Theoretical Philosophy, 1755-1770

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Cambridge University Press, 2003年6月2日 - 543 頁
This is the first volume of the first ever comprehensive edition of the works of Immanuel Kant in English translation. The eleven essays in this volume constitute Kant's theoretical, pre-critical philosophical writings from 1755 to 1770. Several of these pieces have never been translated into English before; others have long been unavailable in English. We can trace in these works the development of Kant's thought to the eventual emergence in 1770 of the two chief tenets of his mature philosophy: the subjectivity of space and time, and the phenomena-noumena distinc tion.

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General editors preface page
xi
Guide to abbreviations
xxiii
General introduction
xxxv
Introductions to the translations
xlix
Résumés of the works
lxxv
A NEW ELUCIDATION OF THE FIRST
1
Concerning the principle of the determining
11
ground II
37
The only method for attaining the highest
256
On the nature of metaphysical certainty
264
Concerning the distinctness and certainty
270
Abridgement of Moses Mendelssohns prize
276
IMMANUEL KANTS ANNOUNCEMENT
287
DREAMS OF A SPIRITSEER ELUCIDATED
301
The first part which is dogmatic
307
The second part which is historical
340

Showing that the existence of physical monads
53
AN ATTEMPT AT SOME REFLECTIONS
67
THE FALSE SUBTLETY OF THE FOUR
85
5 The logical division of the four syllogistic figures is
99
In which is furnished the argument in support
116
Concerning the extensive usefulness peculiar
137
In which it is shown that there is no other
195
ATTEMPT TO INTRODUCE THE CONCEPT
203
Elucidation of the concept of negative magnitudes
211
In which philosophical examples embodying
218
Containing some reflections which may serve
227
INQUIRY CONCERNING THE DISTINCTNESS
243
CONCERNING THE ULTIMATE GROUND
361
ON THE FORM AND PRINCIPLES OF
373
On the distinction between sensible things
384
On the principles of the form of the sensible
391
On the principle of the form of the intelligible
401
Factual notes
417
Bibliographies of editions and translations
467
Glossary
477
Biographicalbibliographical sketches of persons mentioned
491
Index
525
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第 525 頁 - The Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated on the Principles of a Religious Deist, from the Omission of the Doctrine of a Future State of Rewards and Punishments in the Jewish Dispensation.

關於作者 (2003)

The greatest of all modern philosophers was born in the Baltic seaport of Konigsberg, East Prussia, the son of a saddler and never left the vicinity of his remote birthplace. Through his family pastor, Immanuel Kant received the opportunity to study at the newly founded Collegium Fredericianum, proceeding to the University of Konigsberg, where he was introduced to Wolffian philosophy and modern natural science by the philosopher Martin Knutzen. From 1746 to 1755, he served as tutor in various households near Konigsberg. Between 1755 and 1770, Kant published treatises on a number of scientific and philosophical subjects, including one in which he originated the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system. Some of Kant's writings in the early 1760s attracted the favorable notice of respected philosophers such as J. H. Lambert and Moses Mendelssohn, but a professorship eluded Kant until he was over 45. In 1781 Kant finally published his great work, the Critique of Pure Reason. The early reviews were hostile and uncomprehending, and Kant's attempt to make his theories more accessible in his Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783) was largely unsuccessful. Then, partly through the influence of former student J. G. Herder, whose writings on anthropology and history challenged his Enlightenment convictions, Kant turned his attention to issues in the philosophy of morality and history, writing several short essays on the philosophy of history and sketching his ethical theory in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). Kant's new philosophical approach began to receive attention in 1786 through a series of articles in a widely circulated Gottingen journal by the Jena philosopher K. L. Reinhold. The following year Kant published a new, extensively revised edition of the Critique, following it up with the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), treating the foundations of moral philosophy, and the Critique of Judgment (1790), an examination of aesthetics rounding out his system through a strikingly original treatment of two topics that were widely perceived as high on the philosophical agenda at the time - the philosophical meaning of the taste for beauty and the use of teleology in natural science. From the early 1790s onward, Kant was regarded by the coming generation of philosophers as having overthrown all previous systems and as having opened up a whole new philosophical vista. During the last decade of his philosophical activity, Kant devoted most of his attention to applications of moral philosophy. His two chief works in the 1790s were Religion Within the Bounds of Plain Reason (1793--94) and Metaphysics of Morals (1798), the first part of which contained Kant's theory of right, law, and the political state. At the age of 74, most philosophers who are still active are engaged in consolidating and defending views they have already worked out. Kant, however, had perceived an important gap in his system and had begun rethinking its foundations. These attempts went on for four more years until the ravages of old age finally destroyed Kant's capacity for further intellectual work. The result was a lengthy but disorganized manuscript that was first published in 1920 under the title Opus Postumum. It displays the impact of some of the more radical young thinkers Kant's philosophy itself had inspired. Kant's philosophy focuses attention on the active role of human reason in the process of knowing the world and on its autonomy in giving moral law. Kant saw the development of reason as a collective possession of the human species, a product of nature working through human history. For him the process of free communication between independent minds is the very life of reason, the vocation of which is to remake politics, religion, science, art, and morality as the completion of a destiny whose shape it is our collective task to frame for ourselves.

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