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majesty's inauguration. He was no favourer of archbishop

Laud's innovations *; for while he was vice-chancellor he sent for one of Mr. Barwick's pupils, and said to him, "I wonder your tutor, no ill man in other respects, does not yet abstain from that form of worship [bowing towards the east] which he knows is disagreeable to our excellent parliament, and not very acceptable to God himself; but be you careful to steer your course clear of the dangerous rock of every error, whether it savour of the impiety of Arminianism, or of the superstition of Popery. †"

He was succeeded by Dr. Spurstow; and suffered in common with the rest of the bishops; but being a Calvinist, and a person of great temper and moderation, he was allowed by the protector Cromwell to be a preacher at the Temple, in which employment he died, December 7, 1659, about the sixty-seventh year of his age. Dr. Gauden says, he was a person of great candour, sweetness, gravity, and solidity of judgment. He was consulted by Mr. Baxter and others in several points of controversy, and was indeed a most humble Christian, and very patient under most severe fits of the stone, which were very acute and tedious for some time before his death.

The reverend Mr. Charles Herle, sometime prolocutor of the assembly of divines, at Westminster, was born of honourable parents at Prideaux-Herle, near Lostwithyel in Cornwall, in the year 1598. He was educated in Exeter-college, Oxon. In the year 1618, he took the degrees in arts, and was afterward rector of Winwick in Lancashire, one of the richest livings in England, and was always esteemed a Puritan. When the wars broke out, he took part with the parliament, was elected one of the members of the assembly of divines, and upon the death of Dr. Twisse in 1646, was appointed prolocutor. After the king's death he retired to his living at Winwick, and was in very high esteem with all the clergy in that country. In the year 1654, he was appointed one of the assistant commissioners for ejecting scandalous ministers, together with Mr. Isaac Ambrose and Mr. Gee. He was a moderate Presbyterian, and left behind him some practical and controversial writings. Mr. Fuller says §, he was so much of a Christian, scholar, and gentleman, that he could agree in affection with those who differed from him in judgment. He

Dr. Grey neglects not to inform the reader, on the authority of Dr. Gauden, that bishop Brownrigge was tenacious of the doctrine, worship, devotion, and government of the church of England; "which (he said) he liked better and better as he grew older." He seems to have been very free in his advice to Cromwell; for when the protector, with some show of respect to him, demanded his judgment in some public affairs, then at a nonplus, bishop Brownrigge, with his wonted gravity and freedom, replied, "My lord, the best counsel I can give you is that of our Saviour, Render unto Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, and unto God the things that are God's:" with which free answer the protector rested rather silenced than satisfied. Dr. Grey's Examination, vol. 3. p. 258.-ED.

+ Life of Barwick, p. 17.

§ Fuller's Worthies, p. 305.

Wood's Athenæ Oxon. vol. 2. p. 151, 152.

died at his parsonage at Winwick in the sixty-first year of his age, and was buried in his own church, September 29, 1659.

The reverend Mr. Thomas Cawton, born at Raynham in Norfolk, and educated in Queen's college, Cambridge; he was afterward minister of Wivenhoe in Essex, 1637, and at last of St. Bartholomew behind the Exchange. He was, says the Oxford historian *, a learned and religious Puritan, driven into exile for preaching against the murder of king Charles I., and for being in the same plot with Mr. Love, for raising money to supply the army of king Charles II. when he was coming into England to recover his right. He fled to Rotterdam, and became preacher to the English church there, where he died August 7, 1659, in the fifty-fourth year of his age t

The new year [1660] began with the restoration of king Charles II. to the throne of his ancestors. The long parliament dissolved themselves March 16, and while the people were busy in choosing a new one, general Monk was courted by all parties. The republicans endeavoured to fix him for a commonwealth; the French ambassador offered him the assistance of France, if he would assume the government either as king or protector, which, it is said, he would have accepted, if sir Anthony Ashley Cooper had not prevented it, by summoning him before the council, and keeping the doors locked till he had taken away the commissions from some of his most trusty officers, and given them to others of the council's nomination. But be this as it will, it is certain Monk had not as yet given the king any encouragement to rely upon him, though his majesty had sent him a letter as long ago as July 21, 1659, by an express messenger, with the largest offers of reward.

The Presbyterians were now in possession of the whole power of England; the council of state, the chief officers of the army and navy, and the governors of the chief forts and garrisons, were theirs; their clergy were in possession of both universities, and of the best livings in the kingdom. There was hardly a loyalist, or professed Episcopalian, in any post of honour or trust: nor had the king any number of friends capable of promoting his restoration, for there was a disabling clause in the qualificationact, that all who had been in arms against the long-parliament, should be disqualified from serving in the next. The whole government therefore was with the Presbyterians, who were shy of the Independents as of a body of men more distant from the church, and more inclined to the commonwealth. They were no

*Wood's Athenæ Oxon. vol. 2. p. 432.

+ Mr. Cawton had few equals in learning, and scarcely a superior in piety. Those great works, the Polyglot Bible, and Dr. Castle's Polyglot Lexicon, owed much to his encouragement and exertions. It shewed a most deep seriousness of spirit, though probably mingled with superstitious notions of the Lord's supper, that he fainted, when he first received it; and he ever afterward expressed, at that solemnity, the profoundest reverence and most elevated devotion. Granger's History of England, vol. 3. 8vo. p. 47.-ED.

less vigilant to keep out of parliament the republicans of all sorts, some of whom, says Burnet*, ran about every where like ment that were giddy or amazed, but their time was past. On the. other hand, they secretly courted the Episcopalians, who dispersed papers among the people, protesting their resolutions to forget all past injuries, and to bury all rancour, malice, and animosities, under the foundation of his majesty's restoration. "We reflect (say they) upon our sufferings as from the hand of God, and therefore do not cherish any violent thoughts or inclinations against any persons whatsoever who have been instrumental in them; and if the indiscretion of any particular persons shall transport them to expressions contrary to this general sense, we shall disclaim them." This was signed by eighteen noblemen, and about fifty knights and gentlemen ‡. Dr. Morley and some of his brethren met privately with the Presbyterian ministers, and made large professions of lenity and moderation, but without descending to particulars. The king and chancellor Hyde carried on the intrigue. The chancellor in one of his letters from Breda, dated April 20, 1660, says, that "the king very well approved that Dr. Morley and some of his brethren should enter into conferences, and have frequent conversation with the Presbyterian party, in order to reduce them to such a temper as is consistent with the good of the church; and it may be no ill expedient (says he) to assure them of present good preferments; but in my opinion you should rather endeavour to win over those who, being recovered, will both have reputation, and desire to merit from the church, than be over-solicitous to comply with the pride and passion of those who propose extravagant things §." Such was the spirit or professions of the church-party, while they were decoying the others into the snare! The Presbyterian ministers did not want for cautions from the Independents and others, not to be too forward in trusting their new allies, but they would neither hear, see, or believe, till it was too late. They valued themselves upon their superior influence; and from an ambitious desire of grasping all the merit and glory of the Restoration to themselves, they would suffer none to act openly with them, but desired the Episcopal clergy to lie still for fear of the people, and leave the conducting this great affair to the hands it was in.

Accordingly the Presbyterian ministers wrote to their friends in their several counties, to be careful that men of republican principles might not be returned to serve in the next parliament, so that in some counties the elections fell upon men void of all religion. And in other places the people broke through the disabling cause. Dr. Barwick says, they paid no regard to it, and

History, vol. 1. p. 123, 12mo.

Baxter, p. 216. 218. History of the Stuarts, p. 458.

Kennet's Chronicle, p. 121. 144. Baxter's Life, part 2. p. 217. § Life of Barwick, p. 525.

Monk declared, that if the people made use of their natural rights in choosing whom they thought fit, without reserve, no injury should be done them. So that when the houses met it was evident to all wise men it would be a court-parliament.

But the Scots were more steady to the covenant, and sent over the reverend Mr. James Sharp, with the earls of Crawford and Lauderdale, to Holland, humbly to put his majesty in mind, that the kirk of Scotland expected protection upon the footing of the Presbyterian establishment, without indulgence to sectaries. Their brethren in the north of Ireland joined in the address to the same purpose and some of the English Presbyterians were of the same mind; ten of whom met the Scots commissioners at London, and made earnest applications to the general, not to restore the king but upon the concessions made by his father in the Isle of Wight*. But this was only the resolution of a few; the majority, says Mr. Sharp, were for moderate episcopacy, upon the scheme of archbishop Usher, and therefore willing to hearken to an accommodation with the church. Dr. Barwick adds †, "What the Presbyterians aimed at, who were superior to the Independents, was, that all matters should be settled according to the treaty of the Isle of Wight," which gave the court a fair opportunity of referring all church-matters to a conciliatory synod, the divines of each party to be summoned when the king should be settled on his throne. This was the bait that was laid for the Presbyterians, and was the ruin of their cause. The Scots kirk stood to their principles, and would have bid defiance to the old clergy, but Mr. Calamy, Manton, and Ash, informed them in the name of the London ministers, that the general stream and current being for the old prelacy, in its pomp and height, it was in vain to hope for establishing presbytery, which made them lay aside the thoughts of it, and fly to archbishop Usher's moderate episcopacy. Thus they were beaten from their first works.


But if the tide was so strong against them, should they have opened the sluices, and let in the enemy at once, without a single article of capitulation? It is hard to account for this conduct of the Presbyterians, without impeaching their understandings. Indeed the Episcopal clergy gave them good words, assuring them, that all things should be to their minds when the king was restored; and that their relying upon the royal word would be a mark of confidence which his majesty would always remember, and would do honour to the king, who had been so long neglected. But should this have induced the ministers to give up a cause that had cost so much treasure and blood, and become humble petitioners to those who were now almost at their mercy? For they could not but be sensible, that the old constitution must return with the king, that diocesan episcopacy * Kennet's Chron. p. 101. 104. 110. + Life, p. 256. Kennet's Chron. p. 228.

was the only legal establishment, that all which had been done in favour of presbytery not having had the royal assent, was void in law, therefore they and their friends who had not episcopal ordination and induction into their livings, must be looked upon as intruders, and not legal ministers of the church of England.

But notwithstanding this infatuation and vain confidence in the court and the clergy, Mr. Echard would set aside all their merit, by saying, "Whatever the Presbyterians did in this affair, was principally to relieve themselves from the oppression of the Independents, who had wrested the power out of their hands, and not out of any affection to the king and church." Directly contrary to his majesty's declaration concerning ecclesiastical affairs, which says, "When we were in Holland we were attended with many grave and learned ministers of the Presbyterian persuasion, whom to our great satisfaction and comfort we found to be full of affection to us, of zeal for the peace of the church and state, and neither enemies (as they have been given out to be) to episcopacy or liturgy." Bishop Burnet acknowledges*, that many of the Presbyterian ministers, chiefly in the city of London, had gone into the design of the restoration in so signal a manner, and with such success, that they had great merit, and a just title to very high preferments. Mr. Baxter† gives the following reasons of their conduct. "The Presbyterians (says he) were influenced by the covenant, by which, and by the oaths of allegiance to the king and his heirs, they apprehended themselves bound to do their utmost to restore the king, let the event be what it will." But then he adds, "Most of them had great expectations of favour and respect; and because the king had taken the covenant they hoped he would remove subscriptions, and leave the Common Prayer and ceremonies indifferent; that they might not be cast out of the churches. Some, who were less sanguine, depended on such a liberty as the Protestants had in France; but others, who were better acquainted with the principles and tempers of the prelates, declared that they expected to be silenced, imprisoned, and banished, but yet they would do their parts to restore the king, because no foreseen ill consequence ought to hinder them from doing their duty." Surely these were better Christians than casuists! When the ministers waited on his majesty in Holland, he gave them such encouraging promises, says Mr. Baxter, as raised in some of them high expectations. When he came to Whitehall he made ten of them his chaplains; and when he went to the house to quicken the passing the act of indemnity, he said, "My lords, if you do not join with me in extinguishing this fear, which keeps the hearts of men awake, you keep me from performing my promise, which if I had not made, neither I nor you had been now here. I pray let us not deceive those who brought or permitted us to come + Life, p. 216.

Vol. 1. p. 259.

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