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Abs

146 Bull

Assassin-Assassination

148 Bull (Papal)

Astrology

150 Cæsar

Astronomy; with a few more Re- Calends

flections on Astrology

151 Cannibals

Atheism

154 Casting (in Metal)

Atheist

163 Cato

Atoms

167 Celts

Avarice -

769 Ceremonies—Titles-Precedence

Augury

169 Certain-Certainty

Augustine

171} Chain of Created Beings -

Augustus (Octavius)

172 Chain or Generation of Events

Avignon

175 Changes that have occurred in the

Austerities

177 Globe

Authors

178 Character

Authority

181 } .Charity -

Axis

182 Charles IX.

Babel

182} China

Bacchus

186 Christianity

Bacon (Roger)

188 } Christmas

Bacon (Francis)

189 Chronology

Banishment

192 { Church -

Baptism

192 } Church of England

Baruch, or Barak, and Deborah;

Church Property

and, incidentally, on Chariots of Cicero

War

197 Circumcision

Battalion

198

Clerk-Clergy

Bayle

198 Climate -

Bdellium

199 { Coherence--Cohesion-Adhesion

Beard

200} Commerce

Beasts

200

Common Sense

Beautiful (The) -

201} Confession

Bees

203 Confiscation

Beggar—Mendicant

204

Conscience

Bekker, “ the World Bewitched,"

Consequence

the Devil, the Book of Enoch, Constantine

and Sorcerers -

205 Contradictions

Belief

201 Contrast -

Bethshemesh

209 } Convulsionaries

Bilhah.-Bastards

211 Corn

Bishop

211 Councils

Blasphemy

212 Country

Body

213 Crimes or Offences

Books

216 Criminal

Bourges -

221

Cromwell

Brachinans-Brahmins

221 Cuissage

Bread-Tree

224 Curate (Of the Country)

Buffoonery -- Burlesque -- Low Curiosity

Comedy

225 Customs—Usages

Bulgarians

227 Cyrus

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Dante

372 Faculty -

472

David

373 Faith

. 473

Decretals

375 Falsity

475

Deluge (Universal)

378 Falsity of Human Virtues

476

Democracy

380 Fanaticism

477

Demoniacs

383 Fancy

486

Destiny

384 Fasti

486

Devotee-

386 Fathers - Mothers - Children

Dial

387 (Their Duties)

487

Dictionary

388 Favour

488

Dioclesian

391 Favourite

488

Dionysius St. (the Areopagite), Feasts

489

and the famous Eclipse

395 Ferrara

491

Diodorus of Sicily, and Herodotus 396 Fever

492

Director

399 Fiction

493

Disputes

400 } Fierté

494

Distance

402 Figure

494

Divinity of Jesus

405 Figure-Figurative

498

Divorce

406 Figure in Theology

499

Dog

407 Final Causes

502

Dogmas

408 Finesse, Fineness, &c.

507

Donations

409 ) Fire

508

Drinking Healths

414 } Firmness

509

Druids (The)

415 Flattery

510

Ease

416 Force (Physical)

511

Eclipse

417 Force-Strength

511

Economy (Rural)

419 Franchise

512

Economy of Speech

420 } Francis Xavier

512

Elegance

422 } Franks-France French

515

Elias or Elijah, and Enoch 423 Fraud

520

Eloquence

425 Free-Will

522

Emblems

428 French Language

523

Enchantment, Magic, Conjuration, Friendship

525

Sorcery, &c.

434 Frivolity

526

End of the World

438 Gallant

526

Enthusiasm

440 Garagantua

527

Envy

442 Gazette

528

Epic Poetry

443 Genealogy

530

Epiphany

447 Genesis

533

Equality

418 Genii

544

Essenians

450 Genius

546

Eternity

454 Geography

547

Eucharist

454 Geometry

549

Execution

456 Glory—Glorious

551

Executioner

460 Goat-Sorcery

555

Expiation

461 God-Gods

556

Extreme

463 Good The Sovereign Good--

Ezekiel

464 A Chimera

571

Fable

467 | Good

573

Faction

471' Gospel

577

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Government

Gourd or Calabash

Grace

Grace (Of)

Grave Gravity -

Great-Greatness

Greek

page

- 599

600

602

604

606

608

613

99 Jo 32 34

13

MEMOIRS OF VOLTAIR E.

François Marie A Rover, who by assuming the name of Voltaire has rendered it so famous, was born at Chatenay, on the 20th of February, 1694, and was baptised at Paris, in the church of St. André-des-Arcs, on the 22nd of November in he same year. His excessive weakness was the cause of this delay, which, during life occasioned doubts concerning the place and time of his birth.

The father of M. de Voltaire exercised the office of treasurer to the Chamber of Accounts; his mother, Marguerite d'Aumart, was of a noble family of Poitou. Their son has been reproached for having taken the name of Voltaire ; that is, for having followed a custom at that time generally practised by the rich citizens and younger sons, who, leaving the family name to the heir, assumed that of a fief, or perhaps of a country house. His birth was questioned in numerous libels. His demies, among men of literature, seemed to fear that the fashionable world would too readily sacrifice its prejudices to the pleasure found in his society, and the admiration his talents inspired, and that a man of letters should be treated with too much equality. Such reproaches did him honour; malignity does not attack the birth of a man of literature, but from a secret consciousness, which it cannot stifle, that is wholly unable to diminish his personal fame.

The fortune which M. Arouet, the father enjoyed, was doubly advantageous to his son; it procured him the advantages of education, without which genius never attains those heights to which it might otherwise arise Nor was the advantage of being born to an independent fortune less inestimable. M. de Voltaire never felt the misery of being obliged to abandon his liberty that he might procure subsistence; to subject his genius to labour, which the necessity of living enforced ; nor to flatter the prejudices, or the passions, of a patron.

The young Arouet was sent to the Jesuits' College, where the sons of the first nobility, except those of the Jansenists, received their education. The professors of rhetoric, under whom he was placed, were Father Porée and Father Jay: the first, being a man of understanding, and of a good heart, discovered the seeds of a future greatness in his scholar; and the latter, struck with the boldness of his opinions and the independence of his mind, predicted that he would become the apostle of deism in France : both of which prophecies were verified by time.

When he left college, he again found the Abbé de Chateauneuf, his godfather and the friend of his mother, an intimate at home. The Abbé was intimate with Ninon de l'Enclos, whom, for her probity, her understanding, and her freedom of thought, he long had pardoned in despite of the somewhat notorious adventures of her youth. The fashionable world were pleased that she had refused the invitation of her former friend, Madame de Maintenon, who had offered to invite her to court, on condition that she would become a devotee. The abbé de Châteauneuf had presented Voltaire to Ninon. Though but a boy, he already was a poet ; already began to tease bis Jansenist brother by his trifling epigrams, and to please himself with reciting the “Moïsade" of Rousseau,

Ninon had taken delight in the pupil of her friend, and had left him by will two thousand livres (about eighty guineas) to purchase books. Thus was he taught by fortunate circumstances, even in infancy, and before his understanding was formed, to regard study and labours of the mind as pleasing and honourable employments.

The Abbé de Châteauneuf also introduced the young Voltaire to these societies, and particularly to the company of the Duke of Sully, the Marquis de la Fare, the Abbé Servien, the Abbé de Chaulieu, and the Abbé Courtin; who were often joined by the Prince de Conti, and the Grand Prior de Vendôme.

M. Arouet imagined his son was ruined, when he was told that he wrote poetry and frequented the society of people of fashion. He wished to make him a judge, and saw him employed on a tragedy. This family quarrel ended by sending ihe young Voltaire to the Marquis de Châteauneuf, the French ambassador in Holland.

His exile was not of long duration. Madame du Noyer, who had fled thither with her two daughters, rather to avoid her husband than from zeal for the Protestant religion, was then at the Hague, where she lived by intrigues and libels, and proved from her conduct that she did not go thither in search of liberty of conscience.

M. de Voltaire became enamoured of one of her daughters; and the mother, finding that the only advantage she could gain from his attachment was that of making it public, carried her complaints to the ambassador, who forbade bis young dependent to continue his visits to Mademoiselle du Noyer; and sent him back to his family for having disobeyed his orders.

Madame du Noyer failed not to print this story with the letters of the young Arouet to her daughter, hoping that this already well-known name would promote the sale of her book; and vaunted of her maternal severity and delicacy in the very libel in whicn she proclaimed her daughter's dishonour.

The youth, when returned to Paris, soon forgot his love; but he had afterwards the good fortune to be of service to Mademoiselle du Noyer, when she had married the Baron de Vinterfeld.

His father, however, finding him persist in writing poetry, and living at large, forbade him his house. The most submissive letters made no impression on him ; the son even asked permission to go to America, provided that before his departure he might be permitted to kneel at his feet ; but there was no choice; he must determine not to depart for America, but to bind himself to an attorney. He did not here remain long; M. de Caumartin, the friend of M. Arouet, pitied the fate of his son, and requested permission to take him to St. Ange; where, removed from those societies which alarmed paternal affection, he might reflect on, and make choice of a profession. Here he met with Caumartin, the elder, a respectable old man, who was passionately fond of Henry IV., and Sully, at that time too much

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