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ANDREW JOHNSON, GOVERNOR OF TENNESSEE.

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selves to be, freemen. Announcing that The new duties and responsibilities of he would himself take the field at their a mixed civil and military character head, as Governor of the State and com- thrown upon the government by the ocmander-in-chief of its army, I call “said cupation of so considerable a portion of he, “upon every able-bodied man of the a State, in open hostility to the Union, State, without regard to age, to enlist in were met by the appointment by Presiits service. I command him who candent Lincoln, of Senator Andrew Johnobtain a weapon to march with our son, as military Governor of Tennessee. armies. I ask him who can repair or The nomination was confirmed by the forge an arm, to make it ready at once Senate on its presentation, on the 4th of for the soldier. I call upon every citi- March, and at the same time the rank of zen to open his purse and his storehouses Brigadier-General was bestowed upon of provisions to the brave defenders of the new Governor. Fully armed with our soil. I bid the old and the young, authority to establish a provisional gov. wherever they may be, to stand as pic- ernment in the State, Governor Johnson kets to our struggling armies. * * * immediately left Washington for the cost You have done well and nobly, but the of his new duties, in company with the work is not yet accomplished. The Hon. Horace Maynard, member of Conenemy still flaunts his banner in your gress from the Knoxville district of Tenface ; his foot is upon your native soil ; nessee, and the Hon. Emerson Etheridge, the echo of his drum is heard in your a loyal member of the previous Congress mountains and valleys ; hideous desola- from eastern Tennessee, at present clerk tion will soon mark his felon track unless of the House of Representatives. The he is repelled. To you who are armed, party, accompanied by other prominent and have looked death in the face, who Union exiles, reached Nashville on the have been tried and are the Old Guard,' 12th of March. Governor Johnson set the State appeals to uphold her standard. himself at once to prepare the way for Encircle that standard with your valor the restoration of the State to its legitiand your heroism, and abide the fortunes mate position in the Union-a work of war so long as an enemy of your State which would probably have had a good shall dare confront you. The enemy prospect of success, had not the presence relies upon your forfeiture to reënlist, of the confederate armies on its soil, and makes sure of an easy victory in marked it out as the “dark and bloody your want of endurance. Disappoint ground” of desperate and continuous him!”

conflict. The capture of Nashville, had, In a message to the legislature the in fact, only transferred the war from following day, Governor Harris stated, Kentucky to Tennessee, and the struggle that since the passage of the State act of was not likely to grow less desperate as May, 1861,* he had organized and put it was brought nearer the strongholds of into the field, for the confederate service, the rebel authority. fifty-nine regiments of infantry, one regi- In a speech to the citizens who had ment of cavalry, eleven cavalry battal- assembled before his hotel, on the evening ions, and over twenty independent com- immediately after his arrival, Governor panies, mostly artillery. The Confeder- Johnson reminded his hearers of the ate government had armed about fifteen nature and progress of the rebellion, and thousand of these troops ; but to arm the the moderate and reasonable course taken remainder, Governor Harris had “to by the government for its suppression. draw heavily upon the sporting guns of He found, he said, the State without our citizens.”.

authority, its executive, legislature, and * Ante, vol. 1, p. 192.

judiciary dissolved, or in abeyance; he was there “to give the protection of law, tive policy will be adopted. To those, actively enforced, to her citizens, and, as especially, who in a private unofficial speedily as may be, to restore her gov- capacity have assumed an attitude of ernment to the same condition as before hostility to the government, a full and the existing rebellion. ** Those who, complete amnesty for all past acts and through the dark and weary night of the declarations is offered, upon the one conrebellion, have maintained their allegi- dition of their again yielding themselves ance to the Federal government, will be peaceful citizens, to the just supremacy honored. The erring and misguided, of the laws.” In this spirit, blending a will be welcomed on their return. While good share of sagacity with his patriotic it may become necessary, in vindicating impulses, Governor Johnson entered the violated majesty of the law, and in upon his task, and secured the peace reasserting its imperial sway, to punish and good order of this important city, intelligent and conscious treason in high under circumstances of no ordinary emplaces, no merely retaliatory or vindic- barrassment.

CHAPTER LIV.

GENERAL BURNSIDE'S EXPEDITION TO NORTH CAROLINA, AND BATTLE OF ROANOKE

ISLAND, FEB. 1862.

DURING the last months of 1862, there taken for the suppression of the rebelwas considerable activity at New York, lion he was summoned by Governor in the preparation of the material for a Sprague of Rhode Island, where his combined military and naval expedition, merits were well known, to take comwhich was understood to be placed di- mand of the 1st regiment of volunteers rectly under the charge of General Am- of that State. In the organization of the brose Everett Burnside. This gentleman, forces at Washington, previous to the bata native of Indiana, a graduate of Westtle at Bull Run, he was assigned a BrigaPoint, in 1847, and subsequently an dier's command in the division of General artillery officer, actively engaged in the Hunter, and, as we have seen, was foreMexican war, and on the frontier, re- most in action in that engagement. His signed his commission in the army, in personal qualities were such as eminently 1853, and then became engaged in Rhode fitted him for command ; active, energetic, Island in the manufacture of a breech- and self-reliant, of shrewd military sagaloading rifle invented by himself and city, united with practical experience, a bearing his name. He was thrown out keen disciplinarian, frank and pleasing in of this pursuit, with considerable pecuni- manner, he secured both the respect and ary embarrassment, by the failure of the the affection of his men. Secretary of War, the secessionist Floyd, The entire military force of the expeto provide as had been expected, for the dition, as it was gathered at Annapolis, employment of the weapon in the army. numbered about sixteen thousand men, He then was employed as President of comprising 15. regiments of infantry, a the Land Office Department, and after-battalion of infantry, a battery of artilwards as Treasurer of the Illinois Cen- lery, beside a large body of gunners for tral Railway, the company with which the armed vessels, capable of rendering General McClellan was also connected. service on land, and the sailors of the When the first military measures were fleet. There were three army brigades, FORCE OF THE EXPEDITION.

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each including five regiments. To the 1st, for peculiar service on the shores of commanded by General John G. Foster, North Carolina, within the waters of whose services in his command at Fort Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds, and for Sumter during the siege will be remem- the most efficient coöperation of its naval bered, were assigned four Massachusetts and military departments. For this purregiments, the 23d, 24th, 25th, and 27th, pose the guns of the fleet were so and the 10th Connecticut. To the 2d, equipped with ship and field carriages, commanded by General Jesse L. Reno, that they might be used either on the of Pennsylvania, a graduate of West water or the land. There was also a Point, of 1846, and afterwards employed thoroughly organized signal corpsin active service in the ordnance depart- formed of twenty-two lieutenants, and ment, were assigned the 21st Massachu- sixty-six picked men of the various regisetts, the 51st Pennsylvania, the 51st ments—who, by a preconcerted system of New York, the 9th New Jersey, and the waving of flags of different colors and 6th New Hampshire. To the 3d, com- sizes by day, and of torches by night, the manded by General John G. Parke, of movements indicating certain figures or Pennsylvania, a graduate of West Point cyphers readily translated, were enabled of 1849, and, previous to the war, en- to communicate intelligence as might be gaged in many responsible employments needed either of the fleet or the army. in the Engineer corps, were assigned the In addition there were two extensive 4th, and a battalion of the 5th Rhode pontoon trains ; one, such as is employed Island, the 8th and 11th Connecticut, the by the French, of wooden boats, eight 53d and 89th New York, and Belgier's feet wide, and thirty-two feet long, to be Rhode Island battery of one hundred placed in two parallel lines connected by and six men, one hundred and twenty a flooring; the other, of the regular Indiahorses, four 10-pounder Parrott guns, rubber pattern, familiar to our service. and two 12-pounder field howitzers. The guns carried by the fleet, were For the transportation of this force from mostly of the newest construction of the the Chesapeake, with its various equip- steel rifled Wiard and Parrott patterns, ments, horses, arms, and supplies of coal, with an effective range of from one and lumber, water, provisions, etc., there was a half to two and a half miles. Thus employed a fleet of side-wheel-steamers, armed and equipped, and laden with her armed propellers, and sailing vessels of precious freight of picked trained men, varying denominations, numbering in all and a numerous array of staff officers, more than a hundred craft.

attached to the commander-in-chief and In addition to this military array, an the several brigades, the Burnside Eximposing naval squadron, numbering pedition, after months of anxious preeighteen light-draught steam gunboats, paration, set sail from the first rendezwith an armament of about fifty heavy vous at Annapolis, on the 9th of Janurifle cannon accompanied the expedition. ary, 1862. Owing to dense fogs in the The command of this force and of the Chesapeake Bay, incident to the season, naval operations generally, was assigned the next station at Fortress Monroe was to Flag-Officer L. M. Goldsborough, the not reached till midnight of the 10th. Commander-in-Chief of the North Atlan- The next day without detention, the ortic Blockading Squadron, and was divided der was given to sail, and Sunday, the into two columns for active service, to be 11th, saw the fleet at sea. It was now led by commanders S. F. Hazard, and to be seen what fortune so numerous a Stephen C. Rowan, of the United States band of vessels, many of small size, and Navy.

some of them dependent on the others The entire expedition was arranged for their progress and safety, would have

upon the broad Atlantic. As it was happily all were not alike in safety. The generally supposed, while the vessels | Grapeshot, one of the floating batteries were collecting, that they would be em- towed by the steamer New Brunswick, ployed inside of the capes of Virginia- was compelled to be abandoned before every spot having been mentioned, from reaching the inlet, the men on board being the Rappahannock to Elizabeth River— with difficulty saved by the crew of the but little anxiety had been felt respecting steamer. The larger vessels and a numtheir sea-going qualities. Now, how- ber of schooners which had arrived, were ever, the case was different. The un-compelled to remain at the anchorage outusual inclemency of the season, and the side, where they were exposed to the full proverbial dangers of Hatteras, whither fury of the tempest. The steamer City it was now at once understood that the of New York, a propeller of nearly six fleet was sailing, were highly suggestive hundred tons, commanded by Capt. J. of alarm for the safety of the frail barks; W. Nye, reached Hatteras on the afterwhile the storms which had beset the ex- noon of Monday, only to perish within peditions to Charleston and Port Royal, sight of the shore. As she was endeavwere not forgotten. Indeed, when it was oring to enter the inlet, she grounded on understood that the route was seaward, the bar, and was immediately exposed to a number of light-draught tug steamers, the force of the breakers. Her officers notwithstanding their charter engage- and crew took to the rigging for safety. ments, much to its detriment, were with- All that night and the next day, the vesdrawn from the expedition. The event sel lay in this condition, at the mercy of proved that there was no little hazard the elements, beyond the reach of succor. from the elements in the adventure. It was not till Wednesday, that her crew

Sunday, the first day out, there was were enabled to reach the shore. The last considerable embarrassment from the to leave the vessel, Mr. Shouerman, the fog on the coast, which greatly impeded second engineer, mounted the mast, cut progress. Monday was clear, with a down the flag and bore it wrapped round heavy wind and rough sea, which caused his body to the shore. “I meant," said the vessels to labor very heavily and some he, “either to die in its folds, or bring were obliged to cut loose from the vessels it safely to land." The spirited act is they were towing. Noon, however, of enhanced, by comparison with the conthat day, saw most of them inside of the duct of the first mate, who, with his combar at Hatteras Inlet, their first southern panions, left the ship in the best boat as destination, in time to escape the severe soon as she had struck. The loss of the gale of Monday night and Tuesday, vessel was very freely charged to the which set in with extraordinary violence, treachery of the pilot. Suspicion, in fact, even for this latitude of storms. The was everywhere an inevitable attendant anchorage, however, was not of the best; of this unhappy struggle. The steamer the vessels were crowded · together in a lay a week, fast breaking up upon the space quite too small for their accommo- sand. She was laden with ammunition dation, and were jostled with one another and military equipments. Four hundred and suffered much in consequence. There barrels of gunpowder, fifteen hundred were quiet waters, indeed, within Pam- rifles, eight hundred shells, and other lico Sound, but they could be reached stores and supplies, went down with her. only by a narrow channel over an inner Two days later, on the seventeenth, the bar or bulkhead, which except at high steamer Pocahontas, quite unseaworthy tide, when it barely furnished seven and and commanded by a drunken captain, a half feet of water, permitted none but laden with horses mostly belonging to vessels of the lightest draft to pass. Un- the Rhode Island regiment, went ashore

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