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Lynch, Bishop of Charleston, column into Maryland. Kentucky will, S. C., and Archbishop Hughes of New ere long, be drawn into the struggle, York, brings before us with some dis- and the United States will, in less than tinctness the relative condition, hopes ten months, be divided into two not and prospects of the two portions of the unequal parts, marshaling hundreds of country. The letter of Bishop Lynch thousands of men against each other.': was dated Charleston, August 4, 1861, Missouri, Maryland and Kentucky were and in some roundabout way passed the indeed to be the scene of the rivalry of blockade in season to elicit a reply from the contending parties during the period the Archbishop, dated the 23d of the indicated, but with a result more favormonth, which, in the absence of post- able to the Union cause than the writer office communication, was printed in the probably expected. Catholic newspaper, the Metropolitan The following speculations on the conRecord. As both letters were doubtless duct and duration of the war which Sumwritten with an eye to the public, the ter had inaugurated, and for which the end was thus directly gained in spite of recent contest at Bull Run had opened the regulations restricting all intercourse an indefinite future, are of interest, exbetween the North and the South. pressing as they do the opinions of this Passing over the oft-repeated discussion period of an intelligent and well informed of the origin of the war, already va- observer, in a position of such high inriously presented in these pages, we find fluence and authority at the South. “The the following passages of an historical war," writes Bishop Lynch, "was uninterest bearing directly upon the pre- necessary in the beginning. It brings sent state of the struggle, more than six ruin to thousands in its prosecution. It months after the first decided steps will be fruitless of any good. At its taken in the secession movement at conclusion the parties will stand apart Charleston: “What a change," writes exhausted and embittered by it; for Bishop Lynch to his friend,“ has come every battle, however won or lost, will over these States since I wrote to you have served but to widen the chasm a long letter last November, and even between the North and South, and to since I had the pleasure of seeing you render more difficult, if not impossible, last March. All that I anticipated in any future reconstruction. Will it be a that letter has come to pass, and more long war, or a short and mighty one ? than I looked for. All the hopes cherish- The Cabinet and the Northern press has ed last spring, of a peaceable solution, pronounced for the last. Yet this is have vanished before the dread realities little more than an idle dream. What of war. What is still before us? Mis-could 400,000 men do? I do not think souri, Maryland and Kentucky are there is a general on either side able to nearer secession now than Virginia, fight 50,000 men. And the North would North Carolina and Tennessee were need eight or ten such generals. Cerfour months ago. Missouri is a battle- tainly the 40,000 under McDowell, after field. I think that President Davis, five hour's fighting, fought on mechanicafter the victory at Stonebridge, will ally without any generalship. The higher probably, as his next move, throw a officers had completely lost the guiding



reins. On our side the Southern troops be established by any such course. It ought to have been in Washington with- would not be successful, and even if in forty-eight hours. But the 40,000 successful-it would never subjugate it." on the Confederate side were, I appre- Thus much for the active prosecution hend, wo unwieldy a body for our gen- of the war. Looking at it on the other erals. Did not Bonaparte say, that 'not hand as a controversy to be finally deone of his marshals could general 50,000 termined in the slow exhaustion of the men in battle ? Soult could bring them resources of the combatants, he found the to the field, and place them properly, North and the South thus relatively sitbut could go no further.' But without uated, “That portion of the former generals, what could 400,000 men do United States will suffer most in such a against the South ? By force of num- contest, and must finally succumb, which bers, and at great loss, they might take is least able to dispense with the support city after city. But unless they left it received from the other two sections. large permanent garrisons, their author- How the North can do ity would die out with the sound of their Southern trade I presume it can judge drums. Such an army marching through after three or four months' trial. But it a country covered with forests and thick- would seem that the failure to sell to the ets, and occupied by a population hostile South one hundred and twenty millions to a man, and where even school-boys of their manufactures each year, the can ‘bark a squirrel,' would be decimated stoppage of so much of their shipping every hundred miles of its progress by a interest as was engaged in the two hunguerrilla warfare, against which it could dred and twenty millions of our foreign find no protection. This mode of attack-exports, and the return importations, ing the South can affect nothing beyond and in our internal coasting trade, tothe loss of life it will entail, and the tem- gether with the loss of the profits and porary devastation that will mark the commissions on so vast a business, must track of the armies. . .... One other have a very serious effect, one that I see warlike course remains—to capture and no way of escaping. Truly, the North hold all the Southern ports, and thus has to pay dearly for its whistle of seek to control commerce independent Black Republicanism. The North-west of secession, leaving the interior of the depended partially on the South for a South to fret and fume as it pleases. market for its productions, and so far This is the problem of belling the cat. will suffer from the loss of it. It must The Northern forces would have to cap- also be incidentally affected by comture Norfolk, Charleston, Savannah, Wil-mercial embarrassments at the North. mington, N. C., Pensacola, Mobile, New They will assuredly have enough to eat Orleans and Galveston, besides some and to wear, but the 'fancy' prices of fifteen other similar points. At each of real estate and stocks, by which they them they would find a stone bridge ; computed their rapidly increasing wealth, and even if they should succeed, they must fall in a way to astonish Wall could only hold military possession, and Street. Should their own crops fail, as be ever in arms against the attacks of they sometimes do, or should the Eurothe State authorities. Peace could never pean crops be abundant, their commerce must fall. Yet, as the mass of the poor is within the Confederate States I can will have all that they ever get any- only guess at — I suppose about 25,where-food and raiment, and that with 000,000. But as the greater part of out stint — the North-west will suffer our expenses is at home, any currency comparatively little. How will it fare we are satisfied to use will do—whether with the South should the war be long bank bills, Confederate bonds, or treaand so powerfully waged as to require sury notes. When we go abroad it the Southern Confederation to keep say must be with gold or with cotton. This 100,000 men in arms, and if her ports last is the spinal column of our financial are strictly blockaded ? This is an im- system. The following is the proposed portant question, and one that can be mode of operating with it: two millions, answered only from a practical know- ' or two-and-a-half, of bales will be conledge of the habits, resources, and dis- veyed to the Confederate government, to positions of the Southern people. Our : be paid for in bonds or treasury notes. needs will be provisions, clothing, money This cotton will be worth, at ordinary for the governmental and war expenses, prices, $100,000,000. If it can be exand for the purchase from abroad of ported at once, it is so much gold. If what we absolutely require, and are not it is retained, it will form the security already supplied with. As for pro- for any loan that may be required visions, I am satisfied that this season we abroad. The other third of the cotton are gathering enough for two years' will be sold by the planters as best they abundant supply. Every one is raising can on their own account. The chief corn, wheat and stock. On this point difficulty is the blockade, which may the South need not envy the North-west. prevent the export and sale abroad of Again, manufactures of every kind are the cotton. A loan on it as security springing up on all sides. In this State while it is still unshipped, and scattered we are providing for our wants—from in the interior in numberless small warelucifer matches and steam engines to houses, could not easily be effected. powder and rifled cannon. Clothing, “Up to the present time, and for six too, though of a ruder texture, and months more, the blockade, so far from sometimes inferior quality, is abundantly doing any serious injury, has, on the made, and easily procured. The sup- contrary, benefited, and will continue ply of tea and coffee will, I presume, in to benefit, the South, forcing us to be time run out. This will put us to some active, and to do for ourselves much that trouble, but otherwise, neither for pro- we preferred formerly to pay others to visions nor for clothes, will the South be do for us. I presume that next January, seriously inconvenienced. The blacks with a crop of 3,500,000 or 4,000,000 (by-the-by, more quiet and orderly now, bales in hand, the South would become if possible, than before), will remain de- very restive under a strict blockade. voted to agriculture, while the rapidly Should it continue twelve months longer, increasing demand for home productions property at the South would go down, of every kind gives ready employment as they say it has in New York. But to the poorer clssses of the whites. before that time comes, another very What amount of gold and silver there serious complication arises — how EngREPLY OF ARCHBISHOP HUGHES.

land and France will stand the cutting think it would be undesirable and inoff of the supply of an article on which jurious both to the North and to the depend two-thirds of the manufacturing South. Unless I have been deceived by interests of the one, and one-third of statements considered reliable, I would those of the other ? They cannot, try say that the mind of the North looks they never so much, supply the de- only to the purpose of bringing back the ficiency. As far as the feelings of Eng- seceded States to their organic condition land are concerned, and I presume, those ante bellum.of France, too, both nations are decided As Christian Bishops, the thoughts of ly and bitterly anti-slavery ; but neither these writers were turned to the proswill be guilty of the mistake of the pects of peace, which both desired ; but North, and utterly sacrifice vast in- which neither had, for some time to terests for the sake of a speculative come, much ground to hope for. The idea. If they find they cannot do with remarks of Archbishop Hughes on this out Southern cotton, they will interfere, subject, proposing a possible plan of adfirst probably to make peace, and if that justment, sufficiently demonstrate the effort fails, then in such other manner as perplexities of the question. “That will secure for them what will be a word 'peace,” said he, “is becoming necessity. Mr. Seward's letter to Day- more or less familiar here in the North. ton, and its reception in Europe, the In a crisis like this it is not, in my transportation of troops to Canada, and opinion, expressive of a sound principle Admiral Milne's declaration as to the or a safe policy. Its meaning changes inefficiency of the blockade, are straws the basis and the issue of this melanalready showing the probable course of choly war. If changed, it will be a war, future events. Is the Federal Govern- not between the South and the North, ment strong enough for a war with Eng- geographically considered, but a war land and France, in addition to that with between the two great political parties the South ???

that divide the country. Instead of this Archbishop Hughes, in his reply, de- partisan hostility, wise patriots should fended with spirit the attitude of the rival each other in restoring or preNorth, treating the war as a sad neces- serving the Union as one nation, its sity for the preservation of the Govern- prosperity, and the protection of hapment and the State, and the avoidance piness of its entire people, in all their of the intolerable evils of anarchy and legitimate rights. But all this is to be perpetual hostilities. Some points in his judged of by others, and the opinion of remarks are worth noting. Of the ob- any individual is of the smallest account. ject of the war, he said, “There ap- If a word of mine could have the slightpears to be an idea in the South that the est influence, I would suggest that even Federal Government and the people of while the war is going on, there might the North are determined to conquer be a convention of the seceded States aud subjugate them. This, I think, is a held within their own borders. It might great mistake. First, in the stern sense be one representative appointed from of the word 'conquer,' it seems to be each of those States, by the governor, to utterly impossible ; and, if possible, I meet and examine the whole case as it

now stands — arrange and draw up a 33,000,000, wise and patriotic men report of their grievances, or what they might suggest, according to the rules consider such-and report to their res- prescribed in the original document, the pective Governors the result of their de- improvements which the actual condition liberations, and the conclusions at which of the country would seem to require. they have arrived. The same process The Constitution itself, in its letter and might be adopted in the States that have spirit, is no doubt the same as it was not seceded, and similar reports made when first framed; but everything around to their respective Governors. This us has been undergoing a change for would be only a preparatory measure for the last eighty years. For a peace of something more important. If a better that kind I would be a very sincere, if feeling or understanding could be even not an influential advocate. But to expartially arrived at, a future convention pect that a peace will spring up by the of all the States, by their representatives, advocacy of individuals in the midst of would have something to act upon. The the din and clash of arms, amid the mudifficulties might be investigated and pro- tually alienated feelings of the people, vided for ; the Constitution might be re- and the widening of the breach which vised by general consent, and if the plat- has now separated them, would be, in form — sufficiently ample for 3,000,000 my opinion, hoping against hope. Still at the period when the Constitution was we must trust that the Almighty will formed—is found to be neither of breadth overrule and direct the final issues of nor strength to support a population of this lamentable contest.”



The privateer, or ship of war, as she end of October, 1846, and was actively claimed herself to be, of the greatest re- engaged in an efficient prosecution of the pute in the service of the Confederates blockade till the sudden destruction of at this period, was undoubtedly the his vessel on the 8th of the ensuing DeSumter, sailing under the command of cember. While in pursuit of a vessel Captain Raphael Semmes. This officer apparently endeavoring to run the blockhad been of some note in the United ade, the Somers was struck by a heavy States Navy. A native of the State of norther, and being lightly ballasted, was Maryland, he had entered the service in thrown on her beam-ends, and in ten 1826, and since that time had been em- minutes sunk in the waves. In this brief ployed in eleven years of active service interval Lieutenant Semmes acted with at sea, and about ten years' duty on praiseworthy seamanship and heroism. shore. He had borne a part of consid- After doing all that could be done to save erable distinction in the naval operations the vessel, he gave orders to preserve as on the coast of Mexico in the war with many of the crew as possible, launching that nation in 1846–7, as Flag-Lieuten- a boat with success, and placing on board ant of the squadron, and Lieutenant- of her several officers and seventeen men, Commanding the ill-fated United States who were unable to swim, with directions brig Somers. He succeeded Commander to make for the neighboring Verde IsIngraham in charge of this vessel at the land and return for others. He himself

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