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her. He has asked his government and Aggressions like these, in addition to the world to suspend public opinion un- the requisitions upon the national army, til his state should have one more oppor- demanded action from the state authoritunity to redeem her character; and ties. Governor Magoffin accordingly, on now, citizens of Kentucky, this oppor- the 28th of July, issued a proclamation tunity has presented itself, and for the summoning the general assembly to meet sake of your former fame and glory— at Fraåkfort on the 14th of August,“ to for your country - for your liberties, take into consideration the interests of which ought to be dearer to you than the commonwealth, as the same may be life itself-come to the field. Rally to involved or connected with the present your country's call. Rise in your ma- distracted state of our country." From jesty, and drive from your midst this this document it appears that owing to a monster of oppression. Then prepare conflict between the military board, fornow to meet the enemy; send the young merly created by the legislature, and the men to the field ; let them retrieve the Governor, the militia still remained uncharacter of this once proud and noble organized. “A civil conflict," said Mastate. Circulate through the country goffin, “is impending over us. I am that the Confederate government does without a soldier or a dollar to protect not war against the citizens of the coun- the lives, property and liberties of the try. Can you, with the example set by people, or to enforce the laws. Daily the people of the South, tamely submit? appeals are being made to me, as the They have, with heroic devotion, applied governor of the state, to protect our citthe torch to their property, and, with izens from marauding bands, and in the unparalleled unanimity, have they bat- : peaceful enjoyment of their property and tled for their country. Will you not rights under the constitution. I am left risk as much as they to achieve your without the power and means to afford freedom and independence ?" The dep- relief, and I am consequently left no alredations of the guerrillas, however, in ternative but to appeal to you, their repthe town and on the opposite bank of resentatives, in the hope that it will not the Ohio, in the plunder of a hospital at be in vain. Any attempt on my part to Newburg, in Indiana, were not calculat- organize a force for that purpose will ed to ingratiate the new government certainly but precipitate the evil, and I with the people, who speedily compelled therefore not unwillingly convene the these lawless assailants to retire from general assembly, that they may deterthe scene of their outrages. Russelville, mine themselves the extent of the authe capital of Logan county, southwest thority to be granted by them, and, lookof Bowling Green, was also, on the 29th , ing to the policy adopted in the state, of July, occupied by a band of guerril- and to the late action of Congress and las, who overpowered the home guard. the President touching slavery, provide The same day, in another quarter, the for the safety of our institutions and the citizens of Mount Sterling, the capital of peace and tranquillity of the commonMontgomery county, east of Lexington, wealth.” The Assembly was met by made a vigorous defence, under Provost Governor Magoffin with a further recital Marshal Evans, against a body of rebel as- of the necessities of the state, coupled sailants from Boone county, led by Col- with a recommendation of the old peace onel Bullett, who were again beaten on resolutions of Senator Crittenden in the their retreat by Major Brocht, provost closing Congress of President Buchanmarshal of Lexington, with a detach- an's administration. Shortly after the ment of the 18th Kentucky regiment, Governor resigned his office and the which had been in pursuit of them. Secretary of State, James F. Robinson,

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was placed by the Assembly in his by the enemy, who had cut off their restead.

treat. General Manson, who was taken The guerrilla movements in the state prisoner, in his report estimates his losses were at the end of August renewed in a approximately at two hundred killed, sevsuccessful attack upon an Indiana regi- en hundred wounded, and two thousand ment stationed at Bowling Green, simul- prisoners. Nine pieces of artillery fell taneously with a formidable advance of to the enemy. General Nelson, who a division of the rebel army under Gen- with the rough energy of his nature, ateral E. Kirby Smith, from his headquar- tempted to stem the tide of the unequal ters at Knoxville in east Tennessee. conflict, was wounded in the engageAfter a difficult march, General Smith ment, but made good bis escape. In a entered the fertile, blue-grass grazing dispatch to Adjutant-General Cooper, at region of Kentucky, and on the 29th of the Confederate capital, General Smith August appeared before Richmond, the thus announced his victory :-" It is my capital of Madison county, forty-eight great pleasure to announce to you that miles southeast of Frankfort, where God has thrice blessed our arms to-day. Brigadier-General Manson was in com- After a forced march, almost day and mand of an ill-provided, undisciplined night, for three days, over a mountain force, chiefly of newly raised Indiana wilderness, destitute alike of food and and Ohio regiments, of about 6,500 men. water, I found the enemy drawn up in The confederate veteran force, as re- force to oppose us, at a point eight miles ported by General Manson, consisted of from this place. With less than half my about 12,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry and force I attacked and carried a very fifteen pieces of artillery. On the ap- strong position at Mount Zion Church, proach of the enemy, General Manson after a very hard fight of two hours ; went forward with several Indiana regi- again, a still better position at White's ments, artillery, and a party of cavalry, Farm, in half an hour; and, finally, in to meet them, and choosing an advantage- this town, just before sunset, our indomous position, repulsed their cavalry ad- itable troops deliberately walked (they vance. The next day, the 30th, the were too tired to run up to a magnificonflict was resumed, a line of battle cent position manned by ten thousand was formed in the vicinity of Rogers- of the enemy, many of them perfectly ville, a few miles south of Richmond, fresh, and carried it in fifteen minutes. where General Manson with his Indiana It is impossible for me now to give you regiments, and General Cruft with his the exact results of these glorious batbrigade of Ohio and Kentucky troops, tles. Our loss is comparatively small; were attacked, outflanked, and driven that of the enemy, many hundred killed back by the enemy to a new position, and wounded, and several thousand prisfrom which they were again compelled oners. We have captured artillery, to retreat in confusion. It was now small arms and wagons. Indeed, every afternoon, and Major-General Nelson, thing indicates the almost entire annihithe division commander, hearing of the lation of this force of the enemy. In engagement, had arrived on the field, the first two battles they were comfrom Lexington. A third effort was manded by General Manson ; the last now made to withstand the enemy at by General Nelson.” the cemetery in the vicinity of Rich- This success of the enemy compelled mond, with no better fortune than the the legislature at Frankfort to seek safeothers. Thoroughly routed, the demor- ty in flight. On the receipt of news of alized Union troops pursued their way the disaster, on Sunday the 31st, the toward Lexington to be again defeated day after the engagement, a session was held in the evening, when it was at to your own right arm and the God of once determined to adjourn to Louisville, battle, and the foe will be driven back, whither the public archives and the spe- discomfited and annihilated. To arms ! cie of the banks were carried in the To arms! and never lay them down till night. A proclamation by Governor the Stars and Stripes float in triumph Robinson, dated this Sunday at Frank- , throughout Kentucky.” fort, in an urgent appeal, called the peo- 1 On the other hand, General Kirby ple of the state to arms. “A crisis," Smith, who now advanced without opposaid he, “has arisen in the history of the sition to the occupation of Lexington and commonwealth which demands of every Frankfort, issued his proclamation to the loyal citizen of Kentucky prompt and same people of Kentucky, in which he efficient action. The state has been in- set forth his invasion as a test of the vaded by an insolent foe, her honor in- sympathy of the population with the resulted, her peace disturbed and her in- bellion. “Let no one," said he, “make tegrity imperiled. The small but gal- you believe we come as invaders to colant army raised upon the emergency of erce your will, or to exercise control the occasion for her defence, under the over your soil. Far from it. The prinbrave and chivalric Nelson, has met with ciple we maintain is, that government a temporary reverse, and the enemy is derives its just powers from the consent advancing for the accomplishment of his of the governed. I shall enforce the purpose—the subjugation of the state. strictest discipline, in order that the He must be met and driven from our property of citizens and non-combatants border, and it is in your power to do so. may be protected. I shall be compelled I, therefore, as Governor of the common- to procure subsistence for my troops wealth, deem it my duty to call upon among you, and this shall be paid for. every loyal citizen of Kentucky to rally Kentuckians : We come not as invaders, to the defence of the state : not a mo- but liberators. We invoke the spirit of ment is to be lost. I appeal to you as your resolutions of 1798. We come to Kentuckians, as worthy sons of those arouse you from the lethargy which enwho rescued the dark and bloody ground shrouds your free thought, and forebodes from savage barbarity, by the memories the political death of your state. We of the past of your history, and for the come to test the truth of what we believe future of your fame, if you are but true to be a foul aspersion, that Kentuckians to yourselves, to rise in the majesty of willingly join the attempt to subjugate us your strength and drive the insolent in- and deprive us of our property, our libervader of your soil from your midst. ty, and our dearest rights. We come to Now is the time for Kentuckians to de- strike off the chains which are riveted upon fend themselves. Each man must con- you. We call upon you to unite your stitute himself a soldier, arm himself as arms, and join with us in hurling back best he can, and meet the foe at every from our fair and sunny plains the Northstep of his advance. The day and the ern hordes who would deprive us of our hour, the safety of your homes and fire- liberty that they may enjoy our substance. sides, patriotism and duty, alike demand Are we deceived? Can you treat us as that you rush to the rescue. I call upon enemies ? Our hearts answer, No!”. the people, then, to rise up as one man, Though the people of the state, sound and strike a blow for the defence of their at heart, were by no means disposed to native land, their property, and their appreciate these kind offers of liberation homes. Rally to the standard, where- by a band of invaders, yet the latter ever it may be nearest, place yourselves had now possession of the capital and a under the commanders, obey orders, trust central position threatening both Louis

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ville and Cincinnati, where, if not re- papers a proclamation announcing his sisted, and that immediately, they would course. "It is but fair to inform the dictate their own terms. At Louisville, citizens,” were the words of this docuthe citizens, at the call of the mayor, en- ment, “ that an active, daring, and powrolled themselves for home guards, mar- erful enemy threatens them with every tial law was declared in the county, and consequence of war; yet the cities must the legislature coöperated with the mili- be defended, and their inhabitants must tary authorities in measures for the de- assist in the preparation. Patriotism, fence of the state. Such was the feeling duty, honor, self-preservation, call them of insecurity, however, in the city, that to ibe labor, and it must be performed cotton brokers removed their stock, and equally by all classes. First. All busimany persons their valuables, across the ness must be suspended at nine o'clock river to Indiana for safety. At Cincin- to-day. Every business-house must be nati, where the danger appeared more closed. Second. Under the direction of pressing, the most vigorous measures the Mayor, the citizens must, within an were taken for defence. Here Major- hour after the suspension of business General Lewis Wallace proved the man (ten o'clock A. M.), assemble in convefor the crisis. Having recently been en- nient public places ready for orders.

ana, on the first news of Kirby Smith's assigned to their work. This labor ought invasion of Kentucky he had offered his to be that of love, and the undersigned services to Governor Morton of Indiana, trusts and believes it will be so. Anyand, without standing on his high rank, how, it must be done. The willing promptly took command of a regiment shall be properly credited, the unwilling at New Albany, and reported himself promptly visited. The principle adopted with it to General Boyle, in command at is, citizens for the labor, soldiers for the Louisville. He was presently placed at battle. Third. The ferry-boats will cease the head of the troops gathering at Lex-plying the river after four o'clock A. M., mgton, and proceeded with characteris- until further orders. Martial law is tic energy to organize a force for the re- hereby proclaimed in the three cities,

pass of Cumberland Gap, was now, by military, the injunctions of this prothe guerrilla movements of the enemy, clamation will be executed by the pocut off from his supplies. In the midst lice." of these preparations he was superseded. This was taking time by the forelock. by General Nelson, and retired to Cin- When this was issued the enemy had not cinnati, where the news of the unfortun- advanced beyond Lexington, though Genate battle of Richmond found him. Gen-eral Wright had withdrawn the troops eral Wright, in command of the depart from Frankfort towards Louisville. It ment, on the instant ordered him to Lex. was a matter of doubt what would be ington, and he had proceeded as far as the next movement of the confederates. Paris when he was recalled to take com- General Wallace believed that they were mand of Cincinnati and the adjacent aiming at Cincinnati, and instantaneously. towns, Covington and Newport, on the acted on bis belief, in placing his disopposite side of the river. On the even-trict under martial law. Novel as the

in Cincinnati, and, without losing a mo- cheerfully accepted the situation and ment, began the work of defence against seconded the spirit of their commander. the approach of the enemy. Within half “The ten days ensuing,” says an eyean hour after his arrival he sent to the witness of these scenes, an officer on the staff of General Wallace, “will be for- been begun and completed between sunever memorable in the annals of the city down and sundown, groaned day and of Cincinnati. The cheerful alacrity night with the perpetual stream of life with which the people rose en masse all setting southward. In three days to swell the ranks and crowd into the there were ten miles of intrenchments trenches, was a sight worth seeing, and lining the hills, making a semicircle from being seen, could not readily be forgot- the river above the city to the banks of ten. Here were the representatives of the river below; and these were thickly all nations and classes. The sturdy Ger- manned from end to end, and made terman, the lithe and gay-hearted Irishman, rible to the astonished enemy by black went shoulder to shoulder in defence of and frowning cannon."* their adopted country. The man of On the 7th, General Wallace was remoney, the man of law, the merchant, lieved from duty at Cincinnati, but rethe artist, and the artisan swelled the tained command of the forces at Covinglines, hastening to the scene of action, ton and Newport. On the 10th it was armed either with musket, pick or spade. thought that a battle was imminent. Added to these was seen Dickson's long The advance of the enemy under Generand dusky brigade of colored men, cheer- al Heath was reported about five miles fully wending their way to labor on the from Covington, and the pickets of the fortifications, evidently holding it their two lines were engaged. Business was especial right to put whatever impedi- again suspended in Cincinnati. Goverments they could in the northward path nor Tod at the request of General of those whom they considered their own Wright summoned all armed men that peculiar foe. But the pleasantest and could be raised in northern Ohio to remost picturesque sight of those remark- pair immediately to the city. Thousands able days was the almost endless stream of laborers were ordered to the trenches ; of sturdy men who rushed to the rescue the rifle pits were filled and the fortificafrom the rural districts of the state. tions manned with an army of sharpThese were known as the 'Squirrel- shooters ready to salute the invaders Hunters. They came in files number should they approach the works. There ing thousands upon thousands, in all was skirmishing the next day, and on kinds of costumes, and armed with all the following the enemy, advised of the kinds of fire-arms, but chiefly the deadly means of resistance, and fearing an attack rifle, which they knew so well how to from another quarter, withdrew. On their use. Old men, middle-aged men, young departure General Wallace issued an admen, and often mere boys, like the 'min- dress to the citizens of Cincinnati, Covute-men' of the old Revolution, they lington and Newport, the army which he left the plough in the furrow, the flail on bad extemporized. “For the present, the half-threshed sheaves, the unfinished at least," said he, “the enemy has fallen iron upon the anvil, -in short, dropped back, and your cities are safe. It is the all their peculiar avocations, and with time for acknowledgments. I beg leave their leathern pouches full of bullets and to make you mine. When I assumed their ox-horns full of powder, poured command, there was nothing to defend into the city by every highway and by- you with, except a few half-finished way in such numbers that it seemed as works and some dismounted guns; yet I if the whole state of Ohio were peopled was confident. The energies of a great only with hunters, and that the spirit of city are boundless.; they have only to Daniel Boone stood upon the hills oppo- be aroused, united and directed. You site the town beckoning them into Ken- —

* “The Siege of Cincinnati." An interesting narrative tucky. The pontoon bridge, which had in the Atlantic Monthly for February, 1863.

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