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frequently illustrated in military history, and was brought to the attention of the country at the first battle of Manassas. I have not been disappointed in the estimate formed of the value of these troops. I have always found them to be relied on. Whenever they have been brought under fire they have shown the utmost gallantry and tenacity. The regular infantry, which had been col·lected from distant posts and which had been recruited as rapidly as the slow progress of recruiting for the regular service would allow, added to the small battalion with McDowell's army, which I found at Washington on my arrival, amounted, on the 30th of August, to 1,040 men; on the 28th of February, 1862, to 2,682, and on the 30th of April, to 4,603. On the 17th of May, 1862, they were assigned to General Porter's corps for organization as a division, with the fifth regiment New York volunteers, which joined May 4, and the tenth New York volunteers, which joined subsequently. They remained from the commencement under the command of Brigadier General George Sykes, major third infantry United States army.
The creation of an adequate artillery establishment for an army of so large proportions was a formidable undertaking; and had it not been that the country possessed in the regular service a body of accomplished and energetic artillery officers, the task would have been almost hopeless.
The charge of organizing this most important arm was confided to Major (afterwards Brigadier General) William F. Barry, chief of artillery, whose industry and zeal achieved the best results. The report of General Barry is appended among the accompanying documents. By referring to it, it will be observed that the following principles were adopted as the basis of organization :
“1. That the proportion of artillery should be in the proportion of at least two and one-half pieces to 1,000 men, to be expanded, if possible, to three pieces to 1,000 men.
“2. That the proportion of rifled guns should be restricted to the system of the United States ordnance department; and of Parrott and the 'smooth bores' (with the exception of a few howitzers for special service) to be exclusively the twelve-pounder gun, of the model of 1857, variously called the “gun-howitzer,' the light twelve-pounder,' or the · Napoleon.'
“3. That each field battery should, if practicable, be composed of six guns, and none to be less than four guns, and in all cases the guns of each battery should be of uniform calibre.
“4. That the field batteries were to be assigned to divisions, and not to brigades, and in the proportion of four to each division, of which one was to be a battery of regulars, the remainder of volunteers, the captain of the regular battery to be the commandant of artillery of the division. In the event of several divisions constituting an army corps, at least one-half of the divisional artillery was to constitute the reserve artillery of the corps.
“ 5. That the artillery reserve of the whole army should consist of one hundred guns, and should comprise, besides a sufficient number of light mounted batteries,' all the guns of position, and until the cavalry were massed, all the · horse artillery.
“6. That the amount of ammunition to accompany field batteries was not to be less than four hundred rounds per gun.
“7. A siege train of fifty pieces. This was subsequently expanded, for special service at the siege of Yorktown, to very nearly one hundred pieces, and comprised the unusual calibres and enormously heavy weight of metal of two 200-pounders, five 100-pounders, and ten 13-inch sea-coast mortars.”
As has been before stated, the chief of artillery reports the whole of the field artillery of the army of the Potomac, July 28, 1861, was comprised of nine imperfectly equipped batteries, of thirty guns, 650 men, and 400 horses. In March, 1862, when the whole army took the field, it consisted of ninety two batteries, of 520 guns, 12,500 men, and 11,000 horses, fully equipped and in readiness for active field service; of the whole force thirty batteries were regulars, and sixty-two batteries volunteers. During the short period of seven months, all of this immense amount of material was issued by the ordnance department and placed in the hands of the artillery troops after their arrival in Washington. About one-fourth of all the volunteer batteries brought with them from their respective States a few guns and carriages, but they were nearly all of such peculiar calibre as to lack uniformity with the more modern and more serviceable ordnance with which the other batteries were armed, and they therefore had to be withdrawn and replaced by more suitable material. While about one-sixth came supplied with horses and harness, less than one-tenth were apparently fully equipped for service when they reported; and every one of these required the supply of many deficiencies of material, and very extensive instruction in the theory and practice of their special arm. 15th Massachusetts, and 34th New York volunteers, and Tammany regiment' (New York volunteers.) Lander's brigade : 19th and 20th Massachusetts, and 7th Michigan volunteers, and a company of Massachusetts sharpshooters. Baker's brigade: Pennsylvania volunteers, (1st, 2d, and 3d California.)
The operations on the Peninsula by the army of the Potomac commenced with a full field artillery force of fifty-two batteries of two hundred and ninetynine guns. To this must be added the field artillery of Franklin's division of McDowell's corps, which joined a few days before the capture of Yorktown, but was not disembarked from its transports for service until after the battle of Williamsburg, and the field artillery of McCall's division of McDowell's corps, (four batteries, twenty-two guns,) which joined in June, a few days before the battle of Mechanicsville, (June 26, 1862,) making a grand total of field artillery, at any time with the army of the Peninsula, of sixty batteries of three hundred and forty-three guns. With this large force, saving in six corps d'armée of eleven divisions, and the artillery reserve, the only general and field officers were one brigadier general, four colonels, three lieutenant colonels, and three majors, a number obviously insufficient, and which impaired to a great degree, in consequence of the want of rank and official influence of the commanders of corps and division artillery, the efficiency of the arm. As this faulty organization can be suitably corrected only by legislative action, it is earnestly hoped that the attention of the proper authorities may be at an early day invited to it.
When there were so many newly organized volunteer field batteries, many of whom received their first and only instruction in the intrenched camps covering Washington during the three or four inclement months of the winter of 1861–62, there was, of course, much to be improved. Many of the volunteer batteries, however, evinced such zeal and intelligence, and availed themselves so industriously of the instructions of the regular officers, their commanders, and the example of the regular batteries, their associates, that they made rapid progress, and attained a degree of proficiency highly creditable.
The designations of the different batteries of artillery, both regular and volunteer, follow within a few pages.
The following distribution of regiments and batteries was made, as a preliminary organization of the forces at hand, shortly after my arrival in Washington. The infantry, artillery, and cavalry, as fast as collected and brought into primary organization, were assigned to brigades and divisions, as indicated in the subjoined statements.
Organization of the division of the Potomac, August 4, 1861. Brigadier General Hunter's brigade.-230, 25th, 35th, and 37th regiments New York volunteers.
Brigadier General Heintzelman's brigade.-5th regiment Maine volunteers, 16th, 26th, and 27th regiments New York volunteers, and Tidball's battery, (A,) 2d United States artillery.
Brigadier General W. T. Sherman's brigade.-9th and 14th regiments Massachusetts volunteers, DeKalb regiment New York volunteers, 4th regiment Michigan volunteers, Hamilton's battery, (E) 3d United States artillery, and company I, 2d United States cavalry.
Brigadier General Kearney's brigade.-1st, 2d, and 3d regiments New Jersey volunteers, Green's battery, (G) 2d United States artillery, and company G, 2d United States cayalry. .
Brigadier General Hooker's brigade.—1st and 11th regiments Massachusetts volunteers, 2d regiment New Hampshire volunteers, and 26th regiment Pennsylvania volunteers.
Colonel Keys's brigade.-220, 24th, and 30th regiments New York volunteers, and 14th regiment New York State militia.
Brigadier General Franklin's brigade.—15th, 18th, 31st, and 32d regiments New York volunteers, Platt’s battery, (MA) 2d United States artillery, and company C, New York (Lincoln) cavalry.
Colonel Blenker's brigade.—8th and 27th regiments New York volunteers, 27th regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, and Garibaldi guard, New York volunteers.
Colonel Richardson's brigade.-12th regiment New York volunteers, and 2d and 3d regiments Michigan volunteers.
Brigadier General Stone's brigade.—34th and Tammany regiments New York volunteers, 1st regiment Minnesota volunteers, and 2d regiment New York State militia.
Colonel William F. Smith's brigade.—2d and 3d regiments Vermont volunteers, 6th regiment Maine volunteers, 33d regiment New York volunteers, company H, 2d United States cavalry, and Captain Mott’s New York battery.
Colonel Couch's brigade.-2d regiment Rhode Island volunteers, 7th and 10th regiments Massachusetts volunteers, and 36th regiment New York volunteers.
The 2d regiment Maine, the 2d regiment Wisconsin, and the 13th regiment New York volunteers, stationed at Fort Corcoran.
The 21st regiment New York volunteers, stationed at Fort Runyon.
By October the new levies bad arrived in sufficient numbers, and the process of organization so far carried on that the construction of divisions had been effected.
The following statement exhibits the composition of the army, October 15, 1861.
Organization of the army of the Potomac, October 15, 1861. 1. Brigadier General George Stoneman's cavalry command.—5th United States cavalry, 4th Pennsylvania cavalry, Oneida cavalry, (one company,) 11th Pennsylvania cavalry, (Harlan's,) and Barker's Illinois cavalry, (one company.)
2. Colonel H. J. Hunt's artillery reserve.--Batteries L, A, and B, 2d United States artillery, batteries K and F, 3d United States artillery, battery K, 4th United States artillery, battery H, 1st United States artillery, and battery A, 5th United States artillery.
3. CITY GUARD, BRIGADIER GENERAL ANDREW PORTER.
· Cavalry.-Companies A and E, 4th United States cavalry.
Artillery.-Battery K, 5th United States artillery
Infantry.-2d and 3d battalions United States infantry, 8th and 1st companies United States infantry, and Sturgis's rifles, (Illinois volunteers.)
4. BANKS'S DIVISION. Cavalry-Four companies 3d regiment New York cavalry, (Van Allen's.)
Artillery.-Best's battery E, 4th United States artillery, detachment 9th New York artillery, Matthews's battery E, 1st Pennsylvania artillery, Tompkins's battery A, 1st Rhode Island artillery.
Infantry.—Abercrombie's brigade : 12th Massachusetts, 12th and 16th Indiana, and 30th Pennsylvania volunteers. Stiles's brigade : 3d Wisconsin, 29th Pennsylvania, and 13th Massachusetts volunteers, and 9th New York State militia. Gordon's brigade : 2d Massachusetts, 28th and 19th New York, 5th Connecticut, 46th and 28th Pennsylvania, and 1st Maryland volunteers.
Infantry.-Keys's brigade: 14th New York State militia, and 22d, 24th, and 30th New York volunteers. Wadsworth's brigade : 12th, 21st, 23d, and 35th New York volunteers. King's brigade: 2d, 6th, and 7th Wisconsin, and 19th Indiana volunteers.
Infantry.-Richardson's brigade: 2d, 3d, and 5th Michigan, and 37th New York volunteers. Sedgwick's brigade: 3d and 4th Maine, and 38th and 40th New York volunteers. Jameson's brigade: 32d, 63d, 61st, and 45th Pennsylvania volunteers, and Wild Cat reserves, (Pennsylvania volunteers.)
F. J. PORTER'S Division. Cavalry.—3d Pennsylvania cavalry, Colonel Averill, and 8th Pennsylvania cavalry, Colonel Gregg.
Artillery.-Battery E, 2d, and battery *E, 3d United States artillery.
Infantry.—Morell's brigade: 33d Pennsylvania, 4th Michigan, 9th Massachusetts, and 4th New York volunteers. Martindale's brigade : 13th New York, 2d Maine, and 18th Massachusetts volunteers, and DeKalb regiment New York volunteers. Butterfield's brigade : 50th New York, 83d Pennsylvania, (Colonel McLean,) 17th and 25th New York volunteers, aud Stockton's independent Michigan regiment.
FRANKLIN'S DIVISION. Caralry.—1st New York cavalry, Colonel McReynolds.
Artillery.-Batteries D and G, 2d United States artillery, and Hexamer's battery, (New Jersey volunteers.)
Infantry.—Kearney's brigade : 1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th New Jersey volunteers. Slocum's brigade: 16th, 26th, and 27th New York, and 6th Maine volunteers Newton's brigade: 15th, 18th, 31st, and 32d New York volunteers.
Artillery.-Kirby's battery I, 1st United States, Vaughn's battery B, 1 st Rhode Island artillery, and Bunting's 6th New York independent battery.
Infantry.-Gorman's brigade: 2d New York State militia, 1st Minnesota
* This battery was transferred to Sherman's expedition.
Artillery.—Batteries D and H, 1st Pennsylvania artillery.
Infantry.—Couch's brigade: 2d Rhode Island, 7th and 10th Massachusetts, and 36th New York volunteers. Graham's brigade : 23d and 31st Pennsylvania, and 67th (1st Long Island) and 65th (1st United States chasseurs) New York volunteers. Peck's brigade : 13th and 21st Pennsylvania, and 62d (Anderson Zouaves) and 55th New York volunteers.
Cavalry.-1st Pennsylvania reserve cavalry, Colonel Bayard.
Artillery.—Easton's battery A, Cooper's battery B, and Kein's battery G, 1st Pennsylvania artillery.
Infantry.-Meade's brigade : 1st rifles Pennsylvania reserves, 4th, 3d, 7th, 11th, and 2d Pennsylvania reserve infantry.
brigade: 5th, Ist, and 8th Pennsylvania reserve infantry. – brigade : 10th, 6th, 9th, and 12th Pennsylvania reserve infantry.
• HOOKER'S DIVISION. Cavalry.-Eight companies 3d Indiana cavalry, Lieutenant Colonel Carter. Artillery.-Elder's battery E, 1st United States artillery. Infantry:
- brigade: 1st and 11th Massachusetts, 2d New Hampshire, 26th Pennsylvania, and 1st Michigan volunteers. Sickles's brigade : 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th regiments Excelsior brigade, New York volunteers:
Infantry.-8th and 29th New York, 27th and 35th Pennsylvania volunteers, Garibaldi guard and Cameron rifles, (New York volunteers.)
Cavalry.—5th Pennsylvania cavalry, (Cameron dragoons,) Colonel Friedman.
Artillery.-Ayres's battery F, 5th United States artillery, Mott's 2d New York independent battery, and Barr's battery E, 1st Pennsylvania artillery. Infantry.
brigade: 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th Vermont volunteers. Stevens's brigade: 35th and 49th New York and 6th Maine volunteers, and *79th New York State militia. Hancock's brigade: *47th and 49th Pennsylvania, 43d New York, and 5th Wisconsin volunteers. Companies B and E, Berden's sharpshooters.
Casey's provisional brigades.—5th, 6th, and 7th New Jersey volunteers, *Round-Head regiment, (Pennsylvania volunteers,) battalion District of Columbia volunteers, 40th Pennsylvania, 8th New Jersey, and 4th New Hampshire volunteers.
* The 79th New York State militia, the 47th Pennsylvania volunteers, and the Round-Head regiment, were transferred to General Sherman's expedition.