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NEW CODE READERS.

IN

SEPARATE STANDARDS,

ADAPTED TO THE NEW EDUCATIONAL CODE OF 1871.

STANDARDS V. & VI.

MANCHESTER:

JOHN HEYWOOD, 141 AND 143, DEANSGATE;
EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT, 141, DEANSGATE.

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO., PATERNOSTER ROW;
J. C. TACEY, CITY ROAD.

3987f95?

RARY

PREFACE.

THE Editor has endeavoured in the FIFTH READER to include such lessons as boys and girls in the fifth and sixth standards may fairly be expected to read with intelligence and propriety. It consists of historical chapters and lessons on useful knowledge; not, on the ono hand, of such a trivial nature as to afford a mere momentary interest, nor, on the other hand, so abstruse and foreign as to make their perusal a compulsory and unwelcome task. Poetical pieces, from standard authors, are interspersed throughout the volume; when poems in blank verse have been inserted, they have been broken up into paragraphs, so as to make the reading of them easier. It is of comparatively little use, however, requiring these to be read without explanation, and on that account only a limited number have been inserted.

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THE

NEW CODE READERS.

ORIGIN OF THE MATERIALS OF WRITING.

PART I.

When men had not yet discovered the art of recording events by writing, they planted trees, erected rude altars, or heaps of stones, as remembrances of past events. Hercules probably could not write when he fixed his famous pillars.

The most ancient mode of writing was on bricks, tiles, and oyster shells, and on tables of stone; afterwards men wrote on plates of various materials, on ivory, barks of trees, and leaves of trees.

Engraving memorable events on hard substances, it has been observed, was giving speech to rocks and metals. In the Book of Job mention is made of writing on stone, on rocks, and on sheets of lead. It was on tables of stone that Moses received the law written by the finger of God Himself. Hesiod's works were written on leaden tables; lead was used for writing, and rolled up like a cylinder, as Pliny states. There was a very ancient book, which consisted of eight leaden leaves, which had on the back rings, fastened by a small leathern rod to keep them together. Men afterwards engraved their statements on bronze. The laws of the Cretans were on bronze tables, and the speech of Claudius, engraved on plates of bronze,

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