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men, if Providence had continued me in my high station; but as I accepted of the honour of being your chancellor in order to promote your prosperity, I assure you I will divest myself of the honour when it will contribute to your advantage." Accordingly, as soon as the king's return was voted, he sent them the following resignation :


"I shall always retain a hearty sense of my former obligations to you, in your free election of me to the office of your chancellor; and it is no small trouble to my thoughts, when I consider how little serviceable I have been to you in that relation. But since the all-wise providence of God, which I desire always to adore and bow down unto, has been pleased to change my condition, that I am not in a capacity to answer the ends of the office, -I do therefore most freely resign and give up all my right and interest therein, but shall always retain my affection and esteem for you, with my prayers for your continual prosperity, that, amidst the many examples of the instability and revolutions of human affairs, you may still abide flourishing and fruitful.



"May 8, 1660.

"Your affectionate friend and servant, "RICH. CROMWELL." Thus Richard went off the stage of public action. "As he was innocent of all the evil his father had done (says Burnet†), so there was no prejudice laid against him. Upon his advancement to the protectorship, the city of London, and almost all the counties of England, sent him addresses of congratulation; but when he found the times too boisterous he readily withdrew, and became a private man; and as he had done no hurt to any body, so nobody ever studied to hurt him. A rare instance of the instability of human greatness; and of the security of innocence! In his younger years he had not all that zeal for religion as was the fashion of the times; but those who knew him well in the latter part of life have assured me, that he was a perfect gentleman in his behaviour, well acquainted with public affairs, of great gravity, and real piety; but so very modest, that he would not be distinguished or known by any name but the feigned one of Mr. Clarke. He died at Theobalds about the year 1712.

The king landed at Dover May 26, and came the same night to Canterbury, where he rested the next day, and on Tuesday, May 29, rode in triumph with his two brothers, through the city of London to Whitehall, amidst the acclamations of an innumerable crowd of spectators.§ As he passed along, old Mr. Arthur

• Kennet's Chron. p. 141.

+ Vol. 1. p. 116, 117.

Under this name he lived, for some years, privately at Hursley, about seven miles from Romsey, now the seat of sir Thomas Heathcote, bart. and attended the meeting-house in Romsey. The pew in which he used to sit is still in being, and preserved entire at the church's removal to their new house, as a relic worthy of notice. Mr. Thomson's MS. Collections, under the word Romsey.-ED.

§ Dr. Grey gives from Echard and Heath a description of the procession.-ED.

Jackson, an eminent Presbyterian minister, presented his majesty with a rich embossed Bible, which he was pleased to receive, and to declare it his resolution to make that book the rule of his conduct*.

Two days after the king's arrival at Whitehall, his majesty went to the house of peers, and after a short congratulatory speech passed an act, turning the present convention into a parliament. After which the houses, for themselves and all the commons of England, laid hold of his majesty's most gracious pardon, and appointed a committee to prepare an act of indemnity for all who had been concerned in the preceding commotions, except the late king's judges, and two or three others.

Had the directions given for the choice of this parliament been observed, no royalist could have sat in the house; however, their numbers were inconsiderable; the convention was a Presbyterian parliament, and had the courage to avow the justice and lawfulness of taking arms against the late king till the year 1648;† for when Mr. Lenthall, speaker of the long-parliament, in order to shew the sincerity of his repentance, had said, that he that first drew his sword against the late king, committed as great an offence as he that cut off his head; he was brought to the bar, and received the following reprimand from the present speaker, by order of the house.


"The house has taken great offence at what you have said, which, in the judgment of the house, contains as high a reflection upon the justice of the proceedings of the lords and commons of the last parliament, in their actings before 1648, as could be expressed. They apprehend there is much poison in the said words, and that they were spoken out of design to inflame, and to render them who drew the sword to bring delinquents to punishment, and to vindicate their just liberties, into balance with them who cut off the king's head; of which they express their abhorrence and detestation. Therefore I am commanded to let you know, that had these words fallen out at any other time in this parliament but when they had considerations of mercy and indemnity, you might have expected a sharper and severer sentence. Nevertheless, I am, according to command, to give you a sharp reprehension, and I do as sharply and severely as I can reprehend you for it."

But it was to little purpose to justify the civil war, when they were yielding up all they had been contending for to the court;‡ for though they stopped short of the lengths of the next parliament, they increased his majesty's revenues so much, that if he had been a frugal prince he might have lived without parliaments for the future. The restoring the king after this manner without any treaty, or one single article for the securing men in the en

* Baxter's Life, p. 218.

+ Echard, p. 765.

Rapin, p. 258.

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joyment of their religious and civil liberties, was, as bishop Burnet observes*, the foundation of all the misfortunes of the nation under this reign. And as another right reverend prelate observes, the restoration of the king in this high and absolute manner, laid the foundation of all the king's future miscarriages; so that if the revolution by king William and queen Mary had not taken place, the Restoration had been no blessing to the nation.

But it ought to be remembered, that this was not a legal parliament, for the Rump had no power to appoint keepers of the liberties of England; nor had the keepers a right to issue out writs for election of a new parliament; nor could the king's writ, without the subsequent choice of the people, make them so. All the laws therefore made by this convention, and all the punishments inflicted upon offenders in pursuance of them, were not strictly legal; which the court were so apprehensive of that they prevailed with the next parliament to confirm them. When this convention-parliament had set about eight months, it was dissolved December 29, partly because it was not legally chosen, and because it was too much Presbyterian; the prime minister [Hyde] having now formed a design, in concert with the bishops, of evacuating the church of all the Presbyterians.

The managing Presbyterians still buoyed themselves up with hopes of a comprehension within the church, though they had parted with all their weight and influence; and from directors were become humble supplicants to those very men who a few months before lay at their feet. They had now no other refuge than the king's clemency, which was directed by chancellor Hyde and the bishops; but to keep them quiet, his majesty condescended, at the instance of the earl of Manchester, to admit ten of their number into the list of his chaplains in ordinary, viz. Drs. Reynolds, Spurstow, Wallis, Manton, Bates; Mr. Calamy, Ashe, Case, Baxter, and Woodbridget.

But none of these divines were called to preach at court, except Dr. Reynolds, Dr. Spurstow, Mr. Calamy, and Mr. Baxter, each of them once. Here again the Presbyterians were divided in their politics, some being for going as far as they could with the court, and others for drawing back. Of the former sort were, Mr. Calamy, Dr. Reynolds, and Mr. Ashe, who were entirely directed by the earl of Manchester, and had frequent assemblies at his house; to them were joined Dr. Bates, Dr. Manton, and most of the city-ministers; but Dr. Seaman, Mr. Jenkins, and others, were of another party; these were a little estranged from the rest of their brethren, and meddled not with politics, says Mr. Baxter, because the court gave them no encouragement, their design being only to divide them; but the former had more confidence in their superiors, and carried on a treaty, till by force and violence they were beaten out of the field.

Page 126.

+ Kennet's Chron. p. 162.

Baxter's Life, p. 229.

Upon the king's arrival at Whitehall, the liturgy of the church of England was restored to his majesty's chapel, and in several churches both in city and country; for it was justly observed, that all acts and ordinances of the long-parliament which had not the royal assent were in themselves null, and therefore prelacy was still the legal establishment, and the Common Prayer the only legal form of worship, and that they were punishable by the laws of the land who officiated by any other. The king in his declaration had desired, that the Presbyterians would read so much of the liturgy as they themselves had no exception against, but most of them declined the proposal *. But to set an example to the rest of the nation, the house of peers, two days after the king was proclaimed, appointed Mr. Marston to read divine service before them, in his formalities, according to the Common Prayerbook; and the Sunday following, Dr. Gauden preached and administered the sacrament to several of the peers, who received it kneeling. On the 31st of May they ordered, that the form of prayers formerly used should be constantly read in their house, provided that no prejudice, penalty, or reflection, shall be on any who are not present. The house of commons followed the example of the lords; and before the end of the year many of the parochial clergy, who scrupled the use of the service-book, were prosecuted for offending against the statutes made in that behalf; the justices of the peace and others insisting, that the laws returned with the king, and that they ought not to be dispensed with in the neglect of them.

The old sequestered clergy flocked in great numbers about the court, magnifying their sufferings, and making interest for preferment; every one took possession of the living from which he had been ejected; by which means some hundreds of the Presbyterian clergy were dispossessed at once. Upon this the heads of that party waited upon the king, and prayed, that though all who had lost their livings for malignancy, or disaffection to the late powers, were restored, yet that those ministers who succeeded such as had been ejected for scandal, might keep their places; but the court paid no regard to their petitions. However, where the incumbent was dead, his majesty yielded that the living should be confirmed to the present possessor.

The heads of colleges and fellows who had been ejected in the late times, were no less forward in their applications to be restored; upon which the parliament appointed a committee to receive their petitions. Dr. Goodwin having resigned his presidentship of Magdalen-college, the lords ordered, "that Dr. Oliver be restored in as full and ample manner as formerly he enjoyed it, till the pleasure of his majesty be farther known. And the three senior fellows were appointed to put this order in execution." The ejected fellows of New-college, Oxon, petitioned

Kennet's Chron. p. 432.

+ lbid. p. 152.

at the same time to be restored; upon which the lords ordered, May 19, that " Robert Grove, John Lampshire, &c. late fellows of New-college, Oxon, and all others who were unjustly ejected out of their fellowships, be forthwith restored; and that all such fellows as have been admitted contrary to the statute be forthwith ejected; and that no new fellows be admitted contrary to the statutes *." And to prevent farther applications of this kind, the lords passed this general order, June 4," that the chancellors of both universities shall take care that the several colleges in the said universities shall be governed according to their respective statutes; and that such persons who have been unjustly put out of their headships, fellowships, or other officers relating to the several colleges or universities, may be restored according to the said statutes of the university, and founders of colleges therein t."

Pursuant to this order, there followed a very considerable change in both universities, commissioners being appointed by the king to hear and determine all causes relating to this affair, who in the months of August and September restored all such as were unmarried to their respective places. In the university of Oxford, besides Dr.Oliver, already mentioned, the following heads of colleges were restored, and the present possessors ejected.

Heads of colleges restored,
August 3.

Dr. Hannibal Potter,
Dr. Richard Bayly,
Dr. Francis Mansel,
Dr. Robert Newlin,
Dr. Gilbert Sheldon,
Dr. Thomas Yate,
Mr. Henry Wightwick,

N. B. This Mr. Wightwick was ejected

St. Mary's-hall

Regius Prof. in Divinity
Nat. Phil. reader

Mr. Henry Wightwick,
Dr. Robert Saunderson,
Dr. Thomas Willis,
Dr. John Fell,
Dr. Robert South,
Dr. Thomas Barlow,

S Can. of Chr. Ch. and Uni.

Can. of Christ-church and
Marg. Prof.


Dr. H. Wilkinson, sen.

President of
St. John's college
Corpus Christi-college
All Souls-college
Brazen Nose-college

In the place of heads ejected.

Dr. Seth Ward

Mr. Thank. Owen
Mr. Francis Howel
Dr. Edward Staunton
Dr. Meredith, dec.
Dr. D. Greenwood
Dr. Henry Langley.

a second time 1664.

Mr. Thomas Cole
Dr. John Conant
Dr. Josh. Crosse

Mr. Ralph Button

Besides these, all surviving ejected fellows of colleges were restored without exceptions, and such as had been nominated by the commissioners in 1648, or elected in any other manner than according to the statutes, were ejected, and their places declared


The like alterations were made in the university of Cambridge. The earl of Manchester, chancellor, was obliged to send the following letter to the university, dated August 3, for restoring Dr. Martin to the mastership of Queen's college, whom he had

• Kennet's Chron. p. 153.

+ Ibid. p. 173.

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