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of Rome hath erred, not only in their living and manner of ceremonies, but also in matters of faith.
ART. XX. Of the Authority of the Church. The Church hath power to decree rites or ceremonies, and authority in controversies of faith and yet it is not lawful for the Church to ordain any thing that is contrary to God's word written; neither may it so expound one place of Scripture, that it be repugnant to another. Wherefore, although the Church be a witness and a keeper of Holy Writ, yet as it ought not to decree any thing against the same, so besides the same ought it not to enforce any thing to be believed for necessity of salvation. ART. XXI. Of the Authority of General Councils. *
ART. XXII. Of Purgatory.
ART. XXIII. Of Ministering in the
It is not lawful for any man to take upon him the office of public preaching, or ministering the sacraments in the congregation, before he be lawfully called, and sent to execute the same. And those we ought to judge lawfully called and sent, which be chosen and called to this work by men who have public authority given unto them in the congregation, to call and send ministers into the LORD's Vineyard.
ART. XXIV. Of Speaking in the Congregation in such a tongue as the People understandeth.
It is a thing plainly repugnant to the word of GOD, and the custom of the primitive Church, to have public prayer in the Church, or to minister the sacraments in a tongue not understanded of the people.
ART. XXV. Of the Sacraments. Sacraments ordained of CHRIST be not only badges or tokens of Christian men's profession; but rather they be certain sure witnesses, and effectual signs of grace, and GOD's good will towards us, by the which he doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only quicken, but also strengthen and confirm our faith in him. There are two sacraments ordained of CHRIST our Lord in the Gospel, that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the LORD.
Those five commonly called Sacraments, that is to say, Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction, are not to be counted for sacraments of the Gospel, being such as have grown, partly of the corupt, following of the apostles, partly are states of life allowed by the Scriptures; but yet have not like nature of sacraments with Baptism and the Lord's Supper, for that they have not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of GOD.
The sacraments were not ordained of CHRIST to be gazed upon, or to be carried about, but that we should duly use them. And in such only as worthily receive the same, they have a
The Twenty-first of the former Articles is omitted, because it is partly of a local and civil nature, and is provided for, as to the remaining parts of it, in other articles.
wholesome effect or operation: but they that
Although in the visible Church the evil be ever mingled with the good, and sometime the evil have chief authority in the ministration of the word and sacraments: yet, forasmuch as they do not the same in their own name, but in CHRIST's, and do minister by his commission and authority, we may use their ministry, both in hearing the word of GOD, and in receiving the sacraments. Neither is the effect of CHRIST's ordinance taken away by their wickedness, nor the grace of God's gifts diminished from such, as by faith, and rightly, do receive the sacraments ministered unto them, which be effectual, because of CHRIST's institution and promise, although they be ministered by evil men.
Nevertheless, it appertaineth to the discipline of the Church, that inquiry be made of evil ministers, and that they be accused by those that have knowledge of their offences: and finally being found guilty, by just judgment, be deposed.
ART. XXVII. Of Baptism.
Baptism is not only a sign of profession, and mark of difference, whereby Christian men are discerned from others that be not christened : but it is also a sign of regeneration, or new birth, whereby, as by an instrument, they that receive baptism rightly are grafted into the Church: the promises of the forgiveness of sin, and of our adoption to be the sons of God by the HOLY GHOST, are visibly signed and sealed: faith is confirmed, and grace increased by virtue of prayer unto God. The baptism of young children is in any wise to be retained in the Church as most agreeable with the institu
tion of CHRIST.
ART. XXVIII. Of the Lord's Supper.
The Supper of the LORD is not only a sign of the love that Christians ought to have among themselves one to another; but rather it is a sacrament of our redemption by CHRIST'S death: insomuch that to such as rightly, worthily, and with faith receive the same, the bread which we break is a partaking of the body of CHRIST; and likewise the cup of blessing is a partaking of the blood of CHRIST.
Transubstantiation (or the change of the substance of bread and wine) in the Supper of the LORD, cannot be proved by Holy Writ; but it is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions.
The body of CHRIST is given, taken, and eaten in the supper, only after an heavenly and spiritual manner. And the mean whereby the body of CHRIST is received and eaten in the Supper, is faith.
The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was not by CHRIST's ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshipped.
ART. XXIX. Of the wicked, which eat not of the Body of CHRIST in the use of the Lord's Supper.
The wicked, and such as be void of a lively faith, although they do carnally and visibly press with their teeth (as St. Augustine saith) the sacrament of the body and blood of CHRIST; yet in no wise are they partakers of CHRIST;
but rather to their condemnation do eat and drink the sign or sacrament of so great a thing.
ART. XXX. Of both Kinds.
The cup of the LORD is not to be denied to the lay people: for both parts of the Lord's sacrament by CHRIST's ordinance and commandment, ought to be ministered to all Christian men alike.
ART. XXXI. Of the one Oblation of CHRIST finished upon the Cross.
The offering of CHRIST once made, is that perfect redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction for all the sins of the whole world, both original and actual; and there is none other satisfaction for sin, but that alone. Wherefore the sacrifice of masses, in which it was commonly said, that the priest did offer CHRIST for the quick and the dead, to have remission of pain or guilt, were blasphemous fables, and dangerous deceíts.
ART. XXXII. Of the Marriage of Priests.
Bishops, Priests, and Deacons, are not commanded by GoD's law, either to vow the estate of single life, or to abstain from marriage : therefore it is lawful for them, as for all other Christian men, to marry at their own discretion, as they shall judge the same to serve better to godliness.
ART. XXXIII. Of excommunicate Persons, how they are to be avoided.
That person which by open denunciation of the Church is rightly cut off from the unity of the Church, and excommunicated, ought to be taken of the whole multitude of the faithful, as an Heathen and publican, until he be openly reconciled by penance, and received into the Church by a judge that hath authority thereunto. ART. XXXIV. Of the Traditions of the
It is not necessary that traditions and ceremonies be in all places one, or utterly like; for at all times they have been divers, and may be changed according to the diversity of countries, times, and men's manners, so that nothing be ordained against GoD's word. Whosoever, through his private judgment, willingly and purposely doth openly break the traditions and ceremonies of the Church, which be not repug nant to the word of God, and be ordained and approved by common authority, ought to be rebuked openly (that other may fear to do the like) as he that offendeth against the common order of the Church, and hurteth the authority of the magistrate, and woundeth the consciences
of the weak brethren.
Every particular or national Church hath authority to ordain, change, and abolish ceremonies, or rites of the Church, ordained only by man's authority, so that all things be done to edifying.
ART. XXXV. Of Homilies.
The second Book of Homilies, the several titles whereof we have joined, under this Article, doth contain a godly and wholesome doctrine, and necessary for these times, as doth the former Book of Homilies, which were set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth, and therefore we judge them to be read in churches by the ministers diligently and distinctly, that they may be understanded of the people.
Of the Names of the Homilies. 1. Of the right Use of the Church. 2. Against Peril of Idolatry.
Of the Resurrection of CHRIST.
Of the worthy receiving of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of CHRIST.
16. Of the Gifts of the HOLY GHOST.
18. Of the State of Matrimony.
20. Against Idleness.
[This Article is received in this Church, so far as it declares the Books of Homilies to be an explication of Christian doctrine, and instructive in piety and morals. But all references to the constitution and laws of England are considered as inapplicable to the circumstances of this Church, which also suspends the order for the reading of said Homilies in churches until a revision of them may be conveniently made, for the clearing of them, as well from obsolete words and phrases, as from the local references.] ART. XXXVI. Of Consecration of Bishops and Ministers.
The Book of Consecration of Bishops, and Ordering of Priests and Deacons, as set forth by the General Convention of this Church in 1792, doth contain all things necessary to such consecration and ordering; neither hath it any thing that, of itself, is superstitious and ungodly: and, therefore, whosoever are consecrated or ordered according to said form, we decree all such to be rightly, orderly, and lawfully consecrated and ordered.
ART. XXXVII. Of the Power of the Civil Magistrates.
The power of the civil magistrate extendeth to all men, as well clergy as laity, in all things temporal; but hath no authority in things purely spiritual. And we hold it to be the duty of all men who are professors of the Gospel, to pay respectful obedience to the civil authority, regularly and legitimately constituted ART. XXXVIII. Of Christian Men's Goods, which are not common.
The riches and goods of Christians are not common, as touching the right, title, and possession of the same, as certain Anabaptists do falsely boast. Notwithstanding, every man ought of such things as he possesseth, liberally to give alms to the poor, according to his ability. ART. XXXIX. Of a Christian Man's Oath
As we confess that vain and rash swearing is forbidden Christian men by our Lord JESUS CHRIST, and James his Apostle: so we judge that Christian religion doth not prohibit, but that a man may swear when the magistrate requireth, in a cause of faith and charity, so it be done according to the prophet's teaching in justice, judgment, and truth.
FORM AND MANNER OF MAKING, ORDAINING, AND CONSECRATING
BISHOPS, PRIESTS, AND DEACONS,
ACCORDING TO THE ORDER OF THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS ESTABLISHED BY THE BISHOPS, THE CLERGY, AND LAITY OF SAID CHURCH, IN GENERAL CONVENTION, IN THE MONTH OF SEPTEMBER, A. D. 1792.
It is evident unto all men, diligently reading holy Scripture and ancient authors, that from the Apostles' time there have been these Orders of Ministers in CHRIST's Church,-Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. Which offices were evermore had in such reverend estimation, that no man might presume to execute any of them, except he were first called, tried, examined, and known to have such qualities as are requisite for the same; and also by public prayer, with imposition of hands, were approved and admitted thereunto by lawful authority. And therefore, to the intent that these Orders may be continued, and reverently used and esteemed in this Church, no man shall be accounted or taken to be a lawful Bishop, Priest, or Deacon, in this Church, or suffered to execute any of the said functions, except he be called, tried, examined, and admitted thereunto, according to the form hereafter following, or hath had Episcopal Consecration or Ordination.
And none shall be admitted a Deacon, Priest, or Bishop, except he be of the age which the Canon in that case provided may require.
And the Bishop knowing, either by himself, or by sufficient testimony, any person to be a man of virtuous conversation, and without crime; and, after examination and trial, finding him sufficiently instructed in the holy Scripture, and otherwise learned as the Canons require, may, at the times appointed, or else, on urgent occasion, upon some other day, in the face of the Church, admit him a Deacon, in such manner and form as followeth.
THE FORM AND MANNER OF MAKING DEACONS.
When the day appointed by the Bishop is come, after Morning Prayer is ended, there shall be a Sermon, or Exhortation, declaring the Duty and Office of such as come to be admitted Deacons; how necessary that Order is in the Church of CHRIST, and also how the people ought to esteem them in their office.
A Priest shall present unto the Bishop, sitting | in his chair near to the holy table, such as desire to be ordained Deacons, each of them being decently habited, saying these words: REVEREND father in GOD, I present unto you these persons present, to be admitted Deacons.
which he ought not to be admitted to that Office, let him come forth in the name of GOD, and show what the crime or impediment is.
And if any great crime or impediment be objected, the Bishop shall cease from Ordering that person, until such time as the party accused shall be found clear of that crime. Then the Bishop (commending such as shall be found meet to be Ordered, to the prayers of the congregation) shall, with the clergy and people present, say the Litany.
Then shall be said the Service for the Com
munion, with the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, as followeth.
ALMIGHTY GOD, who by thy divine Providence hast appointed divers orders of ministers in thy Church, and didst inspire thine Apostles to choose into the Order of Deacons the first
martyr Saint Stephen, with others; mercifully behold these thy servants now called to the like office and administration; so replenish them with the truth of thy doctrine, and adorn them
with innocency of life, that both by word and good example they may faithfully serve thee in this office, to the glory of thy name, and the edification of thy Church, through the merits of our Saviour JESUS CHRIST, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the HOLY Amen. GHOST, now and for ever.
The Epistle. 1 Tim. iii. 8. LIKEWISE must the Deacons be grave, not double-tongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre; holding the mystery of the faith in a conscience. And let these also first pure be proved; then let them use the office of a Deacon, being found blameless. Even so must their wives be grave, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things. Let the Deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well. For they that have used the office of a Deacon well, purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in CHRIST
¶ Or else this, out of the sixth Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles.
Acts vi. 2.
THEN the twelve called the multitude of the disciples unto them, and said, It is not reason that we should leave the word of GOD, and serve tables. Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the HOLY GHOST and wisdom, whom we But may appoint over this business. we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word. And the saying pleased the whole multitude. And they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the HOLY GHOST, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch: whom they set before the Apostles: and when they had prayed, they laid their hands on them. And the word of God increased, and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly, and a great company of the priests were obedient to the faith. ¶ Then shall the Bishop examine every one of those who are to be Ordered, in the presence of the people. after this manner following: DO you trust that you are inwardly moved by the HOLY GHOST to take upon you this office and ministration, to serve GOD for the promoting of his glory, and the edifying of his people?
Answer. I trust so.
DO you think that you are truly called, according to the will of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, and according to the Canons of this Church, to the ministry of the same?
Answer. I think so.
DO you unfeignedly believe all the canonical Scriptures of the Old and New Testament?
Answer. I do believe them.
IT appertaineth to the office of a Deacon, in the church where he shall be appointed to serve, to assist the Priest in divine service, and specially when he ministereth the Holy Communion, and to help him in the distribution thereof; and to read holy Scriptures and Homilies in the church; and to instruct the youth in the Catechism; in the absence of the Priest to baptize infants; and to preach, if he be admitted thereto by the Bishop. And furthermore, it is his office, where provision is so made, to search for the sick, poor, and impotent people of the parish, to intimate their estates, names, and places where they dwell, unto the Curate, that by his exhortation they may be relieved with the alms of the parishioners, or others: Will you do this gladly and willingly?
Answer. I will so do by the help of GOD.
Answer. I will endeavour so to do, | the LORD being my helper.
Then the Bishop, laying his hands severally upon the head of every one of them humbly kneeling before him, shall say,
TAKE thou authority to execute the office of a Deacon in the Church of GOD committed unto thee; In the name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST. Amen.
Then shall the Bishop deliver to every one of them the New Testament, saying,
TAKE thou authority to read the Gospel in the Church of God, and to preach the same, if thou be thereto licensed by the Bishop himself.
¶ Then one of them appointed by the Bishop
St. Luke xii. 35.
LET your loins be girded about, and your lights burning, and ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their Lord, when he will return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately. Blessed are those servants whom the Lord when he cometh shall find watching: Verily I say unto you, That he shall gird himself, and make them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them. And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants.
Then shall the Bishop proceed in the Communion; and all who are Ordered, shall tarry, and receive the Holy Communion the same day with the Bishop.
The Communion ended, after the last collect, and immediately before the Benediction, shall be said this Collect following:
ALMIGHTY GOD, giver of all good things, who of thy great goodness hast vouchsafed to accept and take these thy servants unto the office of Deacons in thy Church; make them, we beseech thee, O LORD, to be modest, humble, and constant in their ministration, to have a ready will to observe all spiritual discipline; that they having always the testimony of a good conscience, and continuing ever stable and strong in thy Son CHRIST, may so well behave themselves in this inferior office, that they may be found worthy to be called unto the higher ministries in thy Church, through the same thy Son our Saviour JESUS CHRIST; to whom be glory and honour, world without end. Amen.
THE peace of God, which passeth all understanding, keep your hearts and minds in the knowledge and love of God, and of his Son JESUS CHRIST Our Lord: And the blessing of GOD ALMIGHTY, the FATHER, the Son, and the HOLY GHOST, be amongst you, and remain with you always. Amen.
And here it must be declared unto the Deacon,
that he must continue in that office of a Deacon the space of a whole year (except for reasonable causes it shall otherwise seem good unto the Bishop) to the intent he may be perfect, and well expert in the things appertaining to the ecclesiastical administration; in executing whereof, if he be found faithful and diligent, he may be admitted by his Diocesan to the Order of Priesthood, at the times appointed in the Canon, or else, on urgent occasion, upon some other day, in the face of the Church, in such manner and form as hereafter followeth.
THE FORM AND MANNER OF ORDERING PRIESTS
When the day appointed by the Bishop is come, after Morning Prayer is ended, there shall be a Sermon, or Exhortation, declaring the Duty and Office of such as come to be admitted Priests; how necessary that Order is in the Church of CHRIST, and also how the people ought to esteem them in their office.
A Priest shall present unto the Bishop, sitting in his chair near to the holy table, all those who are to receive the order of Priesthood that day, cach of them being decently habited, and shall say:
REVEREND father in GOD, I present unto you these persons present, to be admitted to the order of Priesthood.
¶ The Bishop.
TAKE heed that the persons whom ye present unto us, be apt and meet for their learning and godly conversation, to exercise their ministry duly to the honour of GOD, and the edifying of the Church.