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of the Chancellor from the pen of the eccentric Christina, queen of Sweden, who was placed, during her minority, inder the guardianship of Oxenstiern. This extraordinary

man had amassed a great deal of learning, having been a “ hard student in his youth: he read even in the midst of his

important occupations. He had a great knowledge of the

affairs, and of the interests of mankind : he knew the forte “ and the foible of all the states of Europe: he was master “ of great talents, a consummate prudence, a vast capacity, “ and a noble soul: he was indefatigable: he possessed a “ most incredible assiduity and application to business; he made it his pleasure and his only occupation : he was as “ sober as any person could be, in a country and in an age “ when that virtue was unknown. He was a sound sleeper, and used to say, that nothing had either prevented his

sleeping, or awakened him out of his sleep, during the whole course of his life, except the death of my father

Gustavus, and the loss of the battle of Nordingue. He " has often told me that, when he went to bed, he put off “ his cares with his clothes, and let them both go to rest till “ the next morning. In other respects, he was ambitious but

honest, incorruptible, and a little too slow and phlegmatic.”


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As we proceeded to the College of Botany and its gardens, it was singular to see the professors of philosophy booted. Every thing in Sweden is performed in boots: as soon as a

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child can walk he is booted; perhaps the cheapness of leather may be the cause of this. The college was erected under the auspices of the late king, with his accustomed taste and magnificence. Monsieur Aftzelius, professor of chemistry, and who presides over the cabinet of mineralogies, attended us with great politeness. This gentleman has lately returned to Sweden from a very interesting, and perilous investigation of the natural history of the interior of Africa, and has enriched the department over which he ably presides, with several rare and precious objects, which he brought from that country. His mineral collection is much esteemed, but I confess my inability to describe it.

Amongst other matters, the conversation turned upon the authenticity of many of Mungo Parke's marvellous stories, upon

which the Professor assured us, that he believed his relation to be perfectly true, and declared, that in that distant and unfrequented region he had himself met with many extraordinary objects and occurrences, which it required great courage to relate. I have, since my return to England, seen some beautiful drawings made upon the spot, descriptive of the manners, and particularly of the rural economy of the interior Africans, by a highly ingenious and enterprising artist, Samuel Daniell, Esq. which fully confirm the observation of the learned Professor, and might, from their concurring and convincing testimony, abate the force of his apprehensions. Upon.



the subject of abolishing the slave-trace, the Professor made a remark, which, flowing from local knowledge and long intercourse, strongly impressed my mind : he deprecated any other than a gradual abolition, for which the minds of the negroes should be prepared; and declared, in a very emphatic manner his perfect conviction that a violent emancipation would only shock and endanger this great cause of humanity.

Although unacquainted with botany, I was much gratified by seeing one of the rooms, in which there were some beautiful and flourishing date and plane trees, bedded in fine mould, and several rare plants from the South Sea islands, growing against a green treillage that ran on all sides of the apartment, which was formed into walks, and had a very agreeable effect.

Amongst the curiosities in this room, I did not fail to pay my respects to a venerable parrot, which we were assured had exceeded his hundredth year: he displayed the marks of great antiquity, part of his plumage was entirely gone, and there was a very visible appearance of feebleness both in his eyes and in his beak; but he is still likely to see several years more roll over his tufted head. The warmth of the room af. fords the temperature of native climate to the plants; it was gratifying to see art thus supporting nature in a bleak and hostile climate,




The hot-house, which is just finished, is a magnificent hall, supported by doric pillars, and which, when finished, will be warmed by fourteen stoves and nine flues, concealed in the columns. There were no plants here at this time. The room for the museum is also not yet completed, the design is excellent. The lecture-room is very capacious and handsome, and opens into that part of the garden which is finished and ready for the students, under a portico of pestum columns. The plants in this garden are arranged agreeable to the plan and classification of Linnæus, and afford no doubt a rich mental banquet for the erudite herbalist. The library of the university is not now thought deserving of the high reputation which was once affixed to it: it is divided into three apartments, the first is dedicated to belles-lettres, history, and natural history; the second is miscellaneous, and was presented to the university by the late King; and the third is confined to theology, jurisprudence, and medicine. This library has been augmented at various times by the literary collections of those countries which have bowed to the Swedish sword. The librarian, who had lived some years with Sir Joseph Banks in that capacity, shewed us a very precious manuscript of a Go thic translation of the four gospels, supposed to have been made in the fourth century, upon vellum, richly illuminated with large silver and some golden letters, which have been made by the brush : the former are faded, but the latter are in excellent preservation. This book formed a part of the lite

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rary pillage of Prague, in 1648, and was sent to Christina by Count Konigsmark; from that princess it was pilfered by a Dutchman, upon whose death it was purchased for 2501. by some good patriotic Swede, and presented to the university.

We were shewn some curiosities, which, in justice to the university of Upsala, I must acknowledge that even those who displayed them were ashamed of, and were better calculated to augment the cabinet of some little, capricious, spoiled, princess, who was just capable of running alone, than that of a grave and learned body, viz. the slippers of the Virgin Mary, Judas's purse, &c.

In a small room in the library we saw a large chest, about the size of a bureau bedstead, doubled locked and sealed, containing the manuscripts of the late King, which he directed should not be opened till fifty years after his decease. Conjecture and expectation frequently hover over this case, which will, no doubt, one day unfold to Sweden much interesting memoir, and literary treasuré. Here we were shewn some Ice landic manuscripts, said to be upwards of eight hundred years old, and several Lapland tracts. How wonderful, that literature should have lived, and even smiled, in regions which the sun rarely warms!

In one of the mineralogical collections, separate from that

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