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With such a companion well might Anne say, that she never slept one quiet hour. MAL.
P. 100-the enemy is pass'd the marsh;] There was a large marsh in Bosworth plain between the two armies. Henry passed it, and made such a disposition of his forces that it served to protect his right wing. By this movement he gained also another point, that his men should engage with the sun behind them, and in the faces of his enemies: matter of great consequence when bows and arrows were in use.
P. 102. Now civil wounds are stopp'd,] Summary Account of the times and places of the several battles fought between the Houses of York and Lancaster.
1. Battle of Saint Albans, 23 May 1455, between Richard Plantagenet duke of York and king Henry VI. York victorious, Henry taken prisoner. Killed on the royal side, 5041: on York's side 600. Total 5641.
2. Battle of Bloarheath in Shropshire, 30 September 1459, between James lord Audley on the part of king Henry, and Richard Nevil earl of Salisbury on the part of the duke of York. Lord Audley slain, and his army defeated. Killed 2411.
3. Battle of Northampton, 20 July 1460, between Edward Plantagenet, earl of March, eldest son of the duke of York, and Richard Nevil earl of Warwick on the one side, and king Henry on the other. Yorkists victorious. Killed 1035.
4. Battle of Wakefield, 30 December 1460, between Rich ard duke of York and queen Margaret. Duke of York slain, and his army defeated; Richard Nevil earl of Salisbury taken prisoner, and afterwards beheaded at Pomfret. Killed 2801.
5. Battle of Mortimer's Cross in Herefordshire, on Candlemasday 1460-1, between Edward duke of York on the one side, and Jasper earl of Pembroke and James Butler earl of Wiltshire on the other. Duke of York victorious. Killed 3800.
6. Second Battle of Saint Albans, 17 February 1460-1, between queen Margaret on the one side, and the duke of Norfolk and the earl of Warwick on the other. The queen victo rious. Sir Richard Grey, a Lancastrian, slain, whose widow. afterwards married king Edward IV. Killed 2303.
7. Action at Ferrybridge in Yorkshire, 28 March 1461, between lord Clifford on the part of king Henry, and lord Fitzwalter on the part of the duke of York. Lord Fitzwalter and John lord Clifford slain. Killed 230.
8. Battle of Towton four miles from York, Palm-sunday, 29 March, 1461, between Edward duke of York and king Henry. King Henry defeated. Henry Percy earl of Northumberland. slain. Killed 37,046.
9. Battle of Hedgeley Moor in Northumberland, 29 April 1463, between John Nevil viscount Montague on the part of king Edward IV. and the lords Hungerford and Roos on the part of Henry VI. The Yorkists victorious. Killed 108.
10. Battle of Hexham, 15 May 1463, between viscount Montague and King Henry. The king defeated. Lords Roos and Hungerford taken prisoners, and afterwards beheaded. Killed 2024.
11. Battle of Hedgecote four miles from Banbury, 25 July 1469, between William Herbert earl of Pembroke on the part of king Edward, and the lords Fitzburg and Latimer and sir John Conyers on the part of king Henry. The Lancastrians defeated. Killed 5009.
12. Battle of Stamford in Lincolnshire, 1 Oct. 1469, between sir Robert Wells and king Edward; in which the former was defeated and taken prisoner. The vanquished who fled, in order to lighten themselves threw away their coats, whence the place of combat was called Losecoatfield. Killed 10,000.
14. Battle of Barnet, on Easter-sunday, 14 April, 1471, between king Edward on the one side, and the earl of Warwick, the Marquis of Montague, and the earl of Oxford on the part of King Henry. The Lancastrians defeated; the earl of Warwick and the marquis of Montague slain. Killed 10,300.
15. Battle of Tewksbury, 3 May 1471, between king Edward and queen Margaret. The queen defeated, and she and her son prince Edward taken prisoners. On the next day the prince was murdered by king Edward and his brothers. Killed 3,032. Shortly afterwards, in an action between the bastard son of lord Falconbridge and some Londoners, 1092 persons were killed.
16. Battle of Bosworth in Leicestershire, 22 August 1485, between king Richard III. and Henry earl of Richmond, afterwards king Henry VII. Richard defeated and slain. Killed on the part of Richard, 4,013; on the part of Richmond, 181. The total number of persons who fell in the contest between the Houses of York and Lancaster was Ninety-one Thousand and Twenty-six. MAL..
KING HENRY VIII.
P. 11. Have broke their backs with laying manors on them] So in King John :
"Rash, inconsiderate, fiery voluntaries,
"Have sold their fortunes at their native homes,
Again, in Camden's Remains, 1605:
"There was a
nobleman merrily conceited, and riotously given, that having lately sold a manor of an hundred tenements, came ruffling into the court, saying, am not I a mighty man that bear an hundred houses on my backe ?"
P. 23. Leave these remnants
of fool, and feather] This does not allude to the feathers anciently worn in the hats and caps of our countrymen, (a circumstance to which no ridicule could justly belong,) but to an effeminate fashion recorded in Greene's Farewell to Folly, 1617 from whence it appears that even young gentlemen carried fans of feathers in their hands: -we strive to be counted womanish, by keeping of beauty, by curling the hair, by wearing plumes of feathers in our hands, which in wars, our ancestors wore on their heads."
The text may receive illustration from a passage in Nashe's Life of Iacke Wilton, 1594: "At that time [viz. in the court of King Henry VIII.] I was no common squire, no undertroden torch-bearer, I had my feather in my cap as big as a flag in the foretop, my French doublet gelte in the belly, as though (lyke a pig readie to be spitted) all my guts had been pluckt out, a paire of side paned hose that hung down like two scales filled with Holland cheeses, my long stock that sate close to my dock, my rapier pendant like a round sticke, &c. my blacke cloake of blacke cloth, ouerspreading my backe lyke a thornbacke or an elephantes eare ;-and in consummation of my curiositie, my handes without gloves,all a more French,"&c. RITSON.
P. 24. My barge stays;] The speaker is now in the King's palace at Bridewell, from which he is proceeding by water to York-place, (Cardinal Wolsey's house,) now Whitehall.
P.28.a little heated.] The King, on being discovered and desired by Wolsey to take his place, said that he would "first go and shift him and thereupon, went into the Cardinal's bedchamber, where was a great fire prepared for him, and there he new appareled himselfe with rich and princely garments. And in the king's absence the dishes of the banquet were cleane taken away, and the tables covered with new and perfumed clothes.-Then the king took his seat under the cloath of estate, commanding every person to sit still as before; and then came in a new banquet before his majestie of two hundred dishes, and so they passed the night in banqueting and dancing until morning." Cavendish's Life of Wolsey. MAL.
P. 39. You'd venture an emballing] You would venture to be distinguished by the ball, the ensign of royalty. JOH
The Old Lady's jocularity, I am afraid, carries her beyond the bounds of decorum; but her quibbling allusion is more easily comprehended than explained. RITSON..
P. 60. To Asher-house, my lord of Winchester's,] Shakspeare forgot that Wolsey was himself Bishop of Winchester, unless he meant to say, you must confine yourself to that house which you possess as Bishop of Winchester. Asher, near Hampton-Court, was one of the houses belonging to that bishoprick. MAL.
Fox, Bishop of Winchester, died Sept. 14, 1528, and Wolsey held this see in commendam. Esher therefore was his own house. REED.
P.64. Or gild again the noble troops that waited
Upon my smiles.] The number of persons who composed Cardinal Wolsey's household, was one hundred and eighty. MAL.
P. 72. Ipswich,] "The foundation-stone of the College which the Cardinal founded in this place, was discovered a few years ago. It is now in the Chapter-house of ChristChurch, Oxford." Seward's Anecdotes of distinguished Persons, &c. 1795.
P. 73. go to, kneel.] Queen Katharine's servants, after the divorce at Dunstable, and the Pope's curse stuck up at Dunkirk, were directed to be sworn to serve her not as a Queen, but as Princess Dowager. Some refused to take the oath, and so were forced to leave her service; and as for those who took it and stayed, she would not be served by them, by which means she was slmost destitute of attendants. See Hall, fol. 219. Bishop Burnet says, all the women about her still called her Queen. Burnet, p. 162.
P. 74. This to my lord the king] This letter probably fell into the hands of Polydore Virgil, who was then in England, and has preserved it in the twenty-seventh book of his history. The following is Lord Herbert's translation of it:
"My most dear lord, king, and husband,
"The hour of my death now approaching, I cannot choose but, out of the love I bear you, advise you of your soul's health, which you ought to prefer before all considerations of the world or flesh whatsoever for which yet you have cast me into many calamities, and yourself into many troubles.But I forgive you all, and pray God to do so likewise. For the rest, I commend unto you Mary our daughter, beseeching you to be a good father to her, as I have heretofore desired. I must entreat you also to respect my maids, and give them
in marriage, (which is not much, they being but three,) and to all my other servants a years pay besides their due, lest otherwise they should be unprovided for. Lastly, I make this vow, that mine eyes desire you above all things. Farewell." MAL.
The legal instrument for the divorce of Queen Katharine is still in being; and among the signatures to it is that of Polydore Virgil. STE.
P. 82. Chan. Speak to the business,] In the preceding scene we have heard of the birth of Elizabeth, and from the conclusion of the present it appears that she is not yet christened. She was born September 7, 1533, and baptized on the 11th of the same month. Cardinal Wolsey was Chancellor of England from September 7, 1516, to the 25th of October, 1530, on which day the seals were given to Sir Thomas More. He held them till the 20th of May, 1533, when Sir Thomas Audley was appointed Lord Keeper. He therefore is the person here introduced; but Shakspeare has made a mistake in calling him Lord Chancellor, for he did not obtain that title till the January after the birth of Elizabeth.
P. 30. in Galen] An anachronism of near 650 years. Menenius flourished Anno U. C. 260, about 492 years before the birth of our Saviour. Galen was born in the year of our Lord 130, flourished about the year 155 or 160, and lived to the year 200.
―empiricutick,] The old copies-empirickqutique. most sovereign prescription in Galen (says Menenius) is to this news but empiricutick: an adjective evidently formed by the author from empiric (empirique, Fr.) a quack." RITSON.
TROILUS AND CRESSIDA.
P. 29. though you bite so sharp at reasons, &c.] Here is a wretched quibble between reasons and raisins, which, in Shakspeare's time, were, I believe, pronounced alike. Dogberry, in Much Ado about Nothing, plays upon the same words: "If Justice cannot tame you, she shall never weigh more reasons in her balance." And Falstaff says, "If reasons were as plenty as blackberries, I would give no man a reason upon compulsion, I." MAL.
P. 80. How the devil luxury, with his fat rump, and potatoe finger, tickles these together.] Luxuria was the appropriate