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inclined only to evil. So that the lust of the flesh, called in Greek opórnua σapkos. which some do expound the wisdom, some sensuality, some the affection, some the desire of the flesh, is not subject to the law of God; and therefore in every person born into this world it deserveth God's wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature doth remain, yea, in them that are regenerate, whereby the flesh lusteth always contrary to the Spirit. And although there is no condemnation for them that are regenerate, and do believe, yet the apostle doth confess, that concupiscence and lust is truly and properly sin.

ARTICLE X.

Of Free Will.

The condition of man after the fall of Adam is such, that he cannot turn or prepare himself, by his own natural strength and good works, to faith and calling upon God; wherefore we have no power to do good works pleasing and acceptable to God, without the grace of God by Christ, both preventing us, that we may have a good will, and working so effectually in us, as that it determineth our will to do that which is good, and also working with us when we have that will unto good.*

ARTICLE XI.

Of the Justification of Man before God.

We are justified, that is, we are accounted righteous before God, and have remission of sins, not for nor by our own works or deservings, but freely by his grace," only for our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ's sake, his whole obedience and satisfaction being by God imputed unto us, and Christ with his righteousness, being apprehended and rested on by faith only. The doctrine of justification by faith only, is a wholesome doctrine, and very full of comfort'; notwithstanding God doth not forgive themthat are impenitent, and go on still in their trespasses'.

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Articles of the Church of England.' the flesh lusteth always contrary to the Spirit, and therefore in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature doth remain, yea in them that are regenerated, whereby the lust of the flesh, called in Greek opóμa cарkos, which some do expound the wisdom, some sensuality, some the affection, some the desire of the flesh, is not subject to the law of God. And although there is no condemnation for them that believe and are baptized, yet the apostle doth confess, that concupiscence and lust hath of itself the nature of sin.

ARTICLE X.

Of Free Will.

The condition of man after the fall of Adam is such that he cannot turn and prepare himself by his own natural strength and good works to faith and calling upon God. Wherefore we have no power to good works pleasant and acceptable to God, without the grace of God by Christ preventing us, that we may have a good will, and working with us, when we have that good will.

ARTICLE XL

Of the Justification of Man. We are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, by faith, and not for our own works or deservings. Wherefore, that we are justified by faith only, is a most wholesome doctrine, and very full of comfort, as more largely expressed in the homily of justification.

Rom. viii. 7.

1 Cor. ii. 14. Col. i. 21. vii. 17. 20. 23. 25.

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'Gen. vi. 5. viii. 21. Jer. xvii. 9. Rom. vii. 8. James i. 14. Eph. ii. 3. Rom. viii. 6, 7. < Prov. xx. 9. Rom. d Gal. v. 17. Rom. viii. 1. 13. John iii. 13. Rom. viii. 17. 20. Eph. ii. 1. 5. 1 Cor. ii. 14. Eph. ii. 8-10. John vi. 44. 65. Rom. viii. 8. Heb. xi. 6. Ezek. xi. 19, 20. xxxvi. 26, 27. Jer. xxxi. 32, 33, with Heb. x. 11. Phil. ii. 12, 13. John vi. 45. Eph. i. 19, 20. 1 Cor. iv. 7. *Heb. xiii. 21. Phil. viii. 1. 6. Heb. xii. 22. 1 Pet. v. 10. 57, 58. 11. Phil. iii. 9. v. 18, 19. iii. 22. 25, 26. Phil. iii. 9. 2 Tim. i. 13. Rom. v. 1. 2, 8. 11. xv. 13. 1 Pet. i. 8. lxviii. 20, 21. Exod. xxxiv. 6, 7. Luke xiii. 3. 5.

Rom. iv. 5-7. Psal. xxxii. 1, 2.

1 Thes. v. 23, 24. 1 Kings viii. m Rom. iii. 20. Gal. ii. 16. iii. 10, Rom. iii. 24, 25. v. 1. 2 Cor. P Rom. v. 9. 17-19. iii. 25, 26. iv. 6. 24. 2 Cor. v. 21.

n

Rom. iii. 24. Tit. iii. 7.

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28.

Rom. Gal. ii. 16. Isa. xxviii. 16, with Rom. ix. 33, and 1 Pet. ii. 6. Psal.

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Articles revised.

ARTICLE XII.

Of Good Works.

Good works, which are the fruits of faith, and follow after justification, cannot put away our sins," and endure the severity of God's judgment; yet are they, notwithstanding their imperfections, in the sight of God pleasing and acceptable unto him in and for Christ, and do spring out necessarily of a true and lively faith, insomuch that by them a lively faith may be evidently known, as a tree discerned by the fruits*.

ARTICLE XIII.

Of Works before Justification.

Works done before justification by Christ, and regeneration by his Spirit, are not pleasing unto God, forasmuch as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ neither do they make men meet to receive grace, or (as the school authors say) deserve grace of congruity; yea, rather, for that they are not done as God hath willed and commanded them to be done, they are sinful."

ARTICLE XIV.

Of Works of Supererogation.

Voluntary works, besides over and above God's commandments, which they call works of supererogation, cannot be taught without arrogancy and impiety; for by them we do declare, that they do not only render unto God as much as they are bound to do; but that they do more for his sake than of bounden duty is required; whereas Christ saith plainly, "When ye have done all those things that are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants, we have done that which was our duty to do."h

ARTICLE XV.

Of Christ alone without Sin.

Christ in the truth of our nature was made like unto us in all things, sin only excepted, from which he was clearly

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Articles of the Church of England.

ARTICLE XII.

Of Good Works.

Albeit that good works, which are the fruits of faith, and follow after justification, cannot put away our sins, and endure the severity of God's judgment, yet are they pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ, and do spring out necessarily of a true and lively faith, insomuch that by them a lively faith may be as evidently known as a tree discerned by the fruit.

ARTICLE XIII.

Of Works before Justification.

Works done before the grace of Christ and the inspiration of his Spirit, are not pleasant to God, forasmuch as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ, neither do they make men meet to receive grace, or (as the school authors say) deserve grace of congruity; yea, rather, for that they are not done as God hath willed and commanded them to be done, we doubt not but they have the nature of sin.

Gal. v. 6. James ii. 17, 18. 22. 18. Rom. iii. 20, 21. iv. 4—9. Dan. ix. cxliii. 2. Job ix. 14, 15. 19, 20. Exod. xxviii. 38. Rev. viii. 3, Heb. xiii. 16. 20, 21. Col. i. 10. Phil. iv. 18. ii. 18, 19. John xv. 4, 5. 1 John ii. 3, 5. vii. 18. Rom. viii. 8. Prov. xv. 8. 26. xxi. 27. Rom. iii. 12. v. 6. 2 Tim. 1. 9. John i. 13. Rom. viii. 7, 8. Hag. ii. Ixvi. 2, 3. 'Matt. v. 48. Mark xii. 30, 31. Phil. iv. 8, 9. 20, 21. Psal. exliii. 2. Prov. xx. 9. Phil. iii. 8—15. 7-9. 'Isa. liii. 3-5. Heb. ii. 17, with v. 15.

ARTICLE XIV.

Of Works of Supererogation. Voluntary works, besides over and above God's commandments, which they call works of supererogation, cannot be taught without arrogancy and impiety. For by them men do declare, that they do not only render unto God, as much as they are bound to do, but that they do more for his sake than of bounden duty is required; whereas Christ saith plainly, "When ye have done all that are commanded to you, say, We are unprofitable servants."

ARTICLE XV.

Of Christ alone without sin. Christ in the truth of our nature was made like unto us in all things, sin only except, from which he was clearly void,

Tit. ii. 14. iii. 7. 8. Eph. ii. 8, 9. 18, 19. Neh. xiii. 22. Psal. 4. 1 Peter ii. 5. 'James ii. 16. 1 John i. 4. a James Matt. xii. 33.

b

Tit. i. 15, 16. Matt.

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Heb. xi. 5, 6. Gal. 14. Isa. lviii. 1—5. 8 Job ix. 2, 3. Luke xvii. 10, with ver.

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Articles revised.

void both in his flesh and in his spirit ; he came to be the Lamb without spot,' who by sacrifice of himself once made", should take away the sins of the world; and sin (as St. John saith) was not in him." But all we the rest, although baptized and regenerate, yet offend in many things; and if we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us."

Articles of the Church of England. both in his flesh and in his spirit. He came to be a Lamb without spot, who by sacrifice of himself once made, hould take away the sins of the world; and sin (as St. John saith) was not in him. But all the rest (although baptized, and born again in Christ) yet offend in many things; and if we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us."

6.

Charles Herle, prolocutor.
Henry Roborough, scribe.
Adoniram Byfield, scribe.

N. B. The assembly proceeded no farther in the revisal.

No. VIII.

THE DIRECTORY FOR THE PUBLIC WORSHIP OF GOD

Agreed upon by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster; examined and approved, Anno 1654, by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland; and ratified by Act of Parliament the same Year.

THE PREFACE.

In the beginning of the blessed Reformation, our wise and pious ancestors took care to set forth an order for redress of many things, which they then by the word discovered to be vain, erroneous, superstitious, and idolatrous, in the public worship of God. This occasioned many godly and learned men to rejoice much in the Book of Common Prayer, at that time set forth; because the mass, and the rest of the Latin service, being removed, the public worship was celebrated in our own tongue; many of the common people also received benefit by hearing the Scriptures read in their own language, which formerly were unto them as a book that is sealed.

i. 19. iii. 5.

Howbeit, long and sad experience hath made it manifest, that the liturgy used in the church of England (notwithstanding all the pains and religious intentions of the compilers of it) hath proved an offence, not only to many of the godly at home, but also to the reformed churches abroad. For not to speak of urging the reading of all the prayers, which very greatly increased the burden of it: the many unprofitable and burdensome ceremonies contained in it, have occasioned much mischief, as well by disquieting the consciences of many godly ministers and people, who could not yield unto them, as by depriving them of the ordinances of God, which they might not enjoy without conforming or subscribing to those ceremonies. Sundry good Christians have been, by means thereof, kept from the Lord's table, and divers able and faithful ministers debarred from the exercise of their ministry (to the endangering of many thousand souls, in a time of such scarcity of faithful pastors), and spoiled of their livelihood, to the undoing of them and their families. Prelates and their faction have

Luke i. 35, with Acts iii. 14. John xiv. 30. 2 Cor. v. 21. Heb. vii. 26.

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Eph. v. 2.

"Heb. ix. 26. 28. x. 10. 12. "John i. 29. James iii. 2. 1 John i. 8. 10

1 Pet. P1 John

laboured to raise the estimation of it to such a height, as if there were no other worship or way of worship of God amongst us, but only the service-book; to the great hinderance of the preaching of the word, and (in some places, especially of late) to the justling of it out, as unnecessary, or, at best, as far inferior to the reading of common prayer, which was made no better than an idol by many ignorant and superstitious people, who, pleasing themselves in their presence at that service, and their lip-labour in bearing a part of it, have thereby hardened themselves in their ignorance and carelessness, of saving knowledge and true piety.

In the mean time, Papists boasted, that the book was a compliance with them in a great part of their service; and so were not a little confirmed in their superstition and idolatry, expecting rather our return to them, than endeavouring the reformation of themselves: in which expectation they were of late very much encouraged, when, upon the pretended warrantableness of imposing the former ceremonies, new ones were daily obtruded upon the church.

Add hereunto (which was not foreseen, but since hath come to pass), that the liturgy hath been a great means, as on the one hand to make and increase an idle and unedifying ministry, which contented itself with set forms made to their hands by others, without putting forth themselves to exercise the gift of prayer, with which our Lord Jesus Christ pleaseth to furnish all his servants, whom he calls to that office : so on the other side it hath been (and ever would be, if continued) a matter of endless strife and contention in the church, and a snare both to many godly and faithful ministers, who have been persecuted and silenced upon that occasion, and to others of hopeful parts, many of which have been, and more still would be, diverted from all thoughts of the ministry to other studies; especially in these later times, wherein God vouchsafeth to his people more and better means for the discovery of error and superstition, and for attaining of knowledge in the mysteries of godliness, and gifts in preaching and prayer.

Upon these, and many the like weighty considerations, in reference to the whole book in general, and because of divers particulars contained in it; not from any love to novelty, or intention to disparage our first reformers (of whom we are persuaded, that, were they now alive, they would join with us in this work, and whom we acknowledge as excellent instruments, raised by God, to begin the purging and building of his house, and desire that they may be had of us and posterity in everlasting remembrance, with thankfulness and honour), but that we may, in some measure, answer the gracious providence of God, which at this time calleth upon us for farther reformation, and may satisfy our own consciences, and answer the expectation of other reformed churches, and the desires of many of the godly among ourselves, and withal give some public testimony of our endeavours for uniformity in divine worship, which we have promised in our solemn league and covenant: we have, after earnest and frequent calling upon the name of God, and after much consultation, not with flesh and blood, but with his holy word, resolved to lay aside the former liturgy, with the many rites and ceremonies formerly used in the worship of God; and have agreed upon this following directory for all the parts of public worship, at ordinary and extraordinary times.

Wherein our care hath been, to hold forth such things as are of

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divine institution in every ordinance; and other things we have endeavoured to set forth according to the rules of Christian prudence, agreeable to the general rules of the word of God: our meaning therein being only, that the general heads, the sense and scope of the prayers, and other parts of public worship, being known to all, there may be a consent of all the churches, in those things that contain the substance of the service and worship of God; and the ministers may be hereby directed in their administrations, to keep like soundness in doctrine and prayer; and may, if need be, have some help and furniture; and yet so, as they become not hereby slothful and negligent, in stirring up the gifts of Christ in them; but that each one, by meditation, by taking heed to himself, and the flock of God committed to him, and by wise observing the ways of Divine Providence, may be careful to furnish his heart and tongue with farther or other materials of prayer and of exhortation, as shall be needful upon all occasions.

Of the assembling of the Congregation, and their Behaviour in the Public Worship of God.

When the congregation is to meet for public worship, the people (having before prepared their hearts thereunto) ought all to come, and join therein; not absenting themselves from the public ordinances through negligence, or upon pretence of private meetings.

Let all enter the assembly, not irreverently, but in a grave and seemly manner, taking their seats or places without adoration, or bowing themselves towards one place or other.

The congregation being assembled, the minister, after solemn calling on them to the worshipping of the great name of God, is to begin with prayer.

In all reverence and humility acknowledging the incomprehensible greatness and majesty of the Lord (in whose presence they do then in a special manner appear), and their own vileness and unworthiness to approach so near him, with their utter inability of themselves to so great a work; and humbly beseeching him for pardon, assistance, and acceptance, in the whole service then to be performed; and for a blessing on that particular portion of his word then to be read and all in the name and mediation of the Lord Jesus Christ."

The public worship being begun, the people are wholly to attend upon it, forbearing to read any thing, except what the minister is then reading or citing and abstaining much more from all private whisperings, conferences, salutations, or doing reverence to any persons present, or coming in; as also from all gazing, sleeping, or other indecent behaviour, which may disturb the minister or people, or hinder themselves and others in the service of God.

If any, through necessity, be hindered from being present at the beginning, they ought not, when they come into the congregation, to betake themselves to their private devotions, but reverently to compose themselves to join with the assembly, in that ordinance of God which is then in hand.

Of Public Reading of the Holy Scriptures.

Reading of the word in the congregation, being part of the public worship of God (wherein we acknowledge our dependence upon him,

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