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fully. His men had nearly all embarked curred at Port Royal. Captain J. C. when the cavalry boldly came directly Williams, an aid on General Mitchel's under the guns of the Planter and Pa- staff, Captain L. A. Warfield, chief comtroon, and fired upon both steamers. A missary of subsistence, and Colonel N. few round of canister dispersed them, W. Brown, of the 3d Rhode Island arand the only damage which they inflicted tillery, fell victims to the disease, and was the serious wounding of Lieutenant General Mitchel, sickening, was removed J. B. Blanding, of the 3d Rhode Island to Beaufort, where he died on the 30th artillery."* The Union loss in these of October. General Brannan, who sucunprofitable engagements was thirty-two ceeded to the command as the senior killed, and one hundred and eighty officer in the department, in a general wounded. † The enemy left fifteen or order, recorded the energy of his adtwenty of their dead on the field, from ministration, and the Christian principle which it was inferred that their loss was which inspired it. “Brief as his career severe. Two caissons filled with ammu- in the Department of the South, yet had nition were captured from them at an he already won the esteem and regard opportune moment when the powder of of all by his energy and activity, in the assailants was nearly exhausted directing the movements of the corps

The climate, meanwhile, was telling against the adjoining rebels, and the on the health of the troops of the de- firmness and tempered justice with which partment. The sick list in several of he conducted the administrative duties the regiments was increasing to an alarm of the department. He died with the ing degree. As the month wore on sev- calm fortitude of a believing Christian, eral undoubted cases of yellow fever oc and while we lament the death of a gal

lant soldier and a kind friend, let us en* Port Royal Correspondence New York Times, October deavor to emulate the virtues and sol24, 1862.

4 General Halleck's Report, December, 1862. dierly qualities of our late commander."

CHAPTER LXX VI.

REBEL INVASIONS OF KENTUCKY, JULY-OCTOBER, 1862.

WHEN General Halleck, after the ene railway communication with the Southmy had been driven from Corinth, and west. West of the Tennessee river, on Memphis had been restored to the Union, the confines of Tennessee and Mississipin the beginning of July, was called to pi, Major-General Grant held the line the position of General-in-Chief at Wash from Memphis to Iuka, protecting the ington, the military commands of the De- railways from Columbus south. Majorpartment of the Mississippi were thus dis-General Curtis was in command of a tributed : The main body of the army, force at Helena, Arkansas, and Brigaunder command of Major-General Buell, dier-General Schofield of the troops in was to the east of Corinth, between southwestern Missouri. “These several Huntsville and Stevenson, on the north- armies," says General Halleck, “spread ern border of Alabama, moving toward along a line of some six hundred miles, Chattanooga the key of eastern Tennes from the western borders of Arkansas to see and the great line of Confederate Cumberland Gap, and occupying a strip of country more than one hundred and in turn, where Union troops were at fifty miles in width, from which the ene- hand, and intercepted in his movements, my's forces had recently been expelled, when the members of his command at were rapidly decreasing in strength from times were severely dealt with, he conthe large numbers of soldiers sent home stantly manages, by his knowledge of the on account of real or pretended disabil- region and the friendly aid of sympaity. On the other hand, the enemy's thizers, by his présence of mind and ac armies were greatly increased by an ar- tivity, to bring off his shattered forces, bitrary and rigidly enforced conscription. who disperse to meet again on some With their superiority in numbers and | early occasion to inflict new injury and discipline they boldly determined to re create fresh terror and alarm. Bold and occupy Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, unscrupulous, he was the foremost of the and Kentucky, and, if possible, to in- partisan leaders, the Ashbys, Jenkinses, vade the states of Ohio, Indiana, and and others, who promptly sprang up, the Illinois, while our attention was dis- natural and inevitable offspring of the tracted by the invasion of Maryland rebellion. and Pennsylvania, and an extended In- ! The months of July and August were dian insurrection on the western fron- marked by the efforts of the guerrilla tiers."

parties of the confederates along the In this comprehensive scheme of rebel borders of Tennessee and Kentucky aggression much reliance was evidently and even in the heart of the latter state. placed upon the aid which would be giv- Raids and assaults were the order of the en to the regular invading force by a day. At daybreak on the morning of system of partisan or guerrilla warfare, Sunday, 13th of July, an unexpected atwhich had been already set on foot in tack was made upon the Union brigade, the department, with no little success, under command of General Thomas T. by a redoubtable leader in this branch Crittenden, in charge of Murfreesboro, of the service, John Morgan of Kentuc- by a cavalry force over three thousand ky. A thriving planter at the outbreak in number, of Texan, Georgia, Alabama of the rebellion, he gave the whole and Tennessee troops, led by Brigadierstrength of an energetic and determined General N. B. Forrest, a rival of Mornature to its service. Thoroughly ac- gan in these flying expeditions. The quainted with the temper and resources Union effective force at the place was of the people, familiar with the roads only about eight hundred. The attack and communications of the country, a was made with great vigor by about popular leader of the desperate and dis- eight hundred Texans and Georgians affected, we find him throughout the war upon a detachment of the 9th Michigan ever recruiting his desultory bands of cav- volunteers, about two hundred in numalry, and constantly on the aggressive ; at ber, stationed three-fourths of a mile one time attacking a railway train, plun- east of the town. Overpowered by the dering the mails and property in transitu superior force, the men fell back to the and imprisoning the passengers, or des- main camp, when they maintained an troying the rails and cars; at another, action of twenty minutes with the enefalling upon a supply train or an isolated my, inflicting heavy injury on their purdetachment of the Union forces, tarrying suers. The Michigan regiment in this in the prosperous regions of eastern and part of the affair lost one officer and middle Kentucky-sure at no long inter- twelve men killed, and three officers and val to furnish a paragraph to the news- seventy-five men wounded, among whom papers of some fresh daring act of out- was its colonel, William W. Duffield. rage and depredation. Often attacked The enemy now closing in, the whole

A REBEĻ RAID IN KENTUCKY.

597

force, including the 3d Minnesota regi- ardy by the Hessian invader. Let the ment, and a squadron of Kentucky cay- stirring sense of the late Richmond fight alry, after some ineffective fighting was constantly be before you. Our brave compelled to surrender.* On receipt of army there and everywhere is victorithe intelligence of the capture, General ous. McClellan and his foreign hordes Buell, in command of the Army of the are groveling in the dust. Our indepenOhio, issued an order, commenting with dence is an achieved fact. We have great severity upon the remissness of the bought it. with privation and suffering, Union command in being surprised and and sealed the contract with the seal of not making more effectual resistance. blood. Be not timorous, but rise, one The prisoners, including General Crit- and all, for the good cause, to clear out tenden, were carried to Chattanooga, dear Kentucky's soil of its detested inwhence the expedition had been sent vaders. Kentuckians ! fellow-countryforth, and a large quantity of ammuni- men ! you know you can rely upon me.” tion and stores was brought away or Relying upon the sympathy and aid of a destroyed. The news of this capture portion of the inhabitants to increase his created no little excitement at Nashville, numbers and support his forces, Morgan where an attack was feared, and an ac- pushed rapidly forward to the centre of tive enlistment in the home guard took the state, took possession of Lebanon, place. The citizens, however, were where he freely helped himself to supspeedily renerved by news of the re- plies from the abundant government comtirement of the enemy, though the vicin- missary stores and the property of the ity continued to be much harrassed by townspeople, and but for the effective guerrillas.

loyal organization might have made a Simultaneously with this surprise of successful demonstration upon Frankfort Murfreesboro' came a fresh raid into or Lexington. Hovering about these Kentucky of the guerrilla leader Col- cities, and destroying the railway comonel Morgan. Crossing into Kentucky munication with Cincinnati, on the 17th from Knoxville with about nine hundred of July, at the head of a motley force of men, he issued, on the 10th of July, at some two thousand Kentuckians, TennesGlasgow, a proclamation to the inhabi- seeans, Georgians, Mississippians, Texans tants, in which allusion was made to and South Carolinians, with two pieces the defeats before Richmond, which had of artillery, he fell upon a body of about doubtless given a strong impulse to his three hundred and forty men at Cynthiundertaking. “ Kentuckians," said he, ana, in Harrison county-volunteers and I am once more among you. Confid- home guards, for the most part poorly ing in your patriotism and strong attach- armed and undisciplined, under comment to our Southern cause, I have, at mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Landrum. the head of my gallant band, raised once The Union pickets had hardly been more our Confederate flag, so long tram- driven in before the enemy commenced pled upon by the Northern tyrants, but shelling the town. Colonel Landrum never yet disgraced. Let every true disposed his little force to the best adpatriot respond to my appeal. Rise and vantage, placing a number of his men at arm. Fight against the despoiler! Fight the bridge over the Licking river and his for your families ! your homes ! for those single artillery piece, a brass 12-pounder, you love best! for your conscience ! and under Captain Glass, of Cincinnati, in for the free exercise of your political the public square, commanding the difrights, never again to be placed in jeop- ferent approaches. The enemy came in

by every road, street and by-path ; the * Colonel Duffield to Colonel J. B. Fry, A. A. G., July 23, 1862.

| force at the bridge was dislodged and one of Morgan's cavalry charges made was here that Jacob Carver, Company into the town. “At this time," says E, 18th Kentucky, fell, severely woundLieutenant-Colonel Landrum, in his spir- ed, as brave a man as ever pulled trigited account of this gallant affair, “I ger-and I received a slight wound in the rallied a part of my forces at the rail- ankle. It was here, too, that the lamentroad depot, at which point our boys ed Thomas Ware, United States Comgave them a warm reception, emptying missioner for this county, one of the several saddles. I then again went for oldest citizens of Cynthiana, was instantthe purpose of rallying the artillery ly killed, nobly and bravely doing bis squad, so as to place it on the hill near duty as a patriot. Here, too, was killed the residence of M. L. Broadwell, from Jesse Current, young Thomas Rankins, which position we could have command - Captain Lafe Wilson, young Hartburn ed the town, and several roads leading of Cincinnati, and others; besides many, to it, but was unable to find either men including F. L. St. Thomas, John Scott, or gun, the streets in every direction be- Captain McClintock, John McClintock, ing in possession of the rebels. My men Thomas Barry of Cincinnati, and Thowere exhausted and out of ammunition, mas J. Vimont, who fell severely woundbut I rallied them, and at the depot dis. ed. In consequence of the terrific storm tributed it to them. The firing at the of balls, and as but few of my men were time having nearly ceased, I rode along left, among whom were Wm. W. Trimble the railroad to Rankin's Hotel to ascer- and J. S. Frizell, who was also wounded, tuin what position the enemy was taking, of this place, others not remembered, I and from what direction they were com- ordered a retreat. In the mean time ing in heaviest force. Here I met an Major William 0. Smith had command officer of the rebel band, aid to Colonel of the 7th Kentucky cavalry, and was Morgan (a son of the late Beverly L. posted north of the town to hold the Clark), who demanded my surrender. I Claysville road, and prevent the enemy replied, 'I never surrender,' and instant- from gaining the streets from that direcly discharged three shots at him, two of tion, where he made a gallant resistance which took effect in his breast. He fell near the Episcopal church, until overfrom his horse, and I thought him dead, powered by superior numbers, and forced but he is still living, and will probably to fall back toward the Reform church, recover, notwithstanding two balls passed and thence to the Court-house, where he through his body. Captain Rogers also and his command were compelled to surdischarged a shot at him which took render. At this time more than threeeffect. I then rallied part of my force, fourths of my men were killed, wounded about forty in number, and determined and prisoners, and I determined to cut to make a charge upon the enemy at the my way through the enemy and escape Licking bridge, and take their battery, with the remainder, if possible. I ralwhich had been brought to that point lied together from twenty to twenty-five and was being used with fatal effect upon of my men at the depot, and started in my little band of patriot heroes. The a southeast direction through Redmon's force, sustaining their artillery, outnum- pasture, where we met a body of the bered ours more than ten to one, and enemy who had crossed from the Millerswere all the while under cover of houses, burg road. They were secreted behind etc. Besides this, a force of the rebels, fences, trees, and hay-cocks. We at at least three hundred strong, were pour-'once engaged them, and soon routed ing an incessant and deadly fire upon my them. Upon turning round I discovered little band from the rear, about a hun- that the enemy had pursued us from the dred and twenty-five yards distant. It town, and were on our rear, not more A. REBEL PROCLAMATION.

599

than forty paces distant. I ordered my absent twenty-four days, during which handful of men to cross the hillside, and time, he boasted, that he had travelled fight them from behind the fences, which over a thousand miles, captured seventhey did, and held them in check until teen towns, destroyed the government nearly surrounded by a body of cavalry, supplies and arms in them, dispersed at least ten times their number. I then about fifteen hundred home guards, and ordered my men to retreat beyond a paroled nearly twelve hundred regular fence in a southeasterly direction, to troops. He lost in killed, wounded and avoid a cavalry charge. Here a part of missing of the number that he carried the men became exhausted, some falling into Kentucky about ninety.* by the way-side to await their fate, their In another part of Kentucky, on the ammunition all expended, when I in- Ohio, Henderson was occupied by a formed the little Spartan band we could guerrilla force under Colonel A. K. Johndo no more ; to save themselves, and I son, who, on the 17th of July, issued a would do likewise, if possible, and bade proclamation, from that place, to the them good-by."*

people of Kentucky, in which he sought The capture of Cynthiana caused some to excite an enthusiasm for the confedexcitement at Cincinnati, about sixty erate cause. “It has gone forth to the miles distant, for the safety of the ap- world,” said he,“ that you are a subjuproaches to that city and the line of the gated people—that the iron heel of desKentucky Central railway. Lieutenant- potism has destroyed all spirit of resisColonel Sydney Burbank, of the 13th tance and crushed out the last spark of United States Infantry, stationed at patriotism. This idea has gone through Newport barracks, by order of the the North, and they look upon you with War Department, took military com- contempt, and send their hirelings to mand of the city, and companies of thir- rule over you. It has crossed the Atty day volunteers were organized and lantic, and the eyes of Europe have been officered for service. Martial law was looking at the position of Kentucky with proclaimed at Covington, and a military wonder and astonishment. Down in the guard set by the provost marshal for its sunny South, amongst those who ought protection. General Boyle, in command to be your brothers, you have become a of the military district of Kentucky, with by-word and a scoff. The Kentucky his headquarters at Louisville, used every army have turned their anxious eyes to exertion in sending troops into the field their native state, and at each new outfor the protection of the state.

rage would listen for the tocsin of war; Meanwhile a force of mounted infan- but they have listened and hoped against try hastily gathered at Lexington and hope until the last ray has expired. The its vicinity, set out under command of Confederate Cabinet and Congress have General Green Clay Smith, and coming looked for some movement indicating a up with Colonel Morgan's cavalry near desire for freedom ; but they looked in Paris, defeated them, retaking the can- vain and think Kentucky lost. But non and horses captured at Cynthiana, there is one man who has never deswith a considerable portion of the stolen paired. That man is John C. Breckinproperty. Morgan, now pursued by ridge, the hero, the statesman and the General Smith, who was reinforced by patriot. With the same never-despairfresh troops, returned to Tennessee, ing love that a mother bears to her offreaching Lexington on the 28th, with spring does he regard Kentucky-with nearly twelve hundred men, having been the same anxious care has he watched

* Lieutenant-Colonel Landrum to Captain John Boyle, A. A. G. Louisville, July 24, 1862.

Colonel J. H. Morgan to Major-General E. Kirby Smith, July 80, 1862. Moore's Rebellion Record, v. 60.

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