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5. Moses refused to be, called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction: Christ had the kingdoms of the world offered him by Satan, and rejected them; and when the people would have made him a king, he hid himself, choosing rather to suffer affliction.
6. Moses,' says St. Stephen, was learned, Taideven, in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds;' and Josephus, Ant. Jud. ii. 9. says, that he was a very forward and accomplished youth, and had wisdom and knowledge beyond his years, which is taken from Jewish tradition, and which of itself is highly probable: St. Luke observes of Christ, that 'he increased (betimes) in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man;' and his discourses in the temple with the doctors, when he was twelve years old, were a proof of it. The difference was, that Moses acquired his early knowledge by human instruction, and Christ by a divine aflatus. To both of them might be applied what Callimachus elegantly feigns of Jupiter:
Ὀξὺ δ' ἀνήθησας, ταχινοὶ δέ τοι ἦλθον ἴουλοι
Swift was thy growth, and early was thy bloom,
7. Moses delivered his people from cruel oppression and a heavy bondage: so did Christ from the worst tyranny of sin and Satan.
8. Moses contended with the magicians, and had the advantage over them so manifestly, that they could no longer withstand him, but were forced to acknowledge the divine power by which he was assisted: Christ ejected evil spirits, and received the same acknowledgments from them.
9. Moses assured the people whom he conducted, that if they would be obedient, they should enter into the happy land of promise; which land was usually understood by the wiser Jews to be an emblem and a figure of that eternal and celestial kingdom to which Christ opened an entrance.
10. Moses reformed the nation corrupted with Ægyptian superstition and idolatry: Christ restored true reli gion.
11. Moses wrought a great variety of miracles: so did
Christ; and in this the parallel is remarkable, since besides Christ there arose not a prophet in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders which the Lord sent him to do.'
12. Moses was not only a law-giver, a prophet, and a worker of miracles, but a king and a priest. He is called a king, Deut. xxxiii. 5. and he had indeed, though not the pomp, and the crown and sceptre, yet the authority of a king, and was the supreme magistrate; and the office of priest he often exercised: in all these offices the resemblance between Moses and Christ was singular. In the interpretation of Deut. xxxiii. 5. I prefer the sense of Grotius and Selden to Le Clerc's. The parallel between Moses and Christ requires it, and no objection can be made to it. The Apostolical Constitutions also, if their judgment be of any weight, call Moses high-priest and king:' Tov agega καὶ βασιλέα. vi. 3.
13. Moses, says Theodoret, married an Ethiopian woman, at which his relations were much offended; and in this he was a type of Christ, who espoused the church of the Gentiles, whom the Jews were very unwilling to admit to the same favours and privileges with themselves. But I should not choose to lay a great stress upon this typical similitude, though it be ingenious.
14. Moses fasted in the desert forty days and nights before he gave the law: so did Elias, the restorer of the law; and so did Christ before he entered into his ministry.
15. Moses fed the people miraculously in the wilderness: so did Christ, with bread and with doctrine; and the manna which descended from heaven, and the loaves which Christ multiplied were proper images of the spiritual food which the Saviour of the world bestowed upon his disciples.
'Our fathers,' said the Jews, did eat manna in the desert forty years, as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat. Jesus said unto them, My Father (now) giveth you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he that cometh down from heaven, and giveth life to the world. I am the bread of life; he that cometh to me shall never hunger, and he that believeth in me shall never thirst.' John vi.
The metaphors of hungring and thirsting after virtue and knowledge, and of eating and drinking them; and the re
presentation of benefits of any kind, under the expressions of food and drink, have been common in all writers sacred and profane.
St. Paul says to the Corinthians: All our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and did all eat the same spiritual meat, and did all drink the same spiritual drink for they drank of that spiritual rock that followed them, and that rock was Christ.'
Whether the passage of the Israelites through the sea, and under the cloud, the water issuing from the rock which Moses smote, and the manna which descended from heaven, were types intended to be fulfilled in Christ, and in the benefits and privileges of Christianity; or whether the apostle referred to these things by way of allusion, similitude, and accommodation, I determine not.
16. Moses led the people through the sea: Christ walked upon it, and enabled Peter to do so.
17. Moses commanded the sea to retire and give way: Christ commanded the winds and the waves to be still.
18. Moses brought darkness over the land: the sun withdrew his light at Christ's crucifixion. And as the darkness which was spread over Ægypt was followed by the destruction of their first-born', and of Pharaoh and his host: so the darkness at Christ's death was the forerunner of the destruction of the Jews, when, in the metaphorical and prophetic style, and according to Christ's express prediction, the sun was darkened, and the moon withdrew her light, and the stars fell from heaven,' the ecclesiastical and
1 Mr. Wasse had a conjecture, that the untimely death of Pharaoh's first-born son, who was, perhaps, better beloved than his father, gave occasion to the song, which the Greeks called Linus,' and which they had from the Egyptians: ἔστι δὲ Αἰγυπτιστὶ ὁ Λῖνος καλεύμενος Μανέ ρως. ἔφασαν δέ μιν Αἰγύπτιοι τοῦ πρώτου βασιλεύσαντος Αἰγύπτου παῖδα μουνογενέα γενέσθαι· ἀποθανόντα δ' αὐτὸν ἄνωρον, θρήνοισι τούτοισι ὑπ' Αἰγυπτίων τιμηθῆναι. καὶ ἀοιδήν τε ταύτην πρώτην καὶ μούνην σφίσι γε vira. Vocatur autem Linus Egyptiace Maneros : quem Ægyptii tradiderunt, quum filius unicus extitisset primi Ægypti regis, præmaturaque morte decessisset, his lamentis ab Ægyptiis fuisse decoratum : et cantilenam hanc primam eamque solam ipsos habuisse.' Herodotus ii. 79.
It may be observed, though it is a trifle, that Gronovius gives us A circumflexed; but the first syllable is short in the best writers: and Moschus says, Epitaph. Bion.
ΑΙΛΙΝΑ μοι στοναχεῖτε νάπαι, καὶ Δώριον ὕδωρ
Sophocles Ajac. 632. Αἴλινον, αἴλινον.
civil state of the Jews was overturned, and the rulers of both were destroyed.
19. The face of Moses shone when he descended from the mountain: the same happened unto Christ at his transfiguration on the mountain. Moses and Elias appeared then with him, to show that the law and the prophets bare witness to him; and the divine voice said, 'This is my beloved Son, hear ye him,' alluding most evidently to the prediction of Moses, unto him shall ye hearken.' 20. Moses cleansed one leper: Christ many.
21. Moses foretold the calamities which would befall the nation for their disobedience: so did Christ.
22. Moses chose and appointed seventy elders to be over the people: Christ chose such a number of disciples.
23. The Spirit which was in Moses was conferred, in some degree, upon the seventy elders, and they prophesied: Christ conferred miraculous powers upon his seventy disciples.
24. Moses sent twelve men to spy out the land which was to be conquered: Christ sent his apostles into the world to subdue it by a more glorious and miraculous conquest.
25. Moses was victorious over powerful kings and great nations: so was Christ, by the effects of his religion, and by the fall of those who persecuted his church.
26. Moses conquered Amalech by lifting and holding up both his hands all the day: Christ overcame his and our enemies when his hands were fastened to the cross. This resemblance has been observed by some of the antient Christians, and ridiculed by some of the moderns, but without sufficient reason I think.
27. Moses interceded for transgressors, and caused an atonement to be made for them, and stopped the wrath of God: so did Christ.
28. Moses ratified a covenant between God and the people, by sprinkling them with blood: Christ with his own blood.
29. Moses desired to die for the people, and prayed that God would forgive them, or blot him out of his book: Christ did more, he died for sinners.
30. Moses instituted the Passover, when a lamb was sacri
ficed, none of whose bones were to be broken, and whose blood protected the people from destruction: Christ was that paschal lamb.
31. Moses lifted up the serpent, that they who looked upon him might be healed of their mortal wounds: Christ was that serpent. As Moses lifted 'As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up; that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.'
The serpent being an emblem of Satan may be thought an unfit image to represent Christ: but the serpents which bit the people of Israel are called fiery serpents, seraphim. Num. xxi. 6. Now, Sunt boni angeli seraphim, sunt mali angeli seraphim, quos nulla figura melius quam Prestere exprimas. Et tali usum primum humani generis seductorem putat Bachai.' Grotius. Therefore Christ, as he was the great and good angel, the angel of God's presence, the angel nar' ox, might be represented as a kind se raph, a beneficent healing serpent, who should abolish the evil introduced by the seducing lying serpent; and who, like the serpent of Moses, should destroy the serpents of the magicians: as one of those gentle serpents who are fiiends to mankind:
Nunc quoque nec fugiunt hominem, nec vulnere lædunt,
Ovid Metam. iv. 601.
m Levit. xvii. 11. The life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it you upon the altar, to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul. Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, No soul of you shall eat blood,' &c.
Here appears the reason of this strict and often repeated prohibition: blood was appointed as the atonement for sin; it was set apart, and sanctified for that purpose; and, consequently, when the use of the altar, and sacrifices ceased, at the death of Christ, the prohibition of eating blood should cease also; and the precept concerning it in the Acts of the Apostles seems to have been prudential and temporary.
Of clean animals, the blood was to be shed and thrown away: of unclean, no part was to be eaten: of clean fishes, the blood seems to be no where expressly forbidden, perhaps because their blood was never offered up in sacrifice.
The eating of a clean animal that died of itself, is not forbidden with the same rigour; perhaps because the blood was coagulated, and not in a condition to be offered up to God. See Levit. xvii, 15, and Deut.