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T!IE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTOR, LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

MAJOR - GENERAL HALLECK.

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each was ready at the first intimation to men, rescued two naval officers and sevobey the call of his country. Henry eral marines who were prisoners of war, Wager Halleck, was born in the year captured the enemy's flag, two Mexican 1816, in Weston, Oneida county, in the officers and the Governor's archives, the State of New York. After passing some Governor barely escaping in his night time at Union College, he entered the clothes. At Todos Santa, he led into Military Academy at West Point, as a action the main body of Colonel Burton's cadet in 1835, graduated with distinction forces. In the naval descent upon Main 1839, and was brevetted 2d Lieuten- zatlan, he acted as aid to Commodore. ant of Engineers. He remained for a Shubrick, and afterwards as Chief of year at the Academy as Assistant Pro- Staff and Lieutenant-Governor of the fessor of Engineering. In 1841, he was city. As Chief Engineer he planned and Assistant to the Chief Engineer, General directed the construction of the fortificaTotten, in Washington. His “ Papers on tions at that place. In 1848, he was Practical Engineering," were published at brevetted Captain, " for gallant conduct this time by the Engineer Department. in affairs with the enemy on the 19th For the next three years he was employ- and 20th days of November, 1847, and ed on the fortifications of New York for meritorious service in California." harbor. He then went to Europe in He was Secretary of State of the Provcompany with Marshal Bertrand, by ince of California, under the military whom he was introduced to Marshal governments of Generals Kearney, MaSoult, then Prime Minister of Louis Phi- son, and Riley, from 1847 to the end of lippe, and received every facility in ex- 1849 ; and was a leading member of amining the military works of France. the Convention in 1849 to form, and of After prosecuting similar investigations the. Committee to draft, the Constitution in Germany, Italy, and England, he re- of the State of California. From 1847 turned to the United States at the end to 1850, he directed and superintended of the Mexican war. In 1844, Congress the entire collection of the public revepublished his “Report on Military De- nues in California, amounting to several fences." In 1845, he was appointed millions of dollars. His decisions in 1st Lieutenant in the Engineer corps, these collections, assailed at the time, and was chosen that year by the Com- were sustained by the Supreme Court. mittee of the Lowell Institute, at Boston, In July, 1853, he was appointed Captain to deliver one of the regular courses of of Engineers. Seeking more active emlectures before the institution. He took ployment than the army afforded, he refor his subject “Military Art and Sci- signed August 1st, 1854, and devoted ence.” He incorporated the lectures the himself to the legal profession. At the following year in a volume published at outbreak of the rebellion, he was the New York, with an introduction on the principal partner in the law firm of Hal“ Justifiableness of War.” The Mexican leck, Peachey and Billings, of San Franwar then occurring immediately after the cisco. He still continued his attention battle of Palo Alto, he was sent to Cali- to literary pursuits, and had just pubfornia and the Pacific Coast, where he lished an important book on International served during the war in both a civil and Law. In December, 1860, he was apmilitary capacity. He was present in pointed Major-General of militia in Calivarious engagements with the enemy, fornia, and acted in that capacity till the particularly at San Antonio, where he receipt of his commission as Major-Genmarched with about 30 mounted volun- eral of the regular army. The latter teers 120 miles in 28 hours, surprised was dated August 19th, 1861, ranking the enemy's garrison of several hundred him third on the list of general officers of that rank ; General McClellan and tence ; Surgeon J. J. B. Wright, Chief General Fremont, both appointed the Medical Director ; T. P. Andrews, Chief 14th of the previous May preceding him. Paymaster; Lieutenant-Colonel J. B. McThe familiarity of General Halleck with Pherson, Assistant Engineer ; Colonel civil affairs, and his legal acumen, no George Thom and Colonel R. D. Cutts doubt, favored his appointment to a po- of the Topographical Department; Capsition where judgment in council was as tain F. D. Callender, Chief of Ordnance, likely to be called for as ability in the and Lieutenant-Colonel James Totten, field. In his political opinions, General Chief of Artillery, whose services in the Halleck was understood to belong to the campaigns of General Lyons in the State Democratic party.

will be remembered ; were the other Summoned from San Francisco by the members. Government, General Halleck arrived at One of the earliest of General HalWashington on the 5th of November, and leck's orders for the regulation of the was immediately after, as we have stated, army excited no little interest at the placed in the charge of the Department time, as it was taken as a manifestation of Missouri. Thither he proceeded, tak- of his opinions on the disputed question, ing command at St. Louis on the 19th, now rapidly growing in importance, of when he at once became actively engaged the treatment of the slave population in placing the army at his disposal on an or their reception and encouragement by efficient footing to check the aggressive the military authorities within the lines. movements of the rebels and the spirit This much talked of General Order No. of revolt in the State, which had been en- 3, dated at St. Louis the 20th of Noyemcouraged by the renewed efforts of Gen-ber, ran as follows: “I. It has been eral Price in the southwest. The staff represented that important information of General Halleck included a number respecting the numbers and condition of of West Point officers of distinction, sev- our forces is conveyed to the enemy by eral of whom had been his classmates in means of fugitive slaves, who are adthat institution. At the head of these mitted within our lines. In order to was Brigadier-General George W. Cul- remedy this cvil, it is directed that no lum, an eminent engineer officer who had such persons be hereafter permitted to been engaged in the construction of the enter the lines of any camp, or of any most important forts of the country, and forces on the march, and that any now bad served on the staff of General Scott. within such lines be immediately excludThe assistant chief of staff, Brigadier-ed therefrom. II. The General ComGeneral Schuyler Hamilton, a graduate manding wishes to impress upon all offiof West Point, was one of the aids of cers in command of posts and troops in General Scott through the Mexican war. the field the importance of preventing Not at the time attached to the regular unauthorized persons of every descriparmy, on the breaking out of the rebel- tion from entering and leaving our lines, lion, he went to Washington as a private and of observing the greatest precaution in the New York 7th Militia, when he in the employment of agents and clerks was again taken on the staff of General in confidential positions." The meaning Scott with the rank of Lieutenant-Col- of this order was intelligible enough, but onel. Captain J. C. Kelton, Assistant it was thought by many to be ill judged Adjutant General at Headquarters ; as it obviously abandoned an important Captain W. McMichael and S. M. Pres- means of weakening the resources of the ton, Assistant Adjutant General ; Major enemy, who, if their slaves remained Robert Allen, Chief Quartermaster; Cap- quietly at home in their usual agriculturtain Thomas J. Haines, Chief of Subsis- al pursuits, might with less inconveniGENERAL HALLECK'S ORDERS.

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ence to themselves take the field against perty inflicted within the lines of the the national forces. Those who looked army. The appearance presented in the to the abolition of slavery as a neces- streets of St. Louis by the Union refusity for the adequate suppression of gees, exiled and despoiled of their means the Rebellion, of course, naturally re- of subsistence. by the tyranny of the garded the order with suspicion and dis- Confederates in the southwestern counlike. That the order was not intended ties, is described as pitiable in the exas a political measure, appears from a treme. The sympathy and sense of jusletter addressed by General Halleck on tice of General Halleck were aroused the 26th of the following month to Gen- by the spectacle, and he determined to eral Asboth, then in camp at Rolla, Mis- administer a remedy which would in souri, in reference to the course of the some degree relieve the present distress latter officer in delivering to his master and tend to check the continuance of the a fugitive who had sought refuge in the evil. His order of December 4th procamp. “This," wrote General Halleck, vided a practical remedy. “The law “is contrary to the intent of General of military retaliation," it ran, “has Order No. 3. The object of those or- fixed and well established rules. While ders is to prevent any person in the it allows no cruel or barbarous acts on army from acting in the capacity of ne- our part in retaliation for like acts of gro catcher or negro stealer. The rela- the enemy, it permits any retaliatory tion between the slave and his master is measures within the prescribed limits of not a matter to be determined by mili- military usage. If the enemy murders tary officers, except in the single case and robs Union men we are not justified provided for by Congress. This matter in murdering and robbing other persons in all other cases must be decided by the who are, in a legal sense, enemies to our civil authorities. One object of keeping government, but we may enforce on them fugitive slaves out of our camps is to the severest penalties justified by the keep clear of all such questions. Mas- laws of war for the crimes of their fellow ters or pretended masters must establish rebels. The rebel forces in the souththe rights of property to the negro as western counties of this State have best they may, without our assistance or robbed and plundered the peaceful noninterference, except where the law au- combatant inhabitants, taking from them thorizes such interference. Order No. 3 their clothing and means of subsistence. does not apply to the authorized private Men, women and children have alike service of officers, nor to negroes em- | been stripped and plundered. Thousployed by proper authority in camps; it ands of such persons are finding their applies only to 'fugitive slaves'. The way to this city barefooted, half clad prohibition to admit them within our and in a destitute and starving condition. lines does not prevent the exercise of all Humanity and justice require that these proper offices of humanity, in giving sufferings should be relieved, and that them food and clothing outside, where the outrages committed upon them should such offices are necessary to prevent be retaliated upon the enemy. The insuffering."

dividuals who have directly caused these Another series of orders by General sufferings are at present beyond our Halleck was directed to the relief of the reach ; but there are in this city, and in Union men of the State, who had been other places within our lines, numerous driven from their homes by the lawless wealthy secessionists who render aid, insurgents, and to the repression of the assistance and encouragement to those wanton injuries and annoyance in the who commit these ontrages. They do destruction of railway and other pro- | not themselves rob and plunder, but

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