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adoption of the Constitution, has been slavery out of existence." "Indeed," admitted in direct violation of that Con- said he, “we feel assured that the mostitution," adding "that the slave States ment slavery is abolished, from that mowhich existed, as such, at the adoption ment our Southern brethren-every ten of our Constitution, are, by becoming of whom bave probably seven relations parties to that compact, under the high- in the North-would begin to emerge est obligations of honor and morality to from a hateful delirium. From that moabolish slavery.” He then proceeded to ment, relieved from imaginary terrors, declare his conviction that monopolies their days become happy and their are as destructive as competition is con- nights peaceful and free from alarm; the servative of the principles and vitalities aggregate amount of labor under the new of republican government; that slave stimulus of fair competition becomes labor is a monopoly which excludes free greater day by day; property rises in labor and competition ; that slaves are value, invigorating influences succeed to kept in comparative idleness and ease in stagnation, degeneracy, and decay, and a fertile half of our arable national terri- union, barmony, and peace-to which we tory, wbile free white laborers, constant- have so long been strangers—become rely augmenting in numbers froin Europe, stored, and bind us again in the bonds of are confined to the other half, and are friendship and amity, as when we first often distressed by want; that the free began our national career, under our labor of the North has more need of ex- glorious government of 1789."" pansion into the Southern States, from “It is the conviction of my command," which it is virtually excluded, than concluded General Phelps," as a part of slavery had into Texas, in 1846 ; that the national forces of the United States, free labor is essential to free institutions; that labor-manual labor-is inherently that these institutions are naturally bet- noble, that it cannot be systematically ter adapted and more congenial to the degraded by any nation without ruining Anglo-Saxon race, than are the despotic its peace, happiness, and power ;. that tendencies of slavery; and, finally, that free labor is the granite basis on which the dominant political principle of this free institutions must rest; that it is the North American continent, so long as the right, the capital, the inheritance, the Caucasian race continues to flow in upon hope of the poor man everywhere ; that us from Europe, must needs be that of it is especially the right of five millions
free institutions and free government." of our fellow countrymen in the slave - Dilating upon these aspects of slavery, he States, as well as of the four millions of
compared the efforts of the Southern Africans there ; and all our efforts, thereslaveholders “ to give political character fore, however small or great, whether dito an institution which was not suscepti- rected against the interference of govble of political character" with the cause ernments from abroad or against rebelof the French revolution, which he found lious combinations at home, shall be for in a similar design to establish the church free labor. Our motto and our standard in France-a not over-prudent sugges- shall be, here and everywhere, and on tion in a proclamation to the Catholic all occasions, Free Labor and Workinginhabitants of Louisiana. Yet, the proc- men's Rights. It is on this basis, and on lamation contained home truths by which this basis alone, that our magnificent they might have profited. There was government, the asylum of nations, can evidently a sterling conviction in the be perpetuated and preserved.” mind of the writer when he penned the On the 31st of December, the town of following glowing statement as an induce- Biloxi, a watering-place on the shore of ment to his hearers “to révolutionize the State of Mississippi, was visited by a
portion of the national squadron from were to assemble at Ship island. Eight Ship island, when the place was surren- days after sailing, the steamer ran dered without opposition, Captain Me- aground on Frying-pan shoals, off Willancthon Smith, who had charge of the mington, N. C., from which desperate expedition, bringing off two 6-pounders situation she was fortunately rescued by which had been erected on a sand bat- | Commander 0. S. Glisson, who happened tery near the light-house. Various ob- to be at hand with the United States servations were sent to the North of the steamer Mount Vernon. Assistance was spirit of the population, and their re- given in hauling; the vessel was lightsources. The men capable of bearing ened by throwing over a portion of her arms had mostly gone to the war, leav- freight; three hundred of the troops on ing a large proportion of women in the board were removed to the Mount Vertown. “The people," wrote a corres- non. When she was thus got off the shoal, pondent of the Boston Journal, “ap the troops were again placed on board, peared to be in a very destitute condi- and the Mississippi proceeded on her tion, some wanting shoes, some clothing, voyage. At the end of March, General and others bread. One smart-looking Butler had at his command at Ship island lad said to another, in the hearing of about 14,000 men, ready to take part in the officers, 'I don't care if I do get taken the projected operations against New prisoner,' to which the other replied, 'nor Orleans. The force consisted of the 12th, I, either, for then I shall be sure to get en- 13th, 14th, and 15th Maine regiments, ough to eat.' Another chap, of rebellious the 8th New Hampshire, the 9th, 12th, tendencies, said: “I've heard some talk and 13th Connecticut, the 26th, 30th, of starving us into submission, but they'll and 31st Massachusetts, and the 7th and have to put a blockade on the mullet be- 8th Vermont, with five batteries of field fore they can do this." A little boy artillery, and three companies of Massaapproached Midshipman Woodward, and chusetts cavalry unattached. There with a wistful air, and beseeching tone, were also three western regiments from said 'Oh, Mister, if you will only bring Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin. They me one handful of coffee, I'll give you were all new troops, and more than half anything—'lasses, sugar, or anything !' of them had been raised by. General ButAn old man made a similar proposal to ler within the previous three months. Mr. Freeman, who asked him if they The entire number of troops assigned by were short of anything, to which he made the departmeut to General Butler's exanswer: 'My God, we are short of pedition for the capture and occupation everything. I haven't tasted coffee or of New Orleans, was eighteen thousand. tea these four months. He added, "If In the middle of April, eight thousand of you like, I'll show you some of the stuff these troops, all for which there was we use for tea,' and going off, soon re-transportation, were embarked for the turned with a bunch of dry herbage- Mississippi to coöperate with the naval large leaves on the stalk, which grows movement of Captain Farragut, who, arnear the ground, and resembles oak riving from Hampton roads at Ship island leaves."
; l on the 20th of February, had superseded - General Butler, after various delays, Flag-Officer McKean in the command of having completed his preparations, em- the Western Gulf blockading squadron. barked at Boston on the 25th February, Captain David Glascoe Farragut, to 1862, in the United States steam tran- / whom this important work was entrustsport Mississippi, with 1,400 troops, ed, was a native of Tennessee. Entering to join the remaining land forces intend the navy as a midshipman in the war of ed for the conquest of New Orleans, who. 1812, at the age of eleven, he was with Commodore Porter in the remarkable for the government of the squadron, after cruise of the Essex in the Pacific, partici- particular directions had been given, it pating in the memorable action which was enjoined upon the officers : “You closed the history of this vessel in the must be prepared to execute all those harbor of Valparaiso. He had subse- duties to which you have been so long quently been engaged in the various du- trained in the navy without having the ties of our naval officers in active service, opportunity of practicing. I expect every at sea and at home, visiting different vessel's crew to be well exercised at parts of the world, and had of late, for their guns, because it is required by the several years, command of the steam regulations of the service, and it is usually sloop- of - war Brooklyn, of the home the first object of our attention ; but they squadron. When he was ordered, in must be equally well trained for stopping January, 1862, to the Gulf of Mexico, he shot holes and extinguishing fire. Hot and was informed by Secretary Welles that cold shot will, no doubt, be freely dealt there would be joined to his squadron a to us, and there must be stout hearts fleet of bomb-vessels and armed steamers and quick hands to extinguish the one under command of Commander David D. and stop the holes of the other.” Porter, the youngest son of his old friend. The prospect of meeting such obstacles the captain of the Essex, an officer who, as the rebels had interposed for the defor more than thirty years, had been ac- fence of their chief city was indeed fortively employed in the naval service of midable. The previous encounter of the his country. With this important aid, Union squadron at the passes of the riv, Captain Farragut was ordered to proceed er with the iron-clads and fire-ships of to“ the great object in view—the certain Commodore Hollins, had proved the difcapture of the city of New Orleans. ficulty of an undertaking which was now Destroy the armed barriers (was the lan- a thousand fold enhanced. In addition guage of the Secretary) which these de- to a large rebel fleet of some twenty luded people have raised up against the armed steam rams and gunboats, the adpower of the United States government, vancing squadron had to contend with and shoot down those who war against the concentrated fire of two powerful the Union ; but cultivate with cordiality forts. Their progress was threatened to the first returning reason which is sure be impeded by a formidable barrier to follow your success."* In pursuance thrown across the river, holding the vesof these directions, in the beginning of sels of the fleet immediately within range April, Commodore Farragut having as- of the enemy's guns. Forts Jackson and sembled his forces, entered the Missis- St. Philip, respectively on the right and sippi river, encountering some consider- left bank of the river, about twenty-five able difficulties and delays in getting miles above its mouth, and seventy-five the larger steamers of his command, the from New Orleans, were situated at a Mississippi and Pensacola, over the bar bend of the stream, three quarters of a of the river. More than a fortnight was mile distant from each other. The armspent in this labor. At last, on the 8th ament which they possessed at the time of April, the work was accomplished ; of their seizure from the United States Porter's bomb flotilla was ordered up, government had been greatly strengthenand General Butler received instructions ed by the addition of heavy improved to forward his land forces. Serious work artillery, and now numbered one hundred was evidently expected. In the general and twenty-six guns of long range and orders issued by Commodore Farragut heavy calibre. Fort Jackson, the most * Gideon Welles to Flag-Officer Farragut. Navy Do- to be encountered, was a regular pentag