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TII O UG IT s.
I would not say, that all is wrong, But let us work undaunted, still,
In which men now believe ;

Though bigots curse and shout :
I would not say, that every priest,

For there is more worth living for Is working to deceive :

Than priests have yet found out. Some honesty's in every sect,

The day shall come when men shall think Some candour, in each doubt :

More clearly than they do; But I am sure, there's something more,

When old ideas shall not destroy
Than men have yet found out.

The good that's in the new ;
The good and bad, are ever mixed, When the king shall break his sceptre,
The sound and rotten grains ;

And the priest his dogmas scout;
And him who strives to winnow tliem For they'll be sure there's something more
The priest damns for his pains :

Than ancient saints found out.

H. R. NICHOLLS.

To Correspondents. Correspondents will please address " Thomas Cooper, 0, Park Row, Knightsbridge, London." I intimated last week that I should leave town on Monday, May 27. All letters sent to my own home will be forwarded to me. But as I am to remain in the neighbourhood of Newcastle one fortnight, any correspondent who wishes to reach me direct-can address ine (from June 1st to the 16th) at “Mr. Barlow's, Bookst ller, 2, Nelson Street, Newcastle-on-Tync.”

N.B.-Any public Institution, or Reading Room, may be regularly supplied gratis, with the “ Peace Advocate." It will be left to the care of Mr. J. Watson, Queens' Head Passage, within a few days of the first of each month. Notice of a wish to be so supplied being sent to Edmund Wheeler, 2, North Buildings, Finsbury Circus.

A, F. Hunt.--I have never read the publication which he names ; and if it be so vile as my correspondent intimates it to be, I think it the more advisable not to draw attention to it.

H S.-Let the party of Darkness go on : they had better show their real character : the Light of the nineteenth century will be advantaged by it.

H. P. A. -Advertisements of Strauss's works have already appeared in two numbers of this journal.

CHARLES LAMR.-I never heard of the custom he mentions. The Yam is usually described to be the original potatoe.

D. C.--I have such a design in view for next year, if I live and be well.

F.G.--In this writer's article • The Educationist and the Religionist,' in our No. 19, there occurs a grammatical error which he wishes to have corrected. Instead of " Are logic, astronomy, algebra, geography, are any one of the arts and sciences adverse to religion?" (page 290)-the reading should be “ 13 logic, &c.," and " is any one, &c.” I take blame to myselt for the printed error. Any correspondent might have made such a 'slip of the pen,' in haste; but an • Editor' ought to bave his eyes about him, and prevent errors going into print. I trust readers will forgive my neglect.

X. P. 2.-What he proposes would please me better than the present plan; but 'variety, variety! is echoed on all sides. Grently obliged by tbe communication he enclosed.

R. J. Ilovingham.--If he thinks a little, he will discern that the introduction of his question might be misinterpreted, and placed to the account of the person who now answers him. With every sense of his right motives, I hope he will excuse my declining his proposition.

Lectures, in London, for the ensuing Teck. SUNDAY, May 26, at half-past 7, Hall of Science, (near Finsbury Square) City Rond.

“ Kosciusko, and the struggles for Polish Independence"--Thomas Cooper. At halfpast 7, Literary Institution, John Street, Fitzroy Square. Piety and Poverty, or

Orthodox Reform"- Robert Cooper, of Manchester. MONDAY, May 27, at half past 8, Mechanics’ Institute, Gould Square, Crutched Friars.

“ Life and Writings of Benjamin Franklin"—Samuel M. Kydd. At half-past 8, Finsbury Ilall, 60, Bunhill Row. “ Student's Life in the Nineteenth Century”—Mark Wilks. At half-past 8, Pentonville Atheneum, 23, Henry Street. "Life and Writings of Lord Byron”—Thomas Shorter. At half-past 8, Soho Mutual Instruc

tion Society, 2, Little Dean Street. “ Vegetarianism"-W. Turley, WEDNES., May 29, at 8, Hackney Scientific and Literary Institution. “ Popular Proverbs’

- George Dawson, M.A,

THINKINGS, FROM LORD BACON.

Thoughts. A man would do well to carry a pencil in his pocket and write down the thoughts of the moment. Those that come unsought for, are commonly the most valuable, and should be secured, because they seldom return.

NOBILITY AND Gentry. -Let states that aim at greatness take heed how their nobility and gentry do multiply too fast ; for that maketh the common subject grow to be a peasant and base swain, driven out of heart, and in effect but a gentleman's labourer.

ILLIBERALITY OF PARENTS.-A man shall see, where there is a house full of children, one or two of the eldest respected and the youngest made wantons; but in the midst, some that are, as it were, forgotten, who many times, nevertheless, prove the best. The illiberality of parents in allowance towards their children, is a harmful error, and makes them base ; acquaints them with shifts; makes them sort with mean company; and makes them surfeit more when they come to plenty ; and therefore the proof is best when men keep their authority towards their children, but not their purse.

HENRY THE SEVENTI (whereof I have spoken largely in the history of his life) was profound and admirable in making farms and houses of husbandry of a stand, ard ; that is, maintained with such a proportion of land unto them as may breed a subject to live in convenient plenty, and no servile condition, and to keep the plough in the hands of the owners and not mere hirelings.

INCONVENIENCE OF A NUMEROUS NOBILITY.—A numerous nobility causeth poverty and inconvenience in a state, for it is a surcharge of expense; and besides, it being of necessity that many of the nobility fall in time to be weak in fortune, it maketh a kind of disproportion between honor and means.

ALCHYMY.-The pursuit of Alchymy is at an end. Yet surely to Alchymy this right is due, that it may truly be compared to the husbandmen whereof Æsop makes the fable, that when he died, told his sons he had left unto them a great mass of gold buried underground in his vineyard, but did not remember the particular place where it was hidden; who when they had with spades turned up all the vineyard, gold indeed they found none; but by reason of their stirring and digging the mould about the roots of their vines, they had a great vintage the year following : so the painful search and stir of Alchymists to inake gold, hath brought to light a great number of good and fruitful experiments, as well for the disclosing of nature, as the use of man's life.

OFFSPRING.–The joys of parents are secret, and so are their griefs and fears ; they cannot utter the one, nor they will not utter the other. Children sweeten labour, but they make misfortunes more bitter; they increase the cares of life, but they mitigate the remembrance of death.

THE SAME.—He that hath wife and children, hath given hostages to fortune; for they are impediments to great enterprises, either of virtue or mischief. Certainly, the best works, and of greatest merit for the public, have proceeded from the unmarried or childless men; which both in affection and means, have married and endowed the public.

BOLDNESS.—Boldness is ever blind : for it seeth not dangers and inconveniences. Therefore it is ill in coursel, good in execution ; so that the right use of bold persons is, that they never command in chief, but be seconds, and under the direction of others. For in counsel, it is good to see dangers; and in execution not to see them, except they be very great.

Envy.—A man that hath no virtue in himself, ever envieth virtue in others. For men's minds will either feed upon their own good, or upon other's evil ; and who wanteth the one will prey upon the other, and who so is out of hope to attain to another's virtue, will seek to come at even hand, by depressing another's fortune.

DEATH.-Men fear death, as children fear to go in the dark : and as that natural fear in children is increased with tales, so is the other.

SIAKSPERE'S BIRTH-DAY,-IN THE FUTURE.

The young spring morn breaks brightly on a scene

of festival outstretching far and wide ;
Toil is respited, mute the town's huge din,

And throngs of freemen, consciously allied
To England's Shaksperc, hail with soul-felt pride

This glorious natal day! With bright blythe spring
In their bearts dancing, to the mountain side

And greenwood haunt, 'mid sunshine revelling,
They speed to gather flower-wreaths fresh and wild,
Wherewith to bind the brows of Nature's soothest child !
Thence, to the public squares and galleries,

Thronged with Shaksperean groups in marble wrought,
Resort the festive crowds; and gazing scize

Nobler conception of the poet's thought
From the life-look the sculptor's art hath caught !

At length with night's approach, are free to all-
The theatres, with bodied fancies fraught:

True love's sad end, content's sweet peace, pride's fall,
The Jin of camps, the pomp of courts : these vary
With tread of midnight ghost, or moonlight freaks of fairy.
Ophelia, Desdemona, Juliet,

The stored love-wealth unfold of woman's heart;
Macbeth. Lear, Ilamlet. Jacques, Othello, " fret

Thoir hour," personified with perfect art
By later Keans and Kembles-men athwart

The renovated stage who grandly move,
And masterly the thoughts sublime impart

Bequeathed by genius; while around, above,
The cager crowds drink every word and look
And feel within their souls a loftier being woke.
Not yet hath come this day of jubilee,

Not yet men hold thus dear to mind the birth
Of him whose sole name beams more sovereignly

Than all kings, nobles, joined, that strut o'er earth!
But shall not this day come--the mced of worth?

Sons of our Shakspere's England, shall it not?
Oh, men whom genius tires, arouse ! make dearth

óf saint and hero days ! let be forgot
All feast and folly tides ! so ye but spare
To consecratc one day to true fame's worthiest heir !

WILLIAM WHITMORE,

Leicester.

SONNET.

TO SIELLET.

Thou wronged and childlike spirit !-oft have I,
Enraptured, pondered o'er thy living page,
Then turned indignant to the bigot age, -
That basely on thy head heaped calumny,
And spat its sland'rous venom on thy name.
Thou loving heart and earnest !-it is well
For us, and for the world, that such have been,
Who dared to raise their voice above the swell
Of tyrant shouts,—despising scorn and shame.
How in thy bosom burned Truth's holy flame,
When mock religion in the church was seen!
Then came thy song resounding full and free,
In praise of justice, right, and liberty,-
Which yet shall win its meed--a deathless fame!

JOHN ALFRED LANGFORD.

Birmingham,

MORAL AND POLITICAL LESSONS OF

GULLIVER'S TRAVELS.'
An Oration ; delivered at the Literary Institution, John-Street, Fitzroy Square :

September 23rd, 1849.
BY THOMAS COOPER.

(Concluded from last number.) The third part of Gulliver relates his voyage to Laputa, Bainibarbi, Lugguag, and Glubbdubrib. Laputa, is the Flying Island, so famous for its philosophers wrapt up in the deepest speculations to such a degree that they had to be attended by servants with blown bladders, fastened like a flail to the end of a stick'—the bladders containing dried peas, or little pebbles, and being flapped across the mouths and cars of the philosophers, to arouse their attention when any one wished to speak with them. The abstractions of the great Newton, and the affected imitations of him by those who wished to be esteemed profoundly thoughtful-aro understood to be ridiculed in this whimsical portraiture. Many of the absurd conceptions of men of science in Swift's time are satirised in the picture of the fears of the philosophical in Laputa—such as "that the earth, by the continual approaches of the sun towards it, must in the course of time, be absorbed or swallowed up; that the face of the sun will, by degrees, be encrusted by its own effluvia, and give no more light to the world ; that the earth very narrowly escaped a brush from the tail of the last comet ; and that the next will probably destroy us.”.

In the island of Balnibarbi it is that Gulliver is admitted to the famous academy where speculators are engaged, some in endeavouring to extract sunbeams out of cucumbers, others in trying to convert something that shall be nameless into human food, others in striving to calcine ice into gunpowder, others in contriving how to build houses by beginning at the roof and working downwards, others in softening marble for pillows and pincushions, others in discovering the true way of sowing land with chaff for the growth of wheat-in brief these philosophers are bent on every kind of speculation that the wildest fancy could devise; and the account receives its finishing stroke of wit by the relation that one sage had contrived a machine for creating all the books that ever can be written or printed—and thus saving, for ever, the exertion of man's wit! Thus strangely, but significantly, did Swift turn into ridicule the pretended invention of quacks, by which the world has been so often befooled over a vast fund of entertainment in this third part: read it, for yourselves, and you will find it productive of much reflection.

The fourth and concluding part of Gulliver is usually held to be the most repulsive, but it really contains more solid instruction than any of the foregoing parts. The voyager here lands in the country of the Houyhnhnms, or intellectual horses. The horse, in this strange land, holds the same pre-eminence over other animals that man does in ours. The human being is a filthy inferior creature, and is called the Yahoo-a picture which gives fearful scope for the powers of Swift in describing the worst and most degraded features of humanity. This society of horses, the Houyhnhnmson the other hand, is a model of intelligence, virtue and propriety; and Gulliver, to the end of his life, acknowledges himself in debt to it for his improvement in morality. I often wonder that so little is said about this

I pass

part of Gulliver's Travels. It is more worth the perusal of a political lecturer than twenty books that could be named as celebrated for their political lessons. No modern Chartist ever uttered more withering satire upon the privileged classes than is to be found in Gulliver's eonversations with the intellectual horses. Time will not allow me to do more than quote one passage: it shall be that containing Gulliver's description of the Lawyers, and the closing remark of the Houyhnhnm, Gulliver's master:

" I said, there was a society of men among us, bred up from their youth in the art of proving, by words multiplied for the purpose, that white is black, and black is white, according as they are paid.' To this society all the rest of the people are slaves. For example, if my neighbour has a mind to my cow, he has a lawyer to prove that he ought to have my cow from me. I must then hire another to defend my right, it being against all rules of law that any man should be allowed to speak for himself. Now, in this case, I. who am the right owner, lie under two great advantages: first, my lawyer, being practised almost from his cradle in defending falsehood, is quite out of his element when he would be an advocate for justice, which is an unnatural office he always attempts with great awkwardness, if not with ill will. The second disadvantage is, that my lawyer must proceed with great caution, or else he will be reprimanded by the judges, and abhorred by his brethren, as one that would lessen the practice of the law. And therefore I have but two methods to save my cow. The first is, to gain over my adversary's lawyer with a double fee, who will then betray his client by insinuating that he has justice on his side. The second way is for my lawyer to make my cause appear as unjust as he can, by allowing the cow to belong to my adversary: and this, if it be skilfully done, will certainly bespeak the favour of the bench. Now your honour is to know, that these judges are persons appointed to decide all controversies of property, as well as for the trial of criminals, and picked out from the most dexterous lawyers, who have grown old or lazy; and having been biased all their lives against truth and equity, lie under such a fatal necessity of favouring fraud, perjury, and oppression, that I have known some of them refuse a large bribe from the side where justice lay, rather than injure the faculty, by doing anything unbecoming their nature or their office.

" It is a maxim among these lawyers, that whatever has been done before, may legally be done again ; and therefore they take special care to record all the decisions formerly made against common justice, and the general reason of mankind. These, under the name of precedents, they produce as authorities to justify the most iniquitous opinions; and the judges never fail of directing accordingly.

“In pleading, they studiously avoid entering into the merits of the cause; but are loud, violent, and tedious, in dwelling upon all circumstances which are not to the purpose. For instance, in the case already mentioned, they never desire to know what claim or title my adversary has to my cow; but whether the said cow were red or black; her horns long or short; whether the field I graze her in be round or square ; whether she was mllked at home or abroad; what diseases she is subject to, and the like; after which they consult precedents, adjourn the cause from time to time, and in ten, twenty, or thirty years, come to an issue.

" It is likewise to be observed, that this society has a peculiar cant and jargon of their own, that no other mortal can understand, and wherein all their laws are written, which they take special care to multiply; whereby they have wholly confounded the very essence of truth and falsehood, of right and wrong; so that it will take thirty years to decide, whether the field, left me by my ancestors for six generations, belongs to me, or to a stranger, three hundred miles off.

“In the trial of persons accused for crimes against the state, the method is much more short and commendable: the judge first sends to sound the disposition of those in power, after which he can easily hang or save a criminal, strictly preserving all due forms of law.

" Here my master interposing, said, “it was a pity, that creatures endowed with such prodigious abilities of mind, as these lawyers by the description I gave of them must certainly be, were not rather encouraged to be instructors of others in wisdom and knowledge.' in answer to which, I assured his honour, ‘that in all points out of their own trade, they were usually the inost ignorant and stupid generation among us; the most despicable in common conversation, avowed enemies to all knowledge and learning, and equally disposed to pervert the general reason of mankind, in every other subject of discourse, as in that of their own profession.'

The record of the life of Swift--for we must glance at it—is humiliating, when contrasted with the proofs of his subtle and penetrating understanding developed in this singular creation of his genius. He was an Irishman by

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