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and Lausanne, on the Lake of Geneva. And what traveller is not captivated, as he has observed the light boats, sailing with animated parties from Gerisau to Lucerne 1; or on the two lakes,—one small and beautiful, the other extensive and picturesque,--on the east and west sides of the city of Constance ? For my own part, my friend, never have I envied you more, than when you have described to me the pleasure you derived, in sailing down the Rhone from Lyons to Valence; and from Viviers to Avignon. And, after tasting all the pleasure, which the mountains of Switzerland and the vales of Savoy could afford an imagination, so elegant as yours ; after visiting the sources of the Aar and the Rhine, and climbing the summits of St. Gothard and St. Bernard, you confessed, that the happiest moments, you experienced among those astonishing regions, were those, in which you sailed with the captivating Julia along the Lake of Lucerne; and at the moment, in which, as the sun was shedding its rays upon the water, you landed at the chapel of William Tell!

Of all the amusements, which Rousseau partook, when at Geneva, none were so agreeable to his taste, as that of walking along the banks, or of sailing on the bosom of the lake, which stretches to the east of that celebrated city. In the society of Theresa, and the family of Le Luc, he spent seven of the most delightful days of his life, in coasting along the shores of that beautiful water; re

Sitting in the water at Cumana is a frequent amusement. Of a fine light night, says Humboldt, chairs are placed in the manzanares, and men and women, lightly clothed, assemble in the river, and pass many hours in familiar conversation, or in smoking segars.

ceiving rapture at every motion of the vessel ; and imbibing with that rapture all the bewitching imagery, with which, after the expiration of several years, he embellished the Nouvelle Heloise. In his solitary excursions he digested the plan of his Political Institutions; formed the ground-work of the tragedy of Lucretia ; translated a portion of Tacitus; and meditated a History of the Valois.

II. The climate of Italy allowing hospitalities in the open air, the Romans frequently indulged themselves, in dining in woods and grottos. The nobles of Caubul also give entertainments in their gardens"; and even Alaric delighted in stretching his huge figure under the shade of the plane-tree; beneath which he frequently took repasts. This tree Xerxes held in such high admiration, that whenever he saw one in his march, it was his custom to halt, that he might have the pleasure of sitting under its shade, with his army encamped around it. He adorned it with bracelets and jewels, and appointed a steward to guard it from accidents.

The Cashmerians are much devoted to the pleasure of sailing on the bosoms of their lakes and rivers 3. In Venice excursions of this nature are even still more delightful. There the water is smooth, the sky cloudless, and as the enthusiast glided along in a gondola, the boatmen once were accustomed to sing, to the sound of their oars, the songs

Elphinstone, Caubul, 279.

? Plut.-Also, Ælian. Var. Hist. B. ii c. 14. 3 Forster's Travels. The natives of Kin-sai too. Vide Marco Polo, B, it. ch. lxviii. sect. 5.

and poems of Petrarch and Ariosto. Thus giving a fine play to the imagination, the faculty of thought was enlarged; the nerves delicately attuned; and the heart, vibrating in unison, felt itself susceptible of every elegant and virtuous impulse. « Oh ! Petrarch-Ariosto—and sacred Tasso,” exclaimed Da Costa, when sailing on the Brenta; “ how delightful must be your feelings, even in your present mansions of immortality, when you reflect on the charm, which your poesy imparts to the brilliant moonlights of Venetian skies !” But the stanzas of Tasso, the sonnets of Petrarch, and the distichs of Ariosto, are no longer heard upon the waters of Venice..

III.

Gondolas are introduced with much effect in the grand picture of the Laguno, painted by Canaletti, once belonging to the Elector of Saxony, and lately exhibited for sale in London. How often has Da Costa glided along the Brenta, having the towers of Venice to the east, and the Tyrolese Alps to the north, listening to the notes, which floated upon the water, from the balconies of the palaces, which rise on the borders of that celebrated river ! As he has thus indulged the romantic character of his nature, every scene has seemed,

- An entrance into Paradise ;
And all beyond as Fancy's. And as there,
In the cool eventide, --so soft and still,
The little boats glided their easy way,
Midst the reflections of the sunset, all
Seemed like a convoy of departed souls
Steering their course to Heaven'.

Altered from Rinaldo and Armida.

VOL. II.

CHAPTER III.

If the common taste of mankind lead man to derive pleasure from the representations of nature, how much more so must we suppose the influence of real scenes on the mind of the poet;—the primary qualities of whose genius, as some one has justly observed, being an eye, that can see; a heart, that can feel ; and a resolution, that dares follow nature'. Hence it is, that the first objects, which have charms for youthful genius, are those of landscape: and hence it arises, that all our more eminent poets have been strict observers of rural objects, and enthusiastic admirers of imposing scenery. For it was to primitive prospects, that the earlier writers were principally indebted, for the noble enthusiasm, by which they were distinguished. To an ardent love of Nature, therefore, may we refer their simplicity of language, chastity of sentiment, strength of thought, and beauty and sublimity of manner and conception.

Pastoral wafts us into fairy land. Reclining under the shades of thickets, we give ourselves up to the most agreeable delusions, and taste the pictures of imaginary felicity, with the more animated delight, since our palate is so seldom sated with those of reality. Plainness of language, gentleness and delicacy of expression, and a flowing and graceful cadence, ingender in our imagination

? Videantur omnia ex Naturâ verum hominumque fluere. Hoc opus, hic labor est; sine quo cætera nuda, jejuna, infirma, ingrata.- Quint. lib. vi. c. 2.

images of health and pictures of innocence; beautiful countries and delightful climates. All of which conspire to induce us to prefer a life of tranquillity; and to yield ourselves up to those enchanting emotions, which Nature, dressed to such a captivating advantage, seldom fails to excite. Hence it arises, that pastoral has been a favourite species of poetry in all ages :—from the time, in which Solomon wrote his exquisite song, to the days of Theocritus and Virgil ; thence to Sannazarius; and lastly to Gessner.

II.

Many are the descriptions of pastoral life in the Scriptures; particularly in the histories of Abraham, of Jacob, of Joseph, of Ruth, and of David: and many are the allusions in Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Jeremiah. David was a shepherd, Amos a herdsman, and several of the apostles fishermen.

The first Greek pastoral poet was Daphnis', who invented the Idyllion; but as none of his works remain, Theocritus is generally esteemed the father of pastoral poetry. Blest with a lively genius, and born in a country enjoying serene skies, this poet is as much superior to Virgil in beauty, simplicity, and originality, as Virgil is superior to Ausonius, and the whole host of his literal imitators. Virgil's chief loss, in point of interest, arises out of his not having introduced some females, in the rural dramatis personæ.

The Aminta of Tasso is, with the exception of

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