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better cause. They consisted of two in pursuit of the fleet of the enemy which elaborately constructed works, mounting had fled up the Albemarle Sound, a distogether twenty-two beavy guns, three tance of some thirty or forty miles, into of them being 100-pounders, rifled. Pasquotank river toward Elizabeth City. Four other batteries mounting together The squadron of Captain Rowan, numtwenty guns, a large proportion of them bering fourteen vessels, sailed from Roabeing also of large calibre, and some of noke on the afternoon of Sunday, the them rifled ; eight steamers, mounting day after the surrender, and arrived at tro guns each, and each having a rifled the mouth of the river at night. The gun with the diameter of a 32-pounder, | following morning, the 10th, the fleet asa prolonged obstruction of sunken vessels cended the river and at eight o'clock came and spiles to thwart our advance, and, in presence of the enemy's gunboats conaltogether, a body of men numbering sisting of seven steamers and a schooner scarcely less than 5,000, of whom 3,000 armed with two heavy 32-pounders, are now our prisoners.”
drawn up in front of the city. On givPresident Lincoln associating this new ing chase, it was found, says Lieutenant victory at Roanoke with the recent suc-Quackenbush, the commander of the cess at Fort Henry, commemorated both United States Steamer Delaware, the achievements by a general order. “The flag-ship of Captain Rowan, in his spirited President, Commander-in-Chief of the report, " that the enemy had a battery Army and Navy, returns thanks to of four guns on our left, and one of one Brigadier-General Burnside, and Flag- gun in the town facing us. At six minOfficer Goldsborough, to General Grant, utes past nine, A. M., engaged gunboats and Flag-Officer Foote, and the land and and battery, and closed in fast upon them, naval forces under their respective com- filling the air with shot and shell. At mands, for their gallant achievements in twenty-five minutes past nine, A. M., the the capture of Fort Henry and Roanoke schooner struck her colors and was found Island. While it will be no ordinary to be on fire. About the same time, the pleasure for him to acknowledge and rebel flag on the battery at Cobb's Point reward, in becoming manner, the valor was taken down and waved, apparently of the living, he also recognizes his duty as a signal for the rebel gunboats. Wilto pay fitting honor to the memory of liam F. Lynch, Flag-Officer, was in comthe gallant dead. The charge at Roanoke mand of the fort. This signal was afterIsland, like the bayonet charge at Mill wards ascertained to be an order for the Spring, proves that the close grapple evacuation of the rebel gunboats. They and sharp steel, and loyal and patriotic immediately ran close in shore, and were soldiers, must always put rebels and instantaneously abandoned and set on traitors to flight. The late achievements fire by their crews, some of whom esof the Navy show that the flag of the caped in boats, and others, jumping overUnion, once borne in proud glory around board, swam and waded to the shore. the world by naval heroes, will soon Lieutenant-Commanding Quackenbush, again float over every rebel city and now gave the order to his aid, F. R. Curstronghold, and that it shall forever be tis, to man the cutter and bring off a rehonored and respected as the emblem of bel flag for Commander Rowan. J. H. liberty and union in every land, and Raymond, acting Master's Mate, together upon every sea."*
with a part of his division, immediately The victory at Roanoke Island was jumped in the boat with F. R. Curtis, immediately followed up by an expedi- and boarded the rebel steamer Fanny, tion in command of Captain Rowan sent which was at the time on fire, and haul
* Order Washington, February 15th, 1862. led down the rebel flag ; then proceeded
“ THE MAN WHO SAT ON THE POWDER.”
on shore to the battery, and Mr. Ray- revolver in this hand-to-hand fight, and mond then planted the Stars and Stripes, sunk beneath the water. The slaughter and returned on board the Delaware, was fearful."* which was moored to the wharf at Eliza- An extraordinary act of bravery is beth City, at forty-five minutes past nine recorded of a gunner's mate in this aco'clock, in the forenoon, thus ending one tion. As the Valley City, one of the of the shortest and most brilliant engage- Union fleet, was engaged with the enements which has occurred during this my, a shell from their battery entered unfortunate civil war.”
the vessel and exploded by the magaIn this engagement, the enemy were zine, where John Davis was passing out doubtless looking for an encounter at powder for the guns. Seeing the danger, long range, when their guns might have he protected an open barrel of powder inflicted more serious damage, but Com- with his body, actually seating himself mander Rowan had, as we have just seen, upon it, and remained in that position provided another plan of attack. Re- till the flames were extinguished. The gardless of the guns of the enemy, he heroic act was reported by Lieutenant pushed on without returning a shot until Chaplin, the commander of the Valley within three-quarters of a mile of the fort, City, to Flag-Officer Goldsborough, who when his vessels opened fire and dashed brought it to the notice of the Navy Deupon the rebel gunboats, driving into partment, recommending “the gallant them and running them down. One only and noble sailor” to special consideraof the vessels was saved from destruction, tion. Secretary Welles promptly replied the Ellis, whose Commander, Captain to this communication by conferring the Cooke, was wounded and taken prisoner. appointment on Davis of acting gunnerAfter the gunboats were abandoned, the a substantial promotion, which raised his rebels commenced setting fire to the salary from twenty-five dollars a month principal buildings in Elizabeth City, to a thousand dollars a year. A popuwhich had been deserted by most of its lar subscription was also started in New inhabitants. The prompt assurances of York by W.C. Bryant, Elias Wade, Jr., protection of Commander Rowan, how- and others, for “the man who sat on the ever, checked this insane proceeding. powder," which resulted in the payment In reference to this matter, in a general to him of eleven hundred dollars. In order after the action, he expressed his the correspondence connected with this gratification, "at the evidence of the high matter, Lieutenant Chaplin gave the foldiscipline of the crews, in refraining from lowing account of the brave recipient : trespassing, in the slightest degree, upon “John Davis is a native of Finland, the private property of defenceless peo- Russia proper; and has been a citizen ple in a defenceless town. The generous of the United States for twenty-five offer to go on shore and extinguish the years— fifteen of which he has spent in flames, applied by the torch of a vandal the merchant marine, and ten years in soldiery upon the houses of its own de- various vessels of the naval service in fenceless women and children, is a strik- this country. His age is forty-two years. ing evidence of the justness of our cause, He has no family. Such is his history. and must have its effect in teaching our As to his character : he was received on deluded countrymen a lesson in humanity board my vessel while in the Potomac and civilization.” The Union loss in this river as coxswain, along with the crew encounter, was, two killed, and several of a launch, to shelter in the exigencies wounded. Of the enemy, says a corres- of the service, and I very soon marked pondent, in his description of the scene,
1 * Correspondence of the New York Tribune, February “many were killed by the bayonet and / 15th, 1862.
him as a thorough seaman, and a man Officer Goldsborough and General Burnwho, under all circumstances, was pru- side issued the following joint procladentially interested in the general details mation, in words of earnest entreaty, of duty on board this vessel. He is of addressed to the people of North Carostaid, solid habits." *
lina : Elizabeth City was taken possession of "The mission of our joint expedition by the Union forces the day after the en- is not to invade any of your rights, but gagement. On the 12th, Edenton, at the to assert the authority of the United west end of Albemarle Sound, was visit- States, and to close with you the desolaed by a portion of the flotilla under com- ting war brought upon your state by mand of Lieutenant A. Maury. On the comparatively a few bad men in your approach of the vessels to the town, part midst. Influenced infinitely more by the of a flying artillery regiment, variously worst passions of human nature than by estimated at from one to three hundred, any show of elevated reason, they are fled precipitately without firing a shot. still urging you astray, to gratify their “Among the results of the expedition,” | unholy purposes. They impose upon adds Lieutenant Maury in his report, your credulity by telling of wicked and "are the destruction of eight cannon, even diabolical intentions on our part; and one schooner on the stocks at Eden- of our desire to destroy your freedom, ton. We captured two schooners in the demolish your property, liberate your Sound ; one loaded with four thousand slaves, injure your women, and such like bushels of corn. We also took six bales enormities; all of which, we assure you, of cotton from the custom-house wharf.” is not only ridiculous, but utterly and Lieutenant Jeffers, the next day, with willfully false. We are Christians as several of the vessels of the fleet, pro- well as yourselves, and we profess to ceeded to the Chesapeake and Albemarle know full well, and to feel profoundly, canal, the thoroughfare between Curri- the sacred obligations of the character. tuck and the upper counties, for the pur- No apprehensions need be entertained pose of obstructing its use. A body of that the demands of humanity or justice rebels were found engaged with the same will be disregarded. We shall inflict no object. They fled on the arrival of the injury, unless forced to do so by your Union party, who completed their work own acts, and upon this you may confiby sinking two schooners in the mouth dently rely. Those men are your worst of the canal.
enemies. They, in truth, have drawn A few days after, on the 19th, the flo- you into your present condition, and are tilla, under Commander Rowan, set out the real disturbers of your peace and from Edenton for a reconnoissance of the the happiness of your firesides. We inChowan river as far as Winton and the vite you, in the name of the Constitution, Roanoke river, on the opposite side of and in that of virtuous loyalty and civilthe Sound to Plymouth. On approach- ization, to separate yourselves at once ing Winton, the United States steamer from these malign influences, to return to Perry, having on board Colonel Haw- your allegiance, and not compel us to kins with a company of his regiment, resort further to the force under our conwas fired into with a volley of musketry trol. The Government asks only that its from the high bank on the shore. In re-authority may be recognized ; and, we taliation, the town was shelled, and, with repeat, in no manner or way does it dethe exception of the church, which was sire to interfere with your laws, constituspared, burnt by the Union troops. tionally established, your institutions of
On the 18th of February, Flag- any kind whatever, your property of any * Correspondence, etc., Evening Post, July 6, 1862. sort, or your usages in any respect."
A proclamation of Governor Henry our zeal and animate by example. I T. Clark, of North Carolina, issued a few call upon the brave and patriotic men of days after, was in striking contrast with our state to volunteer, from the mountthis generous appeal. Calling upon the ains to the sea."* citizens to supply the requisition for The two proclamations clearly enough troops of the president of the Confeder- indicate the spirit in which the war was ate States and to volunteer for the de- fought. Conciliatory, forbearing, delifence of the state, the governor denounced cate, scrupulous, on the one side ; on the the advance of the Union forces as an other fierce and stubborn in opposition, attempt“ to deprive us of liberty, prop- rousing the passions of the people by the erty, and all that we hold dear as a self-worst misrepresentations of those who governing and free people. We must would not call themselves their foes. resist him at all hazards and by every The Union commanders and the Adminmeans in our power. He wages a war istration at Washington appeared anxious for our subjugation—a war forced upon to conduct the contest, as far as possible, us in wrong and prosecuted without right, on the principle of peace; the Confedand in a spirit of vengeful wickedness erates, from the beginning, urged unmitiwithout a parallel in the history of war- gated, determined war. Was it to be fare among civilized nations. *** The wondered at, under these circumstances, · enemy is redoubling his efforts and that, the National Government failing straining every nerve to overrun our adequately to exert its strength, the concountry and subjugate us to his domina- test was protracted by the resolution of tion—his avarice and ambition. Already the party inferior in numbers and reis it proposed in their Congress to estab- sources ? lish a territorial government in a portion of our state. Now is the time to prove 1862.
* Governor Clark's Proclamation, Raleigh, February 22,
FEBRUARY 220, 1862.
THE birthday of Washington, 1862, the meeting of the electoral college, and marks an important period in the history for counting the votes, and inaugurating of the war. On both sides the occasion the President. The election having been was accepted to give renewed vigor and held in the several states, the votes were impetus to the struggle. At Richmond, formally opened in the presence of both it was memorable as the day of the inau- houses of the Confederate Congress, on guration of Jefferson Davis, as President the 19th of February, when 109 votes of the Confederate States. In accord were received from eleven States, all of ance with the constitution which had which were given to Jefferson Davis for been adopted, the Provisional Govern President, and Alexander H. Stevens for ment under which he had previously Vice-President. Of this number, Alaacted, was now to give place to a more bama cast 11 ; Arkansas, 6 ; Florida, 4; formal authority. By the terms of the Georgia, 12 ; Louisiana, 8; Mississippi, constitution, the provisional congress was 9; North Carolina, 12 ; South Carolina, to prescribe the time for holding the elec-8; Tennessee, 15 ; Texas, 8: and Virtion of President and Vice-President, forginia, 18 electoral votes. The inauguration was fixed for the 22d. The cere- my own unworthiness. In return for monies, on the appointed day, generally their kindness, I can only offer assuranfollowed the old order of proceeding at ces of the gratitude with which it is reWashington. The Senate and House of ceived, and can but pledge a zealous Representatives met in the forenoon, in devotion of every faculty to the service the hall of the House of Delegates of Vir- of those who have chosen me as their ginia, where, with the Governor of the Chief Magistrate." State and the officials, they received the After these brief preliminaries, the President-elect. The whole company speaker passed to a denunciation of the then moved in procession to the statue United States, professing to find in cerof Washington, on the public square, tain measures of the government in Marywhere a platform was erected for the ser- land, and elsewhere, growing out of the vices of the day. A prayer was offered war, a justification of the alleged policy by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Johns, Episcopal of the South, in withdrawing from what Bishop of Virginia, when an Inaugural he was pleased to consider an assured Address was delivered by the President- despotism. How far his comparison of elect, after which the oath of office was the freedom of the North and South was administered by the President of the likely to be borne out by the realities of Senate, and Jefferson Davis was pro- the case may be judged by the necessiclaimed President of the Confederate ties, arising from their position, of the States for the ensuing six years.
two portions of the country. The ample The inaugural address was well writ- resources, and generally undisturbed ten, politic, with an air of calmness and loyalty of the North, required but little dignity and assurance of ultimate success. effort on the part of the administration to The speaker commenced with a graceful sustain the war ; indeed, the government allusion to the day. “Fellow Citizens- fell short of the demands of the people On this the birthday of the man most in pressing it on. In the South, with inidentified with the establishment of Ameri- ferior means and resources, however can Independence, and beneath the monu- prompt the public might be to submit, ment erected to commemorate his heroic the war necessarily demanded a despotic virtues, and those of his compatriots, we exercise of authority. have assembled to usher into existence the “When a long course of class legislapermanent government of the Confeder- tion," said President Davis,“ directed ate States. Through this instrumentality, not to the general welfare, but to the under the favor of Divine Providence, aggrandizement of the northern section we hope to perpetuate the principles of of the Union, culminated in a warfare on our revolutionary fathers. The day, the the domestic institutions of the Southern memory, and the purpose seem fitly as- States—when the dogmas of a sectional sociated."
party, substituted for the provisions of "It is with mingled feelings of humility the constitutional compact, threatened to and pride,” he continued, " that I appear, destroy the sovereign rights of the States, to take, in the presence of the people and six of those States, withdrawing from the before high Heaven, the oath prescribed Union, confederated together, to exercise as a qualification for the exalted station the right and perform the duty of into which the unanimous voice of the peo- stituting a government which would ple has called me. Deeply sensible of better secure the liberties for the preserall that is implied by this manifestation vation of which that Union was estaof the people's confidence, I am yet more blished. Whatever of hope some may profoundly impressed by the vast re- have entertained, that a returning sense sponsibility of the office, and humbly feel of justice would remove the danger with