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ported by the people. The members were reelected, after the most cutting criticisms of the Governor and Council, by undiminished majorities, in open elections. The Friends were now in a small minority of the population, but during all this time they had three-fourths of the Assembly. They could afford to refer their critics to their constituents with confidence. motives could we possibly have for judging amiss? Have we not also estates and families in the Province ?... Have not divers of our fathers and some of our grandfathers been of the first settlers ?

If we have committed any mistakes the time draws near in which our constituents, if they think it necessary, may amend their choice. And the time also draws nigh in which your (the Council's) mistakes may be amended by a succeeding governor. Permit us to congratulate our country

scientious about bcaring arms.*

He evidently did not expect much. “As I am well acquainted with their religious scruples I never expected they would appropriate money for the purpose of war or warlike preparation, but thought they might have been brought to make a handsome grant for the King's use, and have left the disposition of it to me, as they have done on other occasions of like nature,” + he wrote to Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia. “But,” a few months later he added, “I can sec nothing to prevent this very fine Province, owing to the absurdity of its constitution and the principles of the governing part of its inhabitants, from being an easy prey to the attempts of the common enemy.”+

This was after the Assembly had voted £10,000, but coupled the grant with conditions the Governor would not accept.

While they were debating the question Braddock came into the country as commander of the combined forces in an expedition against Fort DuQuesne.

Pressure came down strong and heavy on the Quaker Assembly. Their

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on both."*

In 1754 the Governor, at the instance of the Proprietors, who anticipated the French and Indian troubles on the western frontier, endeavored to induce the Assembly to pass a bill for compulsory military service for those not con

*“ Pennsylvania Archives," Vol. II., page 189. +“ Colonial Records," Vol. VI., page 2. * Ibid., page 49.

• Colonial Records," Vol. V., page 342.

own frontier was invaded. Their own Indians, as a result of the wicked and foolish policy of their executive, were in league with the invaders. All classes were excited. To aid the great expedition which at one stroke was to break the French power and close the troubles was felt to be a duty. Franklin diligently fanned the warlike spirit, procuring wagons for the transfer of ariny stores, and was extremely valuable to the expedition at some cost to himself.

The Governor wrote to Braddock telling him they had a Province of 300,000 people, provisions enough to supply an army of 100,000, and exports enough to keep 500 vessels einployed. They had no taxes, a revenue of £7,000 a year and £15,000 in bank, yet would neither establish a militia nor vote men money or provisions, notwithstanding he had earnestly labored with the Assembly, and he was ashamed of them. IIe does not explain that they had repeatedly offered sums of money, but that he would not accept the conditions. As Braddock himself admitted, Pennsylvania had supported him quite as liberal. ly as Virginia. This was partly done by private enterprise and partly by appropriations of the Assembly, to reward friendly Indians, to open a road to Ohio, and to provision the troops.

Braddock was defeated. The Indians were let loose on the frontiers. Daily accounts of harrowing scenes came up to the Council and Assembly. * Settlers inoved into the towns and many districts were depopulated. Strong were the expressions of wrath against the Quakers, who were held responsible for the defenceless state of the Province.t

This was hardly a just charge, even from the standpoint of those who favored military defence, for the Assembly had signified its willingness to vote £50,000, an unprecedented amount, to be provided by “a tas on all the real and personal estates within the Province," which the Governor refused to accept. While the matter was in abeyance the time for the new election of Assemblymen came around, and both partics, except the stricter Quakers, who were becoming alarmed, put forth their greatest exertions. The old Assembly was sustained, the Friends, with those closely associated with them, having twenty-six out of the thirty-six members.

* Votes of Assembly, Vol. IV., pages 481, 699.

+ The people exclaim against the Quakers, and some are scarce restrained from burning the houses of those few who are in this town (Reading).-Letter of Edmund Biddle, “ Colonial Records," Vol. VI., page 705.

The new House went on with the work of the old. They adopted a militia law for those“ willing and desirous ” of joining companies for the defence of the Province. This is prefaced by the usual declaration : “Whereas this Province was settled (and a majority of the Assembly have ever since been) of the people called Quakers, who though they do not as the world is now circumstanced condemn the use of arms in others, yet are principled against bearing arms themselves,"* explaining also that they are representatives of the Province and not of a denomination, they proceed to lay down rules for the organization of the volunteers. After the Proprietors had given their £5,000 the Assembly also voted £55,000 for the relief of friendly Indians and distressed frontiersmen, “and other purposes,” without any disguise to the fact that much of it was intended for military defence, though it was not so stated in the bill. Before this was done, while they were still insisting on taxing the Penn estates, in answer to the charge that they were neglectful of public interests, secure in the confidence of their constituents just most liberally given, they say : “In fine we have the most sensible concern for the poor

distressed inhabitants of the frontiers. We have taken every step in our power, consistent with the just rights of the freemen of Pennsylvania, for their relief, and we have reason to believo that in the midst of their distresses they themselves do not wish to go further. Those who would give up essential liberty to purchase a litlle temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety.* Their position definitely was, We will vote money liberally for defensive purposes, but we will take card to secure our rights as freemen, and we will not require any one to give personal service against his conscience.

The money was largely spent in erecting and garrisoning a chain of forts extending along the Kittatinny hills from the Delaware River to the Maryland frontier.*

The amount of defense the Assembly had provided, while probably expressing the will of their constituents, did not satisfy the more peaceloving of the Friends on the one hand, nor the advocates of proprietary interests on the other.

In Eleventh month 1755 twenty Friends, including Anthony Morris, Israel and John Pem

* Votes of Assembly, Vol. IV., page 501.

* “ Pennsylvania Magazine," July, 1896. “ The Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania."

Dr. Stille on

• " Pennsylvania Archives," Vol. I., page 516.

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