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Greek word voμa is singular; * and this blasphemous appellation is said to be upon all the seven

There is a various reading of ovóuara, names, which is supported by many great authorities, among which is the Codex Alexandrinus; but I believe the singular word voua to be the proper reading, as it is the generally received one, is supported by the ancient Coptic and Ethiopic versions, and is the one adopted in the English and French translations. Erasmus, in his elaborate edition of the New Testament, has ovoua. Bengel, in his very accurate edition, considers óvóμara an inferior reading; while, on the other hand, Harwood, Wetstein, and Griesbach, maintain that ovóμara is best supported by manuscripts. But what may be considered a very powerful evidence in favour of the common reading is the early comments upon it by Jerome and Prosper. Jerome, commenting upon St. Paul's words, "Et nunc quid detineat, scitis; ut reveletur in suo tempore," And now ye know what withholdeth, that he might be revealed in his own time, observes, "Nec vult apertè dicere Romanum imperium destruendum, quod ipsi qui imperant, æternum putant. Undè secundùm Apocalypsim Johannis, in fronte purpuratæ meretricis, scriptum est nomen blasphemiæ, id est, Romæ æternæ. Si enim apertè audacterque dixisset, non veniet Antichristus, nisi prius Romanum deleatur imperium, justa caussa persecutionis in orientem tunc Ecclesiam consurgere videbatur." Neither will he openly affirm that the Roman empire will be destroyed, because they who rule, consider it eternal. Whence, according to the Apocalypse of John, a name of blasphemy was written on the forehead of the scarlet whore, that is, the name of Roma æterna. For if he had openly and boldly said, that Antichrist will not come till the Roman empire was destroyed, a just cause of a persecution against the eastern church would at that time appear to be afforded. See his Works printed at Paris in 1706, Tom. IV. col. 209. I have not seen the work of Prosper; but Spanheim, speaking of the inscription of EA 'PQMH, which he so frequently met with on the ancient Greek

heads. In order, therefore, to determine what this name is, the meaning of the seven heads in this place must be ascertained. It has already been shewn that the heads of the Beast have a double signification; and as this is the first place where the heads have been mentioned with any description, it may be taken for granted that, that meaning which is the first mentioned in the angel's interpretation must be the one in this place. This is, "the seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman sitteth;" the name of blasphemy will, consequently, be found upon the seven electorates of Germany. That the order in which the angel explained the double meaning of the heads must be designed to illustrate the thirteenth chapter in the manner already asserted, appears evident from the want of chronological arrangement in the two expositions; for the forms of government were previous to the electorates of Germany, and would have doubtless been explained first, had not the

coins, and considers as the name of blasphemy mentioned in the Apocalypse, observes, "Quo autem referendum mihi videtur illud nomen blasphemiæ, quod septem capitibus inscriptum gestasse legitur bestia in sacro Revelationum libro, et quod Hieronymus ac Prosper ad urbis æternæ appellationem retulerunt." To which inscription that name of blasphemy appears to me to refer, which we read in the sacred book of the Revelations, that the beast had inscribed upon his seven heads, and which Jerome and Prosper have applied to the appellation of urbs æterna (eternal city). See Spanhemii Dissert. Tertia de Præstant. et Usu Numm. Ant. Sect. 3, p. 138, Vol. I.-Bishop Newton on the Prophecies, in loc. and Dr. Hammond, in Apoc. xiii. 1.

perfect understanding of every thing spoken relative to the heads, rendered a different arrangement necessary. As the name of blasphemy must be, therefore, upon the seven electorates of Germany it will not be difficult to determine what this name is. And this will soon be resolved by considering that the seven electorates comprise the seven principal powers of the German empire. Consequently, as the name of blasphemy is common to these seven, it can, therefore, be no other than that which was also common to the whole 'empire, or that well-known one of, SACRUM Imperium Romanum,

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The SACRED (or HOLY) Roman empire." Here is a sacred appellation blasphemed by its application to the head-power of the Beast. No kingdom can be properly called holy but that of Jesus; therefore it would be blasphemy to unite this epithet with any other power; but it must be horridly blasphemous to apply it to the German empire, the grand supporter of Antichrist from his very rise to temporal authority. Can that empire be sacred which has killed the saints, which has professed and supported with all its might an idolatrous system of worship? It is impossible. Therefore its assumption of sacred, or holy, is, in the highest sense the words can be taken, "a name of blasphemy." But it is not the imperial family alone which has so denominated their empire; the whole of Europe have agreed in the appellation. The word sacrum has been understood in the same sense with sanctum; and Sacrum Imperium Roma

num has been translated into the various languages of Europe in the same manner as if it were Sanctum Imperium Romanum. In the public state instruments of the Dutch, the Roman empire of Germany is called holy, as is evident in the treaty and agreement between Wenceslaus and Joan, duke and duchess of Brabant, and Louis count of Flanders, concerning Antwerp and its dependencies, drawn up on the 20th of March, 1357. The words are the following: "Wencelaus van Behem by der gratien Gods Hortoghe, ende Johanne by der selver gratien Hertoginne van Lucembourg, van Lotrijke, van Brabant, van Lymborch, Marckgreve des Heylichs Rijcks;" that is, "Wenceslaus of Bohemia, by the grace of God Duke, and Joan by the same grace Duchess of Luxembourg, Lorraine, Brabant, and Limbourg, marcgrave of the Holy empire."* The French have called it, Le Saint Empire Romain, (The Holy Roman empire; †) and the English translation of Sacrum Imperium Romanum, in the Golden Bull of Charles IV. of 1356, is The Holy Roman empire; ‡ + and Chambers tells us that "the empire of Germany is called in juridical acts and laws, the Holy Roman empire, S. R. I. q. d. Sacrum Imperium Roma

* See M. J. Dumont's Corps Universel Diplomatique, Tom: I. p. 328, Amsterdam, and Hague, 1726.

+ See Dumont's Corps Diplomatique.

See Modern Universal History, Vol. XXX. pp. 481-518, Edit. 8vo, London, 1761.

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num. Even the Germans themselves have so called it, as is evident in the following sentences: "Die vier graven desz heiligen Romischen reichs," that is, the four graves of the Holy Roman empire; † "Des heiligen Romischen reichs hoffegraven," counts of the house of the Holy Roman empire. The name of blasphemy is very properly said to be upon the seven heads of the Beast, or seven electorates of the German empire, because the electors are styled Sacri Imperii Principes Electores, § (Princes, Electors of the Holy empire,) Sacri Romani Imperii Electores, || (Electors of the Sacred or Holy Roman empire,). The propriety is still further evident, because each elector held some office named after the empire. Thus the archbishop of Mentz was, Sacri Imperii per Germaniam Archicancellarius, I (archchancellor of the Holy empire in Germany;) the archbishop of Triers was, Sacri Imperii per Galliam et regnum Arelatense archicancellarius, ** (archchancellor of the Holy empire among the Gauls, and in the kingdom of Arles;) the archbishop of Cologne was, Sacri Imperii per Italiam archicancellarius, †† (archchancellor of the Holy empire in Italy ;) the

*See his Dictionary on the word Empire, and also Rees' Cyclopædia.

+ See Selden's Works, Vol. III. Tom. I. Col. 434. Ibid. Col. 449.

§ See Dumont's Corps Diplomatique, Tom. I. p. 308.

|| Ibid. p. 312.

¶ Ib. p. 307.

** Ib.

P. 306.

++ Ibid.

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