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Illustrated with Maps, Cuts, Notes, &c.

A GENERAL INDEX to the Whole,

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Prins' for 'T. OSBORNE, in Gray's-Inn ; A. MILLAR, in
the Strand; and J. Os Born, in Pater-noster Row,


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Universal History,


Earliest Account of Time.

V O L. IX.

The division of the Macedonian empire.


HE death of Alexander had well nigh proved the diso

State of lution of his empire; for at first the extreme grief of

things at every body hindered them from paying a proper respect the death to public affairs ; and when these high transports of affliction of Alexan. were over, their feuds and jealousies had almost occasioned the der. shedding a deluge of Macedonian blood round the dead body of their king (A). A day or two after the death of the king, his friends assembled in the council-room, and summoned thither all the principal commanders of the army; but the foldiers and people, who were not summoned, and who neither ought, nor with any propriety could have any share in such confultations, came in vast crowds, and so blocked up the palfages, that many of the great officers could not get in. Proclamation was then made by a herald, that none should presume to approach the assembly, or to remain there, but such

(A) The want of an historian veil of obscurity over this part who might be depended on, and of our history ; which from the the having many on whose works best materials we have, and in we cannot so well rely, have the best manner we can, we will concurred in throwivg a dark endeavour to remove.

the coun

as were called by name; which proclamation however was very little regarded; and we mention this as a remarkable infrance of the difference between authority and power. Those who had commanded this proclamation to be made, had alsumed the administration ; but the people presuming on their own power, and knowing that these governors had none but what they could think fit to lend them, gave little heed. to their commands; but, on the contrary, made them give way to their own curiosity, so that numbers of mean rank

and little consideration remained at present in the council. Perdiccas

Perdiccas, as soon as silence could be obtained, ordered the resigns tve

chair of Alexander to be brought forth, and having placed the robes and regalia upon it, laid upon them the royal ring, declaring, that he most willingly resigned any authority that

might be intended him by the king when this sing was deliverSeveral

ed to him. However, he proposed it as a thing not only expemtions

dient, but neceílary, that the empire fhould have a head; and mure, and when he had demonstrated this by proper arguments, he told fuccelors proposed in

them, that Roxana was with child, and that, if she brought

forth a fon, he ought to be acknowledged his father's succefior. cil. Nrarchus applauded the design of preserving the regal dignity

in the family of Alexander ; but faid, it would be too long to wait for Roxana's delivery, efpecially as it would be attended with uncertainty. He therefore put them in mind of Hercules the son of Alexander by Barfina. The foldiers signified their dislike of this by the clangour of their arms. Ptolomy then propounded, that the chair of Alexander should retain the shadow of fovereignty, and that the state should be governed by a council of officers; but this being disliked, a motion was made in favour of Perdiccas ; but he, out of modesty, refused it. At last fomebody mentioned Aridaus the brother of

Alexander, who had always accompanied the king, and was Aridaus wont to facrifice with him. The Macedonian phalanx, closed appointed immediately with this proposition, and called for Aridæus. tu succeed Perdiccas, Ptolomy and most of the horse officers, were exhis brorber Alexander

tremely averse to this measure ; and they carried their obftinacy fo far, as to retire from the assembly, and even to quit the city. However Meleager at the head of the phalanx, sup: ported vigorously their first resolution, and threatned loudly to shed the blood of those who affected to rule over their equals, and' to assume a kingdom which no way belonged to them. Aridaus they arrayed in royal robes, put on him the arms of Alcxaider, and faluted him by the name of Philip, that he migät be rendered more popular 4,

a Curt. lib. x. DIODOR. Sicul. lib. xviii. JUSTIx. lib. xiii. Cros. lib. ill. PLUT. in vit. Alex. & Eumen.

WHILE things remained in this situation, Meleager managed affairs about the new-created king, and Perdiccas transacted all things for the other party. Both pretended vast concern for the public, yet, at the bottom, intended nothing so much as their own private advantage, each having formed à scheme of ingrolling the administration, under colour of ferving the interests of those they had drawn, not to favour them personally, but their specious pretences. In order to apprehend these things clearly, let us view all these great ones in their proper lights.

Perdiccas was a man of high birth, had a fupreme com- The chamand in the army, was much in favour with Alexander, and racters of strongly confided in by the nobility. Meleoger had rendered Perdiccas, himself formidable by uniting the Macedonians who composed Meleager, the phalanx in one opinion, and by raising one to the king- &c. dom who was wholly under his direction. Aridaus was, as we have heretofore Thewn, the son of Philip, by a dancer named Phillina; he was of small parts, not by nature, but by the practices of Olympias, who by poisonous draughts had taken care to weaken both his constitution and his mind. He had however for his wife Eurydice his cousin, as we shall see hereafter, by whose affistance he was able to manage pretty well. At present alone, and without counsellors, he acted as the times required, he did what Meleager would have him, but he declared that whatever he did was by the advice of Meltager, so that he made his minister accountable for his own schemes, and no way endangered himself. The Macedonians besides their affection for the royal house, began to entertain a personal love for Aridæus, now called Philip, on account of his mildness and moderation ?

BUSIDES these who were the principal characters on the Eumenes: stage at this time, there was another who through modefty declined public notice, and was not withstanding a prime instrument in adjusting the differences that were now on foot, and made a most inining figure in public affairs afterwards. This was Eumenes the Cardian, the late king's secretary. He was, as far as we find, little distinguished by birth, though his father could not have been a waggoner, as some report, because he was Philip of Macedon's host, who taking a fancy to his fon, retained him about his person, and having vied his fidelity; at length made him his secretary, in which polt Alexander found and continued him. This poft alone would have rendered him very considerable, but the king had raised him belide to the highest military commands, he being one of 10

> PLUT. in vit. Einen. Diop. Curt. ubi fupra. CARRIAN. apud Puot. Biblio.n. Cod. xcii. JUSTIX. Curi. ubi f-pr2.

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