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teries of their artillery, also, were slept that night conquerors on a field won brought up and opened. It became by their valor, and covered with the evident that our force was not sufficient dead and wounded of the enemy. The to enable the advance to reach the town, night, however, presented serious quesand the order was given to retire to the tions ; morning brought on grave responcover of the hill, which was taken from sibilities. To renew the attack again on the enemy earlier in the afternoon. This the 18th, or to defer it, with the chance movement was effected without confusion, of the enemy's retirement after a day of and the position maintained until the ene- suspense, were the questions before me. my retreated. General Burnside had | A careful and anxious survey of the consent to me for reinforcements late in the dition of my command, and my knowafternoon, but the condition of things on ledge of the enemy's force and position, the right was not such as to enable me to failed to impress me with any reasonable afford them. During the whole day our certainty of success, if I renewed the atartillery was everywhere bravely and tack without reinforcing columns. A ably handled. Indeed, I cannot speak view of the shattered state of some of too highly of the efficiency of our bat- the corps sufficed to deter me from pressteries, and of the great service they ren- ing them into immediate action, and I dered. On more than one occasion, when felt that my duty to the army and the our infantry was broken, they covered country forbade the risks involved in a its reformation, and drove back the ene- basty movement, which might result in my. The cavalry had little field for the loss of what had been gained the operations during the engagement, but previous day. Impelled by this considwas employed in supporting the horse eration, I awaited the arrival of my reartillery batteries in the centre, and in inforceinents, taking advantage of the driving up stragglers, while awaiting op- occasion to collect together the dispersportunity for other service. The signaled, give rest to the fatigued, and remove corps, under Major Myers, rendered dur- the wounded. Of the reinforcements, ing the operations at Antietam, as at South Couch's division, although marching withi Mountain, and during the whole move- commendable rapidity, was not in posiments of the army, efficient and valuable tion until a late hour in the morning ; service. Indeed, by its services here, and Humphrey's division of new troops, as on other fields elsewhere, this corps fatigued with forced marches, were arhas gallantly earned its title to an inde- riving throughout the day, but were not pendent and permanent organization. available until near its close. Large reThe duties devolving upon my staff inforcements from Pennsylvania, which during the action were most important, were expected during the day, did not and the performances of them able and arrive at all. During the 18th, orders untiring.
were given for a renewal of the attack " With the day closed this memorable at daylight on the 19th. On the night battle, in which, perhaps, nearly 200,000 of the 18th, the enemy, after having men were for fourteen hours engaged in been passing troops in the latter part of combat. We had attacked the enemy in the day from the Virginia shore to their position, driven them from their line on position behind Sharpsburg, as seen by one flank, and secured a footing within our officers, suddenly formed the design it on the other. Under the depression of abandoning their line. This moveof previous reverses, we had achieved a ment they executed before daylight. Bevictory over an adversary invested with ing but a short distance from the river, the prestige of former successes and in- the evacuation presented but little diffiflated with a recent triumph. Our forces culty. It was, however, rapidly followed up. A reconnoissance was made across army fresh from a recent, and to them the river on the evening of the 19th, a great victory, and to reap the disadwhich resulted in ascertaining the near vantages of their being freshly and presence of the enemy in some force, plentifully supplied with ammunition and in our capturing six guns. A sec- and supplies. The object and results ond reconnoissance, the next morning, of this brief campaign may be summed which, with the first, was made by a up as follows: In the beginning of the small detachment from Porter's corps, month of September, the safety of the resulted in observing a heavy force of National Capital was seriously endanthe enemy there. The detachment with-gered by the presence of a victorious drew with slight loss. The enemy's loss enemy, who soon after crossed into is believed, from the best sources of in- Maryland, and then directly threatened formation, to be nearly 30,000. Their Washington and Baltimore, while they dead were mostly left on the field, and a occupied the soil of a loyal state, and large number of wounded were left be-threatened an invasion of Pennsylvania. hind.
| The army of the Union, inferior in num“While it gives me pleasure to speak bers, wearied by long marches, deficient of the gallantry and devotion of officers in various supplies, worn out by numand men, generally displayed through erous battles, the last of which had this conflict, I feel it necessary to men- not been successful, first covered, by tion that some officers and men skulked its movements, the important cities of
battle was over. Death on the spot attacked the victorious enemy in their must hereafter be the fate of all such chosen strong position, and drove them cowards, and the hands of the military back, with all their superiority of noncommanders must be strengthened with bers, into the State of Virginia ; thus
lict it summarily. The early and dis- aud rudely dispelling the rebel dreams graceful surrender of Harper's Ferry of carrying the war into our country and deprived my operations of results which suvsisting upon our resources. Thirteen would have formed a brilliant sequence guns and thirty-nine colors, more than to the substantial and gratifying success fifteen thousand stand of small arms, and already related. Had the garrison held more than six thousand prisoners, were out twenty-four hours longer, I should, the trophies which attest the success of in all probability, have captured that our arms. Rendering thanks to Divine part of the enemy's force engaged in the Providence for its blessing upon our exattack on the Maryland Heights, while ertions, I close this brief report. I beg the whole garrison, some 12,000 strong, only to add the hope that the army's could have been drawn to reinforce me efforts for the cause in which we are enon the day of the decisive battle-cer-gazed will be deemed worthy to receive tainly on the morning of the 18th. I the commendation of the government would thus have been in position to have and the country."* destroyed the rebel army. Under the The Union loss in the several battles same circumstances, had the besieging on South Mountain and at Antietam, acforce on the Virginia side at Harper's cording to the report of General HalFerry not been withdrawn, I would have leck, was 1,742 killed, 8,066 wounded, had 35,000 or 40,000 less men to en
* Preliminary Report of military operations since the counter at Antietam, and must have
evacuation of Harrison's Landing. Major-General McClellan to Brigadier-General Thomas, Adjutant-General
United States Army. Headquarters Army of the Potome. As it was, I bad to engage an mac, October 15 : 362.
and 913 missing, making a total of 10,- first encountered the enemy in Maryland 721. General McClellan's dispatch, until he was driven back into Virginia dated near Sharpsburg, September 29th, we captured thirteen guns, seven caismade the return "at South Mountain, 443 sons, nine limbers, two field forges, two dead, 1,806 wounded, and 76 missing ; i caisson bodies, thirty-nine colors and one at Antietam, 2,010 killed, 9,416 wound- singal flag. We have not lost a single ed, and 1,043 missing-a total loss in 'gun or a color. On the battlefield of Anthe two battles of 14,794. The loss of tietam 14,000 small arms were collected, the rebels in the two battles, as near as besides the large number carried off by can be ascertained from the number of citizens and those distributed on the their dead found upon the field, and from ground to recruits and other unarmed other data,” says the same authority, “will men arriving immediately after the batnot fall short of the following estimate : tle. At South Mountain no collection of Major Davis, assistant inspector-general, small arms was made, but owing to the who superintends the burial of the dead, haste of the pursuit from that point, 400 reports about 3,000 rebels buried upon were taken on the opposite side of the the field of Antietam by our troops. Potomac.” Previous to this, however, the rebels had A congratulatory order by General buried many of their own dead upon the McClellan, on the 3d of October, condistant portion of the battlefield, which firms these statements of spoils taken they occupied after the battle-probably from the enemy, and pays an honorable at least 500. - The loss of the rebels at tribute to the corps commanders and the South Mountain cannot be ascertained army. “The commanding-general exwith accuracy, but as our troops con- tends his congratulations to the army tinually drove them from the commence- under his command for the victories ment of the action, and as a much great achieved by their bravery at the passes er number of their dead were seen on of the South Mountain and upon the Anthe field than of our own men, it is not tietam creek. The brilliant conduct of unreasonable to suppose that their loss Reno's and Hooker's corps under Burnwas greater than ours. Estimating their side, at Turner's Gap, and of Franklin's killed at 500, the total rebels killed in corps at Crampton Pass, in which, in the the two battles would be 4,000. Ac- face of an enemy strong in position and cording to the ratio of our own killed resisting with obstinacy, they carried the and wounded, this would make their loss mountain, and prepared the way for the in wounded 18,742. As nearly as can advance of the army, won for them the be determined at this time, the number admiration of their brethren in arms. of prisoners taken by our troops in the In the memorable battle of Antietam we two battles will, at the lowest estimate, defeated a numerous and powerful army amount to 5,000. The full returns will of the enemy, in an action desperately no doubt show a larger number. Of fought, and remarkable for its duration, these about 1,200 are wounded. This and for the destruction of life which atgives a rebel loss in killed, wounded and tended it. The obstinate bravery of the prisoners of 25,542. It will be observed troops of Hooker, Mansfield and Sumthat this does not include their stray- ner, the dashing gallantry of those of glers, the number of whom is said by Franklin on the right, the steady valor citizens here to be large. It may be of those of Burnside on the left, and the safely concluded, therefore, that the re- vigorous support of Porter and Pleasbel army lost at least 30,000 of their anton, present a brilliant spectacle to best troops. From the time our troops our countrymen, which will swell their * Report of General Halleck, December, 1862.
hearts with pride and exultation. Four
teen guns, thirty-nine colors, 15,500 placed in charge of the fortifications at stand of arms, and nearly 6,000 pris- Washington. He was in command at oners, taken from the enemy, are evi- Hatteras shortly after its capture, took dence of the completeness of our tri- part in the occupation of Norfolk, and umph. A grateful country will thank was Military Governor at Suffolk, Va. the noble army for achievements which in the battle at Antietam he commanded have rescued the loyal states of the East the corps previously under General from the ravages of the invader and Banks. driven him from their borders. While General Reno, who fell on the 14th, at rejoicing at the victories which, under the battle of South Mountain, had passed God's blessing, have crowned our exer- a life of steady usefulness. A native of tions, let us cherish the memory of our Virginia, he had entered West Point brave comrades who have laid down from Pennsylvania ; graduated in 1846 ; their lives upon the battlefield, martyrs was appointed Second Lieutenant of Ordin their country's cause. Their names nance, and continued in the discharge of will be enshrined in the hearts of the various duties of that service and the people.”
coast survey till the rebellion brought Among the Confederate losses was him into the field as Brigadier-General Brigadier-General Lawrence O'Brien of Volunteers. His gallant services with Branch, of North Carolina, who, it will General Burnside, at Roanoke, Newbern, be remembered, was in command of the and elsewhere, will be remembered by Confederate forces at Newbern, on the the reader. Summoned from North capture of that place.* General Starke, Carolina to the army of the Potomac, he of Mississippi, was also killed. Six had fought in the campaign with Pope, brigadier-generals, Anderson and Ran- and was now called to meet death on the some, of North Carolina ; Wright and field in the moment of victory. Lawton, of Georgia ; Armistead, of Vir- Brigadier-General Isaac Peace Rodginia ; Ripley, of South Carolina, and man, of Rhode Island, also a hero of Roother officers in proportion, were report- anoke Island and Newbern, was another ed wounded. The Union success in the of the victims of Antietam. Educated overthrow of the army of invasion, as we to mercantile pursuits, as a woollen manuhave seen, had its full price. The num- facturer, he had entered the service as ber of field and general officers in the Captain of Colonel Slocum's 2d Rhode terrible bill of mortality-whether ten Island regiment. After his gallant seror fifteen thousand—bears witness to the vices in North Carolina which gained him fearful nature of the conflict. Of the his promotion, he had been compelled to officers who fell, we have seen Generals return home by an attack of fever, reMansfield and Reno in active occupation joining General Burnside in Virginia to since the beginning of the war. The for- take part in the campaigns of Pope and mer, in his fifty-ninth year, was one of the McClellan. He had just completed his veterans of the service. Born in New fortieth year. Haven, Conn., he had passed through Major-General Israel B. Richardson, West Point with singular credit ; entered died of wounds received in the battle of the Engineers ; served with distinction Antietam, at Sbarpsburg, on the following in the Mexican war, being severely November. A native of Burlington, Vt., wounded at Monterey, and brevetted he graduated at West Point in 1841, 2d Colonel for his gallantry at Buena Vista ; | Lieutenant in the 3d Infantry. Emiuently and at the breaking out of the rebellion distinguished by his valor in the Mexican was created Brigadier-General and war, he was brevetted Captain for his * Ante, p. 320-821.
gallantry at Contreras and Cherubusco,
and Major for his services at Chapulte-noble character. On the breaking out pec. Resigning his commission in 1855, of the war he forsook his profession, he settled as a farmer in Michigan, to be came to Berkshire in Massachusetts, his recalled to arms by the rebellion, and re- native place, joined a regiment raised join the service as Colonel of the 2d there, and gave bis services and his life, regiment of volunteers from his adopted if necessary, to the cause of his country. State. He was in the first list of Briga- His life was required of him. Those dier appointments, dating from May, who sorrow for his death have at least the 1861; will be remembered for the emi- mitigation of reflecting that he died in a nent part he bore in the battles of Bull great, just and holy cause. The sweet Run, and for his services on the Penin- but somewhat fantastic lines of Collins sula, at Fair Oaks, and the retreat to have yet a profound truth in them, and Harrison's Landing, which gained him his haunt the mind like a strain of unearthly Major-Generalship. When he met his music : death at Antietam, “be was leading a
“How sleep the brave who sink to rest regiment that had shown signs of waver
By all their country's wishes blest! ing, under a fierce artillery fire, when a
When Spring with dewy fingers cold,
Returns to deck their hallowed mould, shell, bursting, struck him in the left
She there shall dress a sweeter sod breast, and his Aid bore him from the Than fancy's feet have ever trod. field. "Tell General McClellan,' said “By fairy hands their knell is rung; he, that I have been doing a Colonel's By forms unseen their dirge is sung;
There Honor comes, a pilgrim gray, work all day, and am now too badly
To deck the turf that wraps their clay ; hurt to do a General's.''**
And Freedom shall a while repair, We might multiply this list with the To dwell, a weeping hermit, there." names of Colonel Kingsbury, of Connec- At the funeral of Major Sedgwick at ticut ; Crossdale, Childs and McNeill, of the family home at Lenox, the Rev. Dr. Pennsylvania ; Hinks, of Massachusetts ; Dewey, after paying his tribute to the Coleman, of Ohio ; Lieutenant-Colonel worth of the deceased, improved the ocDwight, of Boston ; Captain Manross, who casion to arouse in his hearers a sense left à professor's chair of chemistry, at of the iniquity of the treason which had Amherst, for the field, and others, but brought them to the sad ceremonial. must close the sad record with a brief "Far from the battlefield," said he, obituary of an honored son of New Eng- " from the confused noise and garments land, from a friendly hand. “Major rolled in blood'-amidst the bills of New William Dwight Sedgwick,” says an edi. England, amidst the peaceful scenes of torial of the New York Evening Post, of his nativity, these precious remains are October 11, “who has just died of the now to be laid down to their last rest. wounds he received at the bloody battle Dwelling as I do amidst such peaceful of Antietam, was a member of the well- scenes, in the quiet and security of our known Massachusetts family of that name, Northern homes, un visited by the horrors eminent for its talent. On the mother's of war, I have been saying, with myself, side his intellectual inheritance was not for months past, 'It must strike deeper ! less remarkable, belonging, if our recol- the discipline must strike deeper before it lection serves us rightly, to the stock of accomplishes the end ; before this nation Jonathan Edwards, the illustrious meta- understands what God is teaching it; bephysician. He was settled in St. Louis, fore it awakes to its solemn trust of selfa young lawyer of high promise and government; before a due horror of trea
* Obituary, New York Times, November 6, 1862. son is stamped upon the national heart.''