loath to leave the land, But whoso makes a mirror of his mind,

From whose soft side she first did issue make : And doth with patience view himself therein, She tastes all places, turns to ev'ry hand, His soul's eternity shall clearly find,

Her flowry banks unwilling to forsake: Though th' other beauties be defac'd with sin.

Yet Nature so her streams doth lead and carry,

As that her course doth make no final stay,

Till she herself unto the ocean marry,
Drawn from the desire of knowledge.

Within whose watry bosom first she lay.

E'en so the soul, which in this earthly mould
First, in man's mind we find an appetite

The spirit of God doth secretly infuse,
To learn and know the truth of ev'ry thing,
Which is co-natural, and born with it,

Because at first she doth the earth behold,
And from the essence of the soul doth spring.

And only this material world she views : With this desire, she hath a native might

At first her mother-earth she holdeth dear,

And doth embrace the world, and worldly things; To find out ev'ry truth, if she had time; Th' innumerable effects to sort aright,

She fies close by the ground, and hovers here, And by degrees, from cause to cause to climb.

And mounts not up with her celestial wings:

Yet under Heav'n she cannot light on augūt But since our life so fast away doth slide,

That with her heav'nly nature doth agree: As doth a hungry eagle through the wind;

She cannot rest, she cannot fix her thought,
Or as a ship transported with the tide,

She cannot in this world contented be.
Which in their passage leave no print behind.
Of which swift little time so much we spend,

For who did ever yet, in honour, wealth,
While some few things we through the sense do Who ever ceas'd to wish, when he had health?

Or pleasure of the sense, contentment find ?
That our short race of life is at an end,

Or, having wisdom, was not vex'd in mind ? Ere we the principles of skill attain.

Then as a bee which among weeds doth fall,

Which seem sweet flow'rs, with lustre fresh and Or God (who to vain ends hath nothing done) In vain this appetite and pow'r hath gir'n;

She lights on that, and this, and tasteth all; (gay; Or else our knowledge, which is here begun,

But, pleas'd with none, doth rise, and soar away: Hereafter must be perfected in Heav'n.

So, when the soul finds here no true content, God never gave a pow'r to one whole kind,

And, like Noah's dove, can no sure footing take, But most part of that kind did use the same:

She doth return from whence she first was sent, Most eyes baye perfect sight, though some be blind;

And flies to him that first her wings did make. Most legs can nimbly run, though some be lame. Wit, seeking truth, from cause to cause ascends,

And never rests till it the first attain : But in this life, no soul the truth can know,

Will, seeking good, finds many middle ends;
So perfectly, as it hath pow'r to do:

But never stays till it the last do gain.
If tben perfection be not found below,
An higher place must make her mount thereto. Now God the truth and first of causes is,

God is the last good end, which lasteth still;

Being alpha and omega nam'd for this ;

Alpha to wit, omega to the will.
Drawn from the motion of the soul.' Since then her heav'nly kind she doth display,

In that to God she doth directly move;
Acaix, how can she but immortal be,

And on no mortal thing can make her stay,
When, with the motions of both will and wit, She cannot be from hence, but from above.
She still aspireth to eternity,
And never rests, till she attain to it ?

* The soul compared to a river.

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