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wounded. In announcing this victory to baggage and provision trains as the force his forces, at Franklin, General Fremont was supplied with were left behind, but expressed his conviction that they lack- four wagons being reserved for absolute ed but the opportunity “to emulate the necessities to each regiment. Furnished gallantry, and share the glory of their only with ammunition and rations for comrades of the army of the Kanawha."* three days, the men, with “alacrity and
On the night of the 24th of May, the good feeling,” pursued their way through day after Ewell's attack on Colonel Moorefield, by forced marches over Kenly, at Front Royal, General Fre- mountain roads, rendered unusually difmont received, at Franklin, orders from ficult by the inclement season. In a President Lincoln to march to the relief week the advance, under Colonel Clusof General Banks, in the valley of the eret, came up, near Strasburg, with the Shenandoah. The entire force at his rebel General Jackson's forces, which command, numbering 11,500 men, con-1 had commenced their retreat up the sisted of the Blenker division, the brig- valley, in anticipation of the combined ades of Generals Schenck and Milroy, movement on foot for their capture. and a light brigade of Ohio and Virginia On General Banks' retreat to the Potroops, under Colonel Cluseret, a French tomac, Brigadier-General Rufus Saxton, officer of education and experience, who was placed in command of the forces, had distinguished himself at the Crimea, immediately sent to Harper's Ferry for in Algiers, and lately in the Italian war the maintenance of that position. This for independence, as a member of the officer, a native of Massachusetts, a gradstaff of Garibaldi, when he had been uate of West Point of 1849, when he enwounded at Capua. Attracted by the tered the artillery, had distinguished himstruggle in the United States, Colonel self by his scientific attainments in the Cluseret offered his services to the Go-conduct of an expedition across the vernment, and on his arrival at Wash- Rocky Mountains, and in the coast surington, early in 1862, was appointed on vey. At the beginning of the war he the staff of General McClellan. He was was acting with General Lyon at St. next assigned to the command of Gen- Louis, and was afterward with General eral Fremont.
McClellan in western Virginia. He had The army of General Fremont, when of late been with General Sherman in called upon by the President, was not in South Carolina, and being for the time in the best condition to move. They were Washington, was ordered, on the sudden in a region cut off from proper supplies, emergency which had occurred, to the had lately been exhausted in forced upper Potomac. He proved himself, as marches, and had for some days been was expected, an efficient officer. Asscantily fed with beef only. “Their in- suming command on the 26th of May, he sufficient diet,” says their commander, rapidly employed the reinforcements“had materially affected their health, several regiments and battalions of New and the Medical Director reported the York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland entire command 'in a condition of star- troops—in occupation of the surrounding vation and incipient scurvy."" Fremont, heights, and reconnoissances of the neighhowever, was not the man to lose time in borhood. Numerous sharp skirmishes such an emergency. At day-light the occurred; but the disposition of the next morning, Sunday, his troops were Union forces was so skillfully made that in motion, taking the road to Petersburg, the enemy gained no advantage. One where tents and knapsacks, with such serious attempt was made by them on
the line of defence at the town. “Jack• Order of Major-General Fremont, Franklin, Va., May 24, 1862.
son, the commander of the rebel forces," * Brigadier - General Saxton to Secretary Stanton, * Letter of General Fremont to the editors of the Harper's Ferry, June 3, 1862.
says General Saxton, “having given the eral Fremont, of his march from Frankorder to his army to storm our position, lin, "and this at the instance of the they advanced beyond Bolivar heights medical directors, and crossing the Shenin force, to attack us, about dark, Friday andoah mountains by a night march, in a evening, in a storm. General Slough storm of cold rain, my corps attacked opened upon them from Camp Hill with Jackson's column at Strasburg, acknowCrounse's, and part of Reynold's battery, ledged to be in greatly superior force, and Lieutenant Daniels, from battery and drove him in disorder during the Stanton, on Maryland heights. The next eight days to Port Republic. The scene at this time was very impressive. road was strewn with arms, blankets, The hills around were alive with the sig- and clothing, thrown away in their haste, nal lights of the enemy, the rain descend- or abandoned by their pickets where ed in torrents, vivid flashes of lightning they had been surprised, and the woods illumined at intervals the grim, but mag- and roads lined by their stragglers, unnificent scenery, while the crash of the able to keep up with the rapid retreat. thunder echoing among the mountains, For nine days we kept in sight of the drowned into comparative insignificance enemy—the pursuit interrupted only by the roar of our artillery. After an ac- the streams where the enemy succeeded tion of an hour's duration, the enemy re- in destroying the bridges, for which our tired. He made another unsuccessful advance was in continual contest with attack at midnight with regiments of Mis- his rear."* sissippi and Louisiana infantry, and after General Fremont, pursuing the foe a short engagement disappeared. Signal through Woodstock, Mount Jackson, lights continued to be seen in every crossed the Shenandoah on the 5th, on a direction."*
pontoon bridge, and coming up with the This affair occurred on the night of enemy beyond New Market, a sharp enthe 30th of May. On the following day counter attended the arrival of the Union the enemy were in full retreat up the advance the next day at Harrisonburg. valley, which it was the design of Gen- The enemy were driven from the town eral Fremont to intercept when he early in the afternoon, and severe skircrossed the mountains at Strasburg. mishing continued till evening. “At There, as we have seen, he came upon four o'clock the 1st New Jersey cavalry, the enemy on the 31st of May and after driving the enemy through the vilpromptly offered them battle. The pol- lage, fell into an ambuscade in the roads icy of Jackson, however, was to avoid a to the south-east of the town, in which general engagement, and he rapidly con- Colonel Wyndham, of that regiment, was tinued his flight, leaving Strasburg the captured, and considerable loss was susnext morning for Woodstock, and the tained. Colonel Cluseret, with his briupper portion of the valley. At Stras- gade, subsequently engaged the enemy burg General Fremont was joined by a in the timber, driving him from his posibody of cavalry under General Bayard, tion, and taking his camp. At about a portion of McDowell's corps which had eight o'clock a battalion of Colonel been ordered from eastern Virginia. Kane's Pennsylvania regiment entered Front Royal, on the railway, had been the woods, under the direction of Brigareëntered on the 30th of May, and the dier-General Bayard, and maintained for enemy driven out, by a troop of Rhode half an hour a vigorous attack (in which Island cavalry under Colonel Nelson. both sides suffered severely), driving the “Making but one day's halt," says Gen- enemy. The enemy attempted to shell our troops, but a few shots from one of moved down the slopes of three hills into our batteries soon silenced his guns. the valley, and up the opposite ascents,
| Evening Post. New York, Feb. 9, 1863.
"After dark the enemy continued his which, at the summits were covered with retreat. Their loss in killed and wound- woods. In these woods and in belts, ed was very severe. Their retreat was and in the heavy timber beyond, the enby an almost impassable road, along emy were posted. General Stahl, on which many wagons were left in the the left was first engaged. Generals woods, and wagon loads of blankets, Milroy and Schenck found the enemy clothing and other equipments are piled soon after, and the battle almost immeup in all directions. During the evening diately became general. General Stahl, many of the rebels were killed by shells after Schriver's battery had shelled the from a battery of General Stahl's brigade. rebel position, advanced the 8th New General Ashby, who covered the retreat York and 45th New York through the with his whole cavalry force and three woods into the open field, on the other regiments of infantry, and who exhibited side of which the enemy's right wing was admirable skill and audacity, was among concealed in the woods. The 8th adthe killed."*
vanced gallantly under a heavy fire ; but Brigadier-General Turner Ashby, of being so long unsupported by the 45th, the Confederate service, who fell in this and largely outnumbered, were finally engagement, was a native of Fauquier forced to retire. Colonel Wutchel was county, Virginia, a farmer and politician, severely wounded, and the whole regiwhose dashing exploits as a cavalry offi- ment badly cut up, losing not less than cer in the valley of the Shenandoah, from three hundred men-more than half its the beginning of the war to the present strength. The enemy's pursuit was campaign, had made his name well known checked by artillery, and General Stahl to the public.
finally withdrew his brigade to a stronger On Sunday, the 8th, General Fremont position, repulsing a flank movement, left Harrisonburg at six in the morning, and holding his wing firmly. General with about ten thousand men, in pursuit Milroy advanced his centre rapidly, the of Jackson's forces, and had advanced artillery fire compelling the enemy to about seven miles on the road to Staun- give ground. General Schenck, on the ton, when the enemy were discovered at right, twice drove back the rebels who Cross Keys, in a well selected position attempted to turn his position. Along in the woods to the left and front. The our whole line our artillery, under Colbrigade of Colonel Cluseret, the 60th onel Pilsen's direction, was served with Ohio and 8th Virginia, afterwards sup- great vigor and precision, and the final ported by the Garibaldi Guard, formed success was largely due to its effect. the advance, and commenced the battle The enemy suffered severely. One rebel by sharp skirmishing at nine in the fore- regiment lost two-thirds of its members noon. A line of battle was formed by in attempting to capture Wildrich's.batthe Union forces extending two miles in tery, which cut them to pieces with canlength. At half past twelve the whole ister at fifty paces. The rebel batteries line moved forward, General Milroy's were repeatedly silenced and forced to brigade in the centre, General Schenck abandon their position."* The Union on the right, and Stahl in the advance forces encamped that night on the field on the left. General Blenker's, General of battle, with the expectation of renewBohlen's, and Colonel Steinwebr's bri- ing the fight at any moment. The night, gades, composed the reserve. “The line however, passed without further conflict,
* Dispatches of General Fremont to the war depart. * Dispatch to the Associated Press. Harrisonburg, June ment. Harrisonburg, Va., Juno 7, 1862.
and in the morning the march against the advance of General Shield's division, the enemy was renewed, when they were which, coming from Front Royal by the found to be in full retreat on Port Re- Luray valley, was hastening to cut him public, five miles distant. The Union off in that direction, and Colonel Carroll, advance came upon their rear guard just in command of a brigade of about 1,600 as they had burnt the bridge over the men, of the 8th and 11th Pennsylvania, Shenandoah at that place.
the 7th Indiana, and 1st Virginia, reachIn a dispatch to the War Department ed Port Royal on Sunday, the day of the on the 9th, the day after the battle, Gen- battle at Cross Keys, and after a skirmeral Fremont estimated his loss at 125 ish with the troops found there, occupied killed, and 500 wounded. That of the the town. Unfortunately, with a superior enemy could only be conjectured. More force of the enemy on the other side of than 200 of his dead were counted in the river, he did not destroy the bridge one field, while others were scattered between them. At daylight on Monday through the woods, and many had been morning, the 9th, Jackson, with his reburied. “I regret,” adds General Fre- treating forces, was on the spot with his mont, “to have lost many good officers, guns in position, commanding the bridge, General Stahl's brigade was in the and opening fire on the small body of hottest part of the field, which was the national troops. It was too late then to left wing. From the beginning of the burn the bridge; the enemy crossed it fight the brigade lost in officers five in safety, and greatly outnumbering Carkilled and seventeen wounded, and one roll's command, though reinforced by the of his regiments alone—the 8th New brigade of General Tyler, compelled the York-has buried sixty-five. The Gari-whole force, after a spirited engagement, baldi Guard, next after suffered most to retreat to the main body of General severely, and following this regiment, the Shields' division up the valley. The 45th New York, the Bucktail Rifles, of Union loss in the conflict shows that the General Bayard's and General Milroy's position was bravely contested, though brigades. One of the Bucktail companies against largely superior numbers. The has lost all its officers, commissioned and return of casualties showed 67 killed, 361 non-commissioned. The loss in General wounded, and 574 missing, many of the Schenck's brigade was less, although he last being taken prisoners. The force inflicted severe loss on the enemy, prin- engaged was chiefly composed of Ohio cipally by artillery fire. Of my staff, I and Indiana troops. The 7th Indiana, lost a good officer killed, Captain Nicho- which is stated to have left Frederickslas Dunka. Many horses were killed in burg, eight hundred strong, arrived at our batteries, which the enemy repeated- Port Republic with only 300, one half ly attempted to take, but were repulsed of whom only could be mustered after by canister fire generally."
the fight. General Tyler, in his report Captain Dunka was a young officer, a of the action, represents his entire force native of Wallachia, of Hungarian parent- at not exceeding 3,000, and estimates age, who had lately served with Gari- that of the enemy at 8,000. “The rebaldi in his Sicilian and Neapolitan treat,” says he, “save the stampede of campaigns as a captain of cavalry. At those who ran before the fight was fairly tracted by the war in America, he had opened, was quite as orderly as the adsought employment in the service of the vance. The loss of our artillery we feel Union, and had just received his com- almost as keenly as we should to have mission in Fremont's army. An additional lost our colors, yet it was impossible to motive for Jackson's retreat, was the save them without animals to drag them presence at Port Republic in his rear of l through the deep mud ; the men could not do it. While we deeply feel this lic.". Subsequently reviewing the camloss, we have the satisfaction of knowing paign, he recalled the condition of the that we have one of theirs, captured by troops at the time of the battle of Cross the 5th Ohio, and driven off in full view Keys. A council of officers was held of their whole force, sixty-seven prison- the day before that engagement, when it ers following it."
was determined that only the prospect This battle ended the pursuit of Jack- of an immediate action could justify a son in the valley of the Shenandoah. further advance, so exhausted were the The ground previously occupied by Gen- men by their marches, and the inadeeral Banks had been recovered, and the quate supply of provisions. The onward rebel forces been again driven across the movement was made, and the battle won. river to the eastward. General Fre- “They fought,” says Fremont, “this mont falling back to Mount Jackson, and battle gallantly, and upon their last subsequently to Middletown, nearer his ration lay down upon the hard-fought bases of operations, on the 13th of June, field, tired and hungry, and at daylight issued a general order, in which he de- | the next morning were again in pursuit sired “to thank the troops for their of Jackson, who escaped only by means steadiness and good conduct in the of the bridge which intervened between numerous recent encounters with the him and destruction. Further pursuit enemy, and more especially to express with this fatigued and isolated force was his admiration of the obstinate and vet- impossible, and, indeed, was forbidden eran courage and the instances of chiv- by the President, who also telegraphed : alric bravery displayed by them at the Many thanks to yourself, officers, and battle of Cross Keys. He thanks them men, for the gallant battle of last Sunwarmly for their soldierly endurances, day ;' and who also did us the honor to which enabled them in their vigorous say further, in a telegram explaining why pursuit of the enemy to meet the extra- additions could not be made to our corps, ordinary hardship and fatigues of forced - You fought Jackson alone and worstmarches in the most inclement weather, ed him.'"* and in the absence of the most ordinary New military arrangements were supplies. He congratulates them upon being made for the army in Virtheir rapid and glorious march, in which ginia. On the 26th of June, General they drove before them in precipitate re- Pope was called to the command of the treat a greatly superior enemy, inflicted army of Virginia, including Fremont's, loss upon him in daily engagements, com- Banks' and McDowell's corps. Unpelled him, after a hard fought battle, to willing, for various reasons, to be placed retreat from his chosen ground, leaving in this subordinate position, General his dead upon it, and abandoning two Fremont requested to be relieved from guns, and finally threw him across the his command. His resignation was acShenandoah with the parting admoni- cepted, and officially announced to the tions of their well-served artillery.” public, in an order from the War Depart
He also issued stringent orders in re- ment, of the 27th June, appointing gard "to the many disorders and ex- Brigadier-General Rufus King in his cesses and wanton outrages upon property | place. which had marked the line of march of
* Letter te the Evening Post, Feb. 9. 1868. the army from Franklin to Port Repub