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Buell in the department. Brigadier- signed for a night attack on his encamp-
gathering to the scene of action by the By the middle of March the advance Tennessee River, General Buell's army of General Grant's expedition, command- was proceeding overland from Nashville, ed by General C. F. Smith, had arrived by way of Columbia. The divisions of at Savannah, and was engaged in active Generals Nelson, McCook, Thomas, and preparation for the occupation of the im- Crittenden, followed by General T. J. portant strategic points beyond. On the Wood's division, accompanied him on the 15th, General Lewis Wallace's division advance to Savannah, while General was landed on the left bank of the river, Mitchell's division was sent down the line marched to Purdy, some sixteen miles to of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railthe west, and destroyed the railroad road, to cut off the communication of the bridge, and a portion of the railway from enemy by the Memphis and Charleston Humboldt to Corinth, cutting off a train railroad with the east. General Negley heavily laden with troops, which arrived commanded the reserve at Nashville of while the bridge was burning. On the these officers. General Nelson will be night of the following day an expedition remembered for his services in Kentucky, was set on foot from the Union encamp- his native State, in enlisting recruits for ment which had been formed at Pitts- the Union service, and thwarting the burg Landing, with the intention of plans of the rebels. Rough in manner, intercepting communication on the Mem- he was an energetic officer, of great phis and Charleston Railroad. It con- bravery and resolution in the field. sisted of detachments of the 4th Illinois Brigadier-General Alexander McDowell and 5th Ohio Cavalry, and had proceeded McCook, a member of the Ohio family so only a few miles, when, at about nine honorably distinguished in the war, was o'clock in the evening, the enemy was a graduate of West Point of the year encountered at Black Jack Forest, and a 1852. As an officer of the 3d regular sharp skirmish ensued between the ad- infantry, he had borne an active part in vance company of the Illinois troops, - the Indian campaigns in New Mexico, eighty-six cavalry, commanded by Cap- from whence he returned to serve as intain George Dodge--and a rebel body of structor in infantry tactics at the National five hundred cavalry. A gallant charge Academy. On the fall of Sumter, he was was made upon the line of the enemy, sent to his native State, where he was which was broken, the foe retreating into speedily elected Colonel of the 1st Ohio the woods. “If it is difficult," says Major volunteers. He was in command of this Sunger, in his report of the affair, "to regiment at Bull Run, returned with it to conduct an action by night, on horseback, Ohio, and when it was mustered out of and in a forest; it is much more hazard- service recruited it again. His appointous to pursue, under like difficulties, an ment as brigadier-general dated from the unrelenting foe, in his own country, and 3d of September, 1861. He had since on his own ground. It was therefore been attached to the Department of the deemed prudent not to pursue. We took Cumberland, and with his brother, Colonel two prisoners on the spot. Four of our Robert McCook, was prominent in the men were wounded-none severely—and opening military operations in Kentucky: none killed." The rebel loss was not General George H. Thomas will be reascertained. General Hurlbut had the membered by his victory at Mill Spring. satisfaction to learn that he had met and defeated an enterprise of the enemy de-Camp Shiloh, March 28, 1862.
* Major W. D. Sunger to Brigadier-General Hurlbut
Brigadier-general Thomas L. Crittenden to the task before us, let him transfer his was the son of the Hon. John J. Critten- arms and equipments at once to braver, den, and in striking contrast with his firmer hands, and return to his home. brother, General George B. Crittenden, Our cause is as just and sacred as ever who had joined the rebellion, and whom animated men to take up arms; and if we have seen in arms against his native we are true to it and to ourselves, with State, had been honorably distinguished the continued protection of the Almighty, by his services iu repelling the enemies we must and shall triumph.” of the Union from Kentucky.
As a corollary to these patriotic propThe enemy was thus, at the end of ositions, General Beauregard, a few days March, threatened at the main points of after, addressed this extraordinary appeal its line in Mississippi, Alabama, and East to the planters of the Mississippi valley : Tennessee, with an active and efficient “More than once, a people fighting with force, including the reserves at hand, of an enemy less ruthless than yours; for not less than a hundred thousand men. imperilled rights not more dear and The danger was not likely to escape their sacred than yours; for homes and a attention. One of the best officers of the land not more worthy of resolute and Confederate service, General A. S. John- unconquerable men than yours; and ston, who had conducted the retreat from for interests of far less magnitude than Nashville, fully impressed with the de- you have now at stake, have not hesitated mands of the occasion, was in command to melt and mould into cannon the preon the line of the Southern railroad from cious bells surmounting their houses of that city, preparing to join his corps to God which had called generations to that of General Beauregard, who, after a prayer. The priesthood have ever sancmonth of preparation in the south-west, fol- tioned and counselled the conversion, in lowing his retirement from Manassas, had the hour of their nation's need, as one just placed himself, with health impaired holy and acceptable in the sight of God. by his recent attack of illness, at the head We want cannon as greatly as any peoof the army of the Mississippi. On the 5th ple who ever, as history tells you, melted of March he issued the following general their church bells to supply them; and I, order from his headquarters at Jackson, your general, entrusted with the command Tennessee :-"Soldiers—I assume this of the army embodied of your sons, your day the command of the army of the kinsmen, and your neighbors, do now call Mississippi, for the defence of our home on you to send your plantation bells to steads and liberties, and to resist the the nearest railroad depot, subject to my subjugation, spoliation, and dishonor of order, to be melted into cannon for the our people. Our mothers and wives, our defence of your plantations. Who will sisters and children, expect us to do our not cheerfully and promptly send me his duty, even to the sacrifice of our lives. bells under such circumstances ? Be of Our losses since the commencement of good cheer ; but time is precious." The the present war, in killed, wounded, and request, thus artfully urged, covering the prisoners, are now about the same as rebellion with the glories of history and those of the enemy. He must be made the sanctities of religion, was not without to atone for those reverses we have lately its effect upon an impressible people, experienced. Those reverses, far from ready to make far greater sacrifices for a disheartening, must nerve us to new deeds cause which many, doubtless, had sinof valor and patriotism, and should in- cerely persuaded themselves to be worthy spire us with an unconquerable deter- of every effort of their devotion. A Momination to drive back our invaders. bile editor, ten days after the date of the Should any one in this army be unequal | bell-metal proclamation, announced that
the appeal had “touched the hearts of battle, except by troops deployed as the people," and that already responses skirmishers, the fire by file will be avoidwere being freely made. The stewards ed. It excites the men, and renders of the St. Francis street Methodist church their subsequent control difficult. Fire had met and agreed “to tender their fire by wing or company should be resorted bell for this patriotic purpose.” A gen- to instead. During the battle, the officers tleman of Summerville had brought to and non-commissioned officers must keep the editor “a quantity of brass, some their men in the ranks, enforce obedience, thirty or forty pounds' weight, including and encourage and stimulate them, if neseveral brass tops of andirons, as the cessary. Soldiers must not be permitted donation of his wife to the cause.” A to leave the ranks, even to assist in re“Southern Woman,” in the same journal, moving our own dead, unless by special suggested that “the ladies assist by send- permission, which shall only be given ing all of their bell-metal preserving ket- when the action has been decided. The tles."* General Butler, on taking pos- surest way to protect the wounded is to session of New Orleans at the end of the drive the enemy from the field. The following month, came into possession of most pressing, highest duty is to win the a considerable collection of property of victory. * * * To quit their standthis description stored at the Custom ard on the battle-field under fire, under House, on its way to the Southern foun- pretence of removing or aiding the wounddries. It was confiscated as the military ed, will not be permitted. Any one perproperty of the enemy, sent to Boston, sisting in it will be shot on the spot, and and there sold at public auction for the whosoever shall be found to have quit the benefit of the government.
field, his regiment, or his company, withAnother order of General Beauregard, out authority, will be regarded and proon the 14th of March, was issued, evi- claimed as a coward, and dealt with acdently with the prospect before his army cordingly.” of an immediate battle. The instructions General Beauregard, indeed, had not furnish some instructive hints of the been idle in his work of preparation handling of newly raised troops.
for the conflict. As early as the 2d “Field and company officers are spe- of March, as he tells us in his report of cially enjoined to instruct their men, un- the battle which ensued, he had ascerder all circumstances, to fire with deliber- tained from the movements of General ation at the feet of the enemy. They will Grant's forces, and from “ reliable sources thus avoid over-shooting, and besides, of information,'' of which the enemy would wounded men give more trouble to our seem seldom to have been deprived, the adversary than dead, as they have to be intentions of the Union army in their taken from the field. Officers in com- occupation of a new base on the Tennesmand must be cool and collected ; hold see river. He accordingly “determined their men in hand in action, and caution to foil the design by concentrating all his them against useless, aimless firing. The available forces at and around Corinth. men must be instructed and required each Meanwhile, having called on the Goverone to single out his mark. It was the nors of the States of Tennessee, Missisdeliberate sharpshooting of our forefathers sippi, Alabama, and Louisiana, to furnish in the Revolution of 1776, and New Or- additional troops, some of them, chiefly leans, in 1815, which made them so for- regiments from Louisiana, soon reached midable against the odds with which they this vicinity, and with two divisions of were engaged. In the beginning of a General Polk's command from Columbus,
and a fine corps of troops from Mobile * The Mobile Advertiser and Register, March 18, 1862. New York Herald, April 10, 1862.
and Pensacola, under Major-General brigade by railroina enemy should be
on the following aayoneral Johnston
Bragg, constituted the army of the Mis- attempted at once, incomplete and impersissippi. At the same time, General fect as were our preparations for such a Johnston, being at Murfreesboro', on the grave and momentous adventure. Acmarch to form a junction of his forces cordingly, that night, at one o'clock, A. M., with mine, was called on to send at least the preliminary orders to the commanda brigade by railroad, so that we might ers of corps were issued for the movefall on and crush the enemy should he ment.” attempt an advance from under his gun- On the following day, from his headboats. The call on General Johnston quarters at Corinth, General Johnston was promptly complied with. His entire issued this brief and animated address force was also hastened in this direction, to his forces :“Soldiers of the Army and by the first of April our united forces of the Mississippi : I have put you in were concentrated along the Mobile and motion to offer battle to the invaders of Ohio railroad from Bethel to Corinth, your country, with the resolution and and on the Memphis and Charleston rail- discipline and valor becoming men, fightroad from Corinth to Iuka. It was then ing, as you are, for all worth living or determined to assume the offensive and dying for. You can but march to a destrike a sudden blow at the enemy in po- cisive victory over agrarian mercenaries, sition under General Grant, on the west sent to subjugate and despoil you of your bank of the Tennessee, at Pittsburg, and liberties, property and honor. Rememin the direction of Savannah, before he ber the precious stake involved, rememwas reinforced by the army under Gen- ber the dependence of your mothers, eral Buell, then known to be advancing your wives, your sisters, and your chilfor that purpose by rapid marches from dren, on the result. Remember the fair, Nash ville, via Columbla. About the broad, abounding lands, the happy homes same time General Johnston was advised that will be desolated by your defeat. that such an operation conformed to the The eyes and hopes of 8,000,000 people expectations of the President. By a rest upon you. You are expected to rapid and vigorous attack on General show yourselves worthy of your valor Grant it was expected he would be beaten and courage, worthy of the women of back into his transports and the river, or the South, whose noble devotion in this captured in time to enable us to profit by war has never been exceeded in any the victory, and remove to the rear all time. With such incentives to brave the stores and munitions that would fall deeds, and with the trust that God is into our hands in such an event, before with us, your General will lead you conthe arrival of General Buell's army on fidently to the combat, assured of sucthe scene. It was never contemplated, cess.” Accompanying this address were however, to retain the position thus gain- general orders, dividing “the Army of ed, and abandon Corinth, the strategic the Mississippi " into three corps d'armée. point of the campaign. Want of proper General Beauregard was proclaimed secofficers needful for the proper organiza- ond in command of the whole force. The tion of divisions and brigades of an army first corps d'armée was assigned to Genbrought thus suddenly together, and other eral Polk, and embraced all the troops difficulties in the way of an effective or- of his former command, less detached ganization, delayed the movement until cavalry and artillery, and reserves dethe night of the 2d April, when it was tached for the defence of Fort Pillow heard from a reliable quarter that the and Madrid bend. The second corps junction of the enemy's armies was near 'armée was assigned to General Bragg, at hand; it was then, at a late hour, and was to consist of the second division determined that the attack should be of the army of the Mississippi. The
third corps d'armée was assigned to Gen-day morning were good. From the landeral Hardee, and consisted of the army ing a road leads direct to Corinth, twenof Kentucky. General Crittenden was ty miles distant. A mile or two out this assigned a command of reserves, to con- road forks; one branch is the lower Corsist of not less than two brigades. |inth road, the other the ridge Corinth
These arrangements having been made, road. A short distance out, another it was expected that Johnston's army road takes off to the left, crosses Lick would be able to reach the Union lines creek, and leads back to the river at in time to attack them early on the 5th Hamburg, some miles further up. On instant. “The men, however," as Gen- | the right, two separate roads lead off to eral Beauregard informs us," for the Purdy, and another, a new one, across most part, were unused to marching- Snake creek to Crump's Landing on the the roads narrow, and traversing a dense- river below. Besides these, the whole ly-wooded country, became almost im- country inside our lines is cut up with passable after a severe rain-storm on the roads leading to our different camps ; night of the 4th, which drenched the and beyond the lines is the most inextroops in bivouac ; hence our forces did tricable maze of cross-roads, intersecting not reach the intersection of the roads everything and leading everywhere, in from Pittsburg and Hamburg, in the im- which it was ever my ill-fortune to bemediate vicinity of the enemy, until late come entangled. Saturday afternoon." There was some “On and between these roads, at cavalry skirmishing on the 4th and distances of from two to four or five 5th, the enemy driving in the Union miles from Pittsburg Landing, lay five pickets on the Corinth road, and boldly divisions of Major-General Grant's army reconnoitring the position of the main that Sunday morning. The advance line army.
was formed by three divisions—BrigaAt the time of this impending assault, dier-General Sherman's, Brigadier-Genfor which such vigorous preparations had eral Prentiss', and Major-General Mcbeen made, the six divisions of General Clernand's. Between these and the Grant's army, numbering about 40,000, landing lay the two others-Brigadierwere established on the left bank of the General Hurlbut's and Major-General Tennessee, in a semi-circular outline Smith's, commanded, in the absence around Pittsburg Landing, waiting the (from sickness) of that admirable officer, arrival of General Buell's force to com- by Brigadier-General W. H. L. Wallace. mence active operations against the ene-Our advance line, beginning at the exmy. The ground occupied by the Union treme left, was thus formed :-On the troops, and their position on the field, are Hamburg road, just this side the crossthus described by a correspondent at ing of Lick creek, and under bluffs on the spot : "Let the reader,” says he, the opposite bank that commanded the "understand that the Pittsburg Landing position, lay Colonel D. Stuart's brigade is simply a narrow ravine, down which a of General Sherman's division. Some road passes to the river bank, between three or four miles distant from this high bluffs on either side. There is no brigade, on the lower Corinth road, and town at all. Two log huts comprise all between that and the one to Purdy, lay the improvements visible. Back from the remaining brigades of Sherman's dithe river is a rolling country, cut up vision, McDowell's forming the extreme with numerous ravines, partially under right of our whole advance line, Hildecultivation, but perhaps the greater part brand's coming next to it, and Buckthickly wooded with some under-brush. land's next. Next to Buckland's brigThe soil is clayey, and the roads on Sun- age, though rather behind a portion of
*** Pittsburg Landing | Position ray Sherman's division. Some