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I think it extravagant. For the sake of the argument, grant for the moment its correctness. That a man spends money on drivk is no proof that he is prosperous, or has a surplus. How often do the very poorest of the poor waste their means? Miserable wretches with scarcely a rag on their backs will often pass the door of the baker, and enter the gin-shop to spend the last penny. Such an act does not prove their prosperity: on the contrary it proves their adversity. Excessive aud irregular toil, badly ventilated workshops, and low wages, are predisposing causes to intemperance. I have studied the life of the Working Classes closely, and say it truthfully, but with regret, that the hardest worked, and worst paid operatives are generally the most iutemperate. If I were asked what was the great antidote for low habits and drunkenness; I should answer-ordinary and regular labour and high wages. It may be said, that more money is expended in drink in times of good trade than is so expended in times of bad trade. This does not injure my position in the least. I contend that what is called good trade is only an unnatural and unregulated activity: what is called bad trade is an exhausted prostration of energy. Both states are intemperate and unnatural and lead to intemperate aud unnatural results. You will not, I am sure, understand me to mean that low wages, badly ventilated workshops, and irregular employmeut, are the sole causes of drunkenness. Ignorance is a leading cause; and I think with Dr. Smiles, that as education spreads, we may expect to overcome the evil. Such an education, however, will not be a mere inculcatiou of negative doctrines, fitted to the existence of a laissez faire and breechespocket philosophy. The schoolmaster who hopes to eradicate moral evils, must also teach how social evils shall be overcome: he must show us the way out of those depths of wretchedness and woe, that make timid men tremble and cause even philosophers to stand aghast. And to such an education both the Editor of the Leader and Dr. Smiles may contribute in no small degree.
In direct corroboration of my views on the connection between steady and remunerative employment and the moral condition of the labourers, I call your attention to the following extract from the second volume of Porter's “Progress of the Nation.”—“ This work, under the name of the Ulster canal, is in progress of execution, according to the plan of the late Mr. Telford
During its progress, this work has proved a great blessing to the district through which it passess; it has given constant employment, at fair wages, to a great number of labourers; and has been the means of reclaiming many amongst them from those habits of reckless indifference, and that pussion for ardent spirits, which are so fatal to the happiness of the Working Classes in Ireland. With the power of saving out of their wages, the habit has arisen. The whiskey-shop has been abandoned, and several of those who were first employed have laid by sufficient money to enable them to emigrate to the United States and to Canada, where they have constituted themselves proprietors, and have before them the certainty of future comfort and independence.”
The figures you quote from the article in the Leader on the cost of pauperism are correct. I examined the Poor Law returns some wecks since, and used the same figures for a similar purpose, in Reynolds' Newspaper. The cost of pauperism in 1839, was £4,406,907, in 1849, £5,792,963; being an increase in the cost of pauperism of £1,386,056; though the increase of the national wealth, in the ten years elapsing between 1839 and 1849, must have been very great. These figures, however, very inadequately represent the real condition of the nation. They are only corner marks in the great outline: the picture must be filled up by your own acquaintance with society as a whole: and your ability to appreciate the feelings and wants of your fellow beings. The condition of the dumb toiling millions is not a question which can be settled by a few smart sentences written with a view to cleverness and effect. And I heartily agree with you in thinking that “ earnestness and wisdom are indispensible in any discussion likely to prove of value. I will answer your other enquiries on another day. Meantime, accept of this long epistle as a very tolerable instalment.
I am, as ever,
SAMUEL M. KYDD. September 20th 1850.
A Prince's BEST GUARDS.-- Princes by liearkening to cruel counsels, become in time obnoxious to the authors, their flatterers, and ministers; and are brought to that, that when they would, they dare not change ; they must go on and defend cruelty, with cruelty : they cannot alter the babit. It is then grown necessary, they must be as ill as those who have made them : and in the end, they will grow more hateful to themselves, than to their subjects. Wherzas, on the contrary, the merciful Prince is safe in love, not fear. He needs no emissaries, spies, intelligencers, to intrap true subjects. He fears no libels, no treasons. His people speak w hit they thiuk ; and talk openly wbat they do in secret. They have nothing in their breasts, that they need a cypher for. He is guarded with his own benefits.-Ben Jonson.
THE WORKER'S VISION.
TIere, in working for each other,
Each worketh for himself.
And here the fabled golden age,
Is realised at last ;
And men turn wondering from the
Of war and horrors past. “ I thee with power endow“ Learn what the world one day will be! To see such wonders round me spread, « Thou knowest what 'tis now.”
Great my amazement grew :
1, turning to the spirit said, He paused a moment-waved his hand,
“Is this the world I knew!" And lo! on every side, I saw a bright and smiling land,
The spirit said, “In isolation
Man is a feeble thing,
“ But, behold! from combination, Here peace and joy for ever reigned,
“ Wondrous good will spring! Without a shade of woe ; Nor competition fell, remained
“ Trust the Future ! men are grosing To make each man a foe.
Wiser with each circling sun;
“ Seeds of love and truth are sowing. Here man still toiled, but not for gain ;
“ Germinating one by one."Here noble minds were cast ; Here kings, with all their fickle train,
He fled, and left me in amaze,
But, with an altered mind
For now I've hope in future dars, Here, in truth, each man is brother,
And faith in human kind.
Notices to Correspondents, Correspondents will please address " Thomas Cooper, 5, Park-row, Knightsbridge, London."
H. R., Northampton.—I am not the author of “ The Infidel's 'Text Book ;” nor kare 1 ever seen such a book. This is the third letter I have received, making this inquiry.
R. F., Pontypool ; 'Pelopidas ;' and J. White. — Their poetry is most respectfully e clined.
• Worker's Vision and several other pieces.-- Unavoidably delayed till next number.
Lectures in London, during the Month of October; 1850.
HALL OF SCIENCE, CITY ROAD. LITERARY INSTITUTION, JOIX STREEL. Sunday, 6th, at 7 Washington and the Independence. Present State of the Free-Knos:
of America,'— Thomas Cooper. ledge Question,'-J. D. Collett. Sunday, 13th, at 7 Francis W. Newman on the Soul, Life and Genius of Sir William - Geo. J. Holyoake.
Jones,'— Thomas Cooper. Sunday, 20th, at 7. Life and Character of Sir Robert Shelley's Queen Mab,'-Richard Peel,'— Thomas Cooper.
Peel,'— Thomas Cooper.
7th. Life and Genius of Lord Byron. 14th. Life and Genius of Dr. Johnson. 21st. “Life and Genius of Shelley.' 28th. • The Poetry of Dr. Walcot, alias Peter Pindar.'
THINKINGS FROM ZIMMERMAN.
PRIDE AND VANITY.—No two qualities in the human mind are more essentially ifferent, though often confounded, than pride and vanity : the proud man enterlins the higliest opinion of himself ; the vain man only strives to infuse
the ain man is satisfied if he can but obtain it: pride, by stateliness, demands respect; auity, by little artifices, solicits applause : pride, therefore, makes men disagree ble, and vanity ridiculous.
THE Passions.—To subdue the passions of creatures who are all passion, is aburd, impossible; to regulate them appears to be absolutely necessary; and what re those passions that make such havoc, causing striking differences, exalting and epressing spirits, leading to ecstatic enjoyment, or plunging us in the severest fictions; what are they more than the development of our sensibility ?
MENDICANTS.-Mendicants have great comforts; they require a good address, hough they can dispense with a good dress; this dispensation is exclusively theirs: hey have little to care for, and their expectations are great : of them nothing is 'equired ; and what forms their calamity, forms likewise a fund for its own emergencies.
GOOD QUALITIES.—Many good qualities are not sufficent to balance a single want-the want of money.
FRIENDS.—There are a sort of friends, who in your poverty do nothing but torment and taunt you with accounts of what you might have been, had you followed their advice; and this privilege comes from the comparative state of their finances and yours.
INDUSTRY. If industry is no more than habit, 'tis at least an excellent one. If
you ask me which is the real hereditary sin of human nature, do you imagine I shall answer pride, or luxury, or ambition, or egotism ?-No; I shall say indolence. Who conqners indolence, will conqner all the rest.” Indeed all good principles must stagnate without mental activity.
UNDERTAKINGS. — 'Tis easier to undertake than to retract, especially in momentous affairs. Good, excellent, is the advice, of the poet Shenstone : “Whatever situation in life you ever wish or propose for yourself, acquire a clear and lucid idea of the inconveniences attending it."
OPINION.-Opinim is when the assent of the understanding is so far gained by evidence of probability, that it rather inclines to one persuasion than to another, yet not altogether without a mixture of uncertainty and doubting.
THINKING.–To little minds those productions are highly agreeable, that entertain without reducing them to the necessity of thinking.
TRUTI- lies in a small compass ! The Aristotelians say, all truth is contained in Aristotle in one place or another; Galileo makes Simplicius say so, but shows the absurdity of that speech by answering, all truth is contained in a lesser compass: vis, in the Alphabet!
SCHOLARS.-Scholars are frequently to be met with, who are ignorant of nothing -saving their own ignorance.
GAUDY ATTIRE.-Beauty gains little, and homeliness and deformity lose much, by gaudy attire. Lysander knew this was in part true, and refused the rich garments that the tyrant Dionysius proffered to his daughters, saying,--they were only fit to make unhappy faces more remarkable.
Youth.-A Youth introduced suddenly into life, feels as awkwardly as one immersed for the first time in water; and the chances are that be sinks as soon.
TOPICS OF DISCOURSE.-The weather is not a safe topic of discourse ; your company may be hippish : nor is health; your associate may be a malade imaginaire; nor is money; you may be suspected as a borrower,
AN AUTUMN REVERIE. Among the golden corn I lay,
The fetid dens bad passed away, A bright and sunny Autumn day,
Where breathes and rots the haman clay And gentle breezes o'er me stole,
Of him whose strength has ceased to be Eartli's fragrance wafting to my soul,
Of use to Mammon's devotee; And music caught my raptured ears,
Aud in their stead before me rose Sweet as the singing of the spheres,
Fair dwelling-places, goodly rows; Which poets heard in ancient time,
Each house a neat and cleanly home, Ring out their symphonies sublime!
That would not force its lord to roam. And from afar the village bells,
And knowledge now was free to all; Came pealing o'er the upland swells,
The parting slave, and peasant thrali By distance softened and subdued,
Had learned the cause of all their woes, To suit my still and pensive mood;
And in their native manhood rose,
What God had made them,-men and free. If man to man were just and true,
Victorious they; and all the earth Resolved and brave the just to do.
Was gladden'd with a second birth. Then ceased the awful daily strife,
Then far and wide the welkin rung, The poor must wage for bread of life;
With joyous shout, and heart-felt song; And honest toil won honest bread,
And stalwart men and women fair, And life in hope and joy was led;
In laughing troops assembled there. For sunny children laughed with glee,
I saw the wild and merry dance, Round-faced, and ruddy, blythe and free; The happy face, and sparkling glance.No longer hunger tamed them down,
Then rose from this my reverie, To ragged starvelings of the Town.
To work for what this world shall be!
John ALFRED LAXGFORD. Birmingham.
A SUMMER INVITATION. Sons of the living Babylon,
No scourging pestilence is here, Who work for scanty bread,
No fetid, gloomy cells; Midst grandeur, misery, wealth, and want, No tempting
palaces of vice, The dying and the dead;
No peace.destroying hells; Nature, with all her sylvan throng,
But leafy coverts, gushing rills, Now bids you come away
Mountains of azure hue; To meadows, groves, and shady lanes,
Uplands of odour-breathing flowers, Blooming in bright array.
And vallies bathed in dew. Ye daughters wan and woe-begone,
The blackbird and the speckled thrush, With toiling and un-rest;
In concert wild and sweet, Who have nor hearth-born hopes, nor joys
Pour forth their heaven-taught melodies To soothe the sorrowing breast;
From many a loved retreat: Come, lay the constant needle by,
And not a simple flower that blooms,
A merry bird that sings,
Whence rapturous pleasure springs! Though labour-doomed for others’ gain,
The mighty courser, winged with fire, A prey to haggard care;
Which, belching, sweeps the air, Though poverty and ceaseless toil
Shall waft you rapidly as thought Have blighted hopes once fair;
To prospects bright and fair. Forget those miseries awhile,
Then come each struggling toiler, come, Lift up your drooping heads,
Whose bosom hope still warms, Come to the banquet meet for all,
Health waits to greet you with her smiles, Which bounteous Nature spreads.
And Nature with her charms.
J. W. King. Sheffield.
GENIUS.- They say of poets, that they must be born such ; so must mathematicians, so must great generals, and so must lawyers, and so indeed, must great men of all denominations, or it is not possible that they should excel; but with whatever faculties we are born, and to whatever studies our genius may direct us, studies they still must be. Nature gives a bias to respective pursuits ; and this strong propensity is what we mean by genius. Milton did not write his Paradise Lost; nor Homer his liad; nor Newton bis Principia, without immense labour.Cowper.
CRITICALEXEGESIS OF GOSPEL HISTORY,
ON THE BASIS OF STRAUSS's 'LEBEN JESU.'
BY TIIOMAS COOPER,
VII.-THE RESURRECTION AND ASCENSION.
(Continued from last number.)
The Four Evangelists unanimously state that the first news of the grave of Jesus being opened and empty on the second morning after his burial, came to the disciples by the mouth of women; but in all the more particular circumstances they diverge from each other; and notwithstanding the volumes-one might almost say, libraries--which have been written to 'harmonise' their accounts, they are unharmonised still. Strauss presents so compact a statement of these divergencies, that I cannot do better than quote him :
" Leaving behind the difference which is connected with the divergencies in the history of the burial, as to the objects of the women in resorting to the grave,-namely, that according to the two intermediate evangelists they intended to embalm the body of Jesus, according to the two others merely to pay a visit to the grave, —we find, first, a very complicated divergency relativo to the number of the women who made the visit. Luke merely speaks indefinitely of many women ; not alone whom he describes (ch. xxiii, v. 25) as having come with Jesus from Galilce, and of whom he mentions by name Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, but also certain others with them (ch. xxiv. v. 1). Mark names merely three women; two of those whom Luke also names, but as the third, Salome instead of Joanna (ch. xvi. v. 1). Matthew does not name this third woman, respecting whom tho two intermediate evangelists differ, but merely the two Marys, concerning whom they agree (ch. xxviii. v. 1). Lastly, Joho has only one of these-Mary Magdalene (ch. xx. v. 1.)
"The time at which the women go to the grave is likewise not named with uniformity; for even if the words of Matthew, In the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the ueel, make no difference-still the addition of Mark at the rising of the sun, are in contradiction with the expressions, when it was yet dark, in John, and very early in the morning, in Luke.--In relation to the circumstances in which the women first saw the grave there may appear to be a difference, at least between Matthew and the three other evangelists. According to the latter, as they approach and look towards the grave, they see that the stone has already been rolled away by an unknown hand : whereas the narrative of the first evangelist has appeared to many to imply that the women themselves beheld the stone rolled away by an angel. Manifold are the divergencies as to what the women further saw and learned at the grave. According to Luke they enter into the grave, find that the body of Jesus is not there, and are hence in perplexity, until they see standing by them two men in shining garments, who announce to them his resurrection, In Mark, who also makes them enter into the grave, they see only one young man in a long white garment, not standing, but sitting on the right sido, who gives them the same intelligence. In Matthew they receive this information before they enter into the grave, from the angel, who after rolling away the stone had sat upon it. Lastly, according to John, Mary Magdalene, as soon as she sees the stone taken away, and without witnessing any angelic appearance, runs back into the city.
* Moreover, the relation in which the disciples of Jesus are placed with respect to the first news of the resurrection is a different one in the different gospels. According to Mark, the women, out of fear, tell no one of the angelic appearance which they have beheld; according to John, Mary Magdalene has nothing more to say to Jolin and Peter, to whom she hasters from the grave, than that Jesus is taken away; according to Luke, the women report the appearance to the disciples in general, and not merely to two of them ; while, according to Matthew, as they were in the act of hastening to the disciples, Jesus himself met them, and they were able to communicate this also to the disciples. In the two first