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having said a few words about the Jews Ecclesiasticus, though the style is still in his tragedies, became blind, and that the same. God did not restore his sight until he had The two first books of Maccabees, done penance.

though written by a Jew. But they do As for the Jewish people, it is certain not believe this Jew to have been inspired that there was a time when they could not by God. read the divine writings; for it is said in Tobit, although the story is edifying. the second book of Kings, (chap. xxii. The judicious and profound Calmet afver. 8,) and in the second book of Chron- firms, that a part of this book was written icles, (chap. xxxiv. ver. 14,) that in the by Tobit the father, and a part by Tobit reign of Josias they were unknown, and the son; and that a third author added that a single copy was accidentally found the conclusion of the last chapter, which in the house of the high-priest Hilkiah. says that Tobit the younger expired at

The twelve tribes which were dispersed the age of one hundred and twenty-seven by Shalmanezer, have never re-appeared ; } years, and that he died rejoicing over the and their books, if they had any, have destruction of Nineveh. been lost with them. The two tribes The same Calmet, at the end of his which were in slavery at Babylon, and al-preface, has these words : “Neither the lowed to return at the end of seventy story itself, nor the manner in which it is years, returned without their books, or at { told, bears any fabulous or fictitious charleast they were very scarce and very defec-acter. If all Scripture histories, containtive, since Esdras was obliged to restore {ing anything of the marvellous or extrathem. But, although during the Baby- ordinary, were to be rejected, where is lonian captivity, these books were apo- ? the sacred book which is to be precryphal —that is, hidden, or unknown to served ?" the people, they were constantly sacred, Judith; although Luther himself de--they bore the stamp of divinity,—they clares that “this book is beautiful, good, were, as all the world agrees, the only holy, useful, the language of a holy poet monument of truth upon earth.

and a prophet animated by the Holy We now give the name of apocrypha Spirit, which had been his instructor, to those books which are not worthy of &c. belief; so subject are languages to change! It is indeed hard to discover at what Catholics and Prostestants agree in re-time Judith's adventure happened, or garding as apocryphal in this sense, and where the town of Bethulia was. The in rejecting

degree of sanctity in Judith's action has The prayer of Manasseh, King of Ju- also been disputed; but the book having dah, contained in the second book of been declared canonical by the council of Kings.

Trent, all disputes are at an end. The third and fourth books of Macca- Baruch, although it is written in the bees.

style of all the other prophets. The fourth book of Esdras ; although Esther.- The Protestants reject only these books were incontestably written by some additions after the tenth chapter. Jews. But it is denied that the authors {They admit all the rest of the book ; yet were inspired by God, like the Jews. no one knows who King Ahasuerus was,

The other books, rejected by the Pro- although he is the principal person in the testants only, and consequently consi- story. dered by them as not inspired by God Daniel.—The Protestants retrench Suhimself, are

sannah's adventure, and that of the chilThe book of Wisdom, though it is dren in the furnace; but they retain Newritten in the same style as the Pro- buchadnezzar's dream, and his grazing with Terbs.

On the Life of Moses, an apocryphal book ; thus shalt thou save thy empire, if, indeed, of the highest antiquity.

the decrees of fate can be opposed." The ancient book which contains the

Pharaoh was pleased with this advice. life and death of Moses, seems to have He sent for the midwives, and ordered been written at the time of the Babylo- them to strangle all the male children of nian captivity. It was then that the Jews which the Jewesses were delivered. There began to know the names given to the

was in Egypt a man named Abraham, son angels by the Chaldeans and Persians.

of Keath, husband to Jocabed, sister to Here we see the names of Zinguiel, his brother. This Jocabed bore him a Samael, Tsakon, Lakah, and many others, daughter named Mary, signifying perseof which the Jews had made no mention!} cuted, because the Egyptians, being deThe book of the death of Moses seems

scended from Ham, persecuted the Israeto have been posterior. It is known that lites, who were evidently descended from the Jews had several very ancient lives of Shem. Jocabed afterwards brought forth Moses and other books, independently of Aaron, signifying condemned to death, bethe Pentateuch. In them he was called

cause Pharaoh had condemned all the Moni, not Moses ; and it is asserted that Jewish infants to death. Aaron and Mary mo signified water, and ni the particle of.

were preserved by the angels of the Lord, He was called by the general name of who nursed them in the fields, and reMelk. He received those of Joakim, stored them to their parents when they had Adamosi, Thetmosi ; and, especially, it reached the period of adolescence has been thought that he was the same

At length, Jocabed had a third child : person whom Manethon calls Ozarziph.

this was Moses, who, consequently, was Some of these old Hebrew manuscripts fifteen years younger than his brother. were withdrawn from their covering of dust He was exposed on the Nile. Pharaoh's in the cabinets of the Jews, about

the year him nursed, and adopted him as her son,

daughter found him while bathing, had 1517. The learned Gilbert Gaumin, who was a perfect master of their language, although she was not married. translated them into Latin about the

Three years after, her father Pharaoh

year 1535. They were afterwards printed, and took a fresh wife, on which ocoasion he dedicated to Cardinal Bérule. The copies held a great feast. His wife was at his have become extremely scarce.

right hand, and at his left was his daughter, Never were rabbinism, the taste for the with little Moses. The child, in sport, marvellous, and the imagination of the took the crown and put it on his head. Orientals, displayed to greater excess.

Balaam the magician, the king's eunuch,

then recalled his Majesty's dream. “BeFragment of the Life of Moses.

hold,” said he,“ the child who is one day A hundred and thirty years after the to do you so much mischief! The spirit settling of the Jews in Egypt, and sixty of God is in him. What he has just now years after the death of the patriarch Jo- } done is a proof that he has already formed seph, Pharaoh, while sleeping, had a the design of dethroning you. He must dream. He saw an old man holding a instantly be put to death.” This idea balance: in one scale were all the inhabi- pleased Pharaoh much. tants of Egypt; an the other was an in- They were about to kill little Moses ; fant; and this infant weighed more than $ when the Lord immediately sent his angel all the Egyptians together. Pharaoh Gabriel, disguised as one of Pharaoh's forthwith called together his shotim, or officers, to say to him, “ My lord, we sages. One of the wise men said—“O should not put to death an innocent child, king, this infant is a Jew, who will one which is not yet come to years of discreday do great evil to your kingdom. Cause {tion ; he put on your crown only because all the children of the Jews to be slain; he wants judgment. You have only to

let a ruby and a burning coal be presented { was not aware that his daughter Sephora to him : if he choose the coal, it is clear had fallen in love with the prisoner, and that he is a blockhead, who will never do every day, with her own hands, carried any harm; but if he take the ruby, it will him partridges and quails, with excellent be a sign that he has too much sense to wine. He concluded that Moses was burn his fingers : then, let him be slain." protected by God, and did not give him

A ruby and a coal were immediately up to Pharaoh. brought. Moses did not fail to take the However, Jethro the priest wished to ruby; but the angel Gabriel, by a sort of have his daughter married. He had in legerdemain, slipped the coal into the his garden a tree of sapphire, on which place of the precious stone. Moses put was engraven the word Jaho or Jehovah. the coal into his mouth, and burned his He caused it to be published throughout tongue so horribly, that he stammered the country, that he would give his ever after ; and this was the reason that daughter to him who could tear up the the Jewish lawgiver could never articu- sapphire tree. Sephora's lovers presented late.

themselves, but none of them could so Moses was fifteen years old, and a fa- much as bend the tree. Moses, who was vourite with Pharaoh. A Hebrew came only seventy-seven years old, tore it up at to complain to him, that an Egyptian had once, without an effort. He married Sebeaten him, after lying with his wife. phora, by whom he soon had a fine boy, Moses killed the Egyptian. Pharoah named Gerson. ordered Moses' head to be cut off. The As he was one day walking in a small executioner struck him ; but God instantly { wood, he met God (who had formerly changed Moses' neck into a marble co-called himself Sadaï, and then called himlumn, and sent the angel Michael, who self Jehovah), and God ordered him to go in three days conducted Moses beyond and work miracles at Pharaoh's court. the frontiers.

He set out, with his wife and son. On The young Hebrew fled to Mecano, } the way, they met an angel (to whom no King of Ethiopia, who was at war with name is given), who ordered Sephora to the Arabs. Mecano made him his general-circumcise little Gerson with a knife made in-chief; and, after Mecano's death, Moses of stone. God sent Aaron on the same was chosen king, and married the widow. errand : but Aaron thought his brother But Moses, ashamed to have married the had done very wrong in marrying a Midiwife of his lord, dared not to enjoy her, anite ; he called her a very coarse name, but placed a sword in the bed, betwixt { and little Gerson a bastard, and sent them himself and the queen. He lived with the shortest way back to their own her forty years without touching her. The country. angry queen at length called together the Aaron and Moses then went to Phastates of the kingdom of Ethiopia, com- raoh's palace by themselves. The gate plained that Moses was of no service to of the palace was guarded by two lions of her, and concluded by driving him away, an enormous size. Balaam, one of the and placing on the throne the son of the king's magicians, seeing the two brothers late king.

come, set the lions upon them ; but Moses fled into the country of Midian, ] Moses touched them with his rod, and to the priest Jethro. This priest thought the lions humbly prostrating themselves, his fortune would be made if he could put } licked the feet of Aaron and Moses. The Moses into the hands of Pharaoh of Egypt, king, in astonishment, had the two piland began by confining him in a low cell, grims brought into the presence of all his and allowing him only bread and water. magicians, that they might strive which Moses grew fat very fast in his dungeon, { could work the most miracles. at which Jethro was quite astonished. He The author here relates the ten plagues of Egypt, nearly as they are related in Then God, being angry, said to the bad Exodus. He only adds, that Moses angel Samael, “ Well then, wicked one, covered all Egypt with lice, to the depth thou must take his soul.” Samael joyfully of a cubit ; and that he sent among all the drew his sword, and ran up to Moses. The Egyptians, lions, wolves, bears, and tigers, { dying man rose up in wrath, his eyes which ran into all the houses, notwith- sparkling with fire. « What! thou vilstanding that the doors were bolted, and lain," said Moses; “wouldst thou dare devoured all the little children.

to kill me?-me, who when a child, put According to this writer, it was not the on my head the crown of a Pharoah ; who Jews who fled through the Red Sea; it have worked miracles at the age of eighty was Pharaoh, who fled that way with his years; who have led sixty millions of men army: the Jews ran after him; the waters out of Egypt; who have cut the Red Sea separated right and left, to see them fight; } in two; who have conquered two kings and all the Egyptians, except the king, { so tall that at the time of the Flood they were slain upon the sand. Then the king, were not knee-deep in water? Be gone, finding that his own was the weaker side, } you rascal ; leave my presence instantly." asked pardon of God. Michael and Ga- This altercation lasted a few moments briel were sent to him, and conveyed him longer; during which time Gabriel preto the city of Nineveh, where he reigned} pared a litter to convey the soul of Moses, four hundred years.

Michael a purple mantle, and Zinguiel a

cassock. God then laid his hands on The Death of Moses.

Moses' breast, and took away his soul. God had declared to the people of Is- It is to this history that St. Jude the rael, that they should not go out of Egypt Apostle alludes in his Epistle, when he until they had once more found the tomb says that the archangel Michael contended of Joseph. Moses found it, and carried with the devil for the body of Moses. As it on his shoulders through the Red Sea. { this fact is to be found only in the book God told him that he would bear in mind which I have just quoted, it is evident this good action, and would assist him at that St. Jude had read it, and that he conthe time of his death. When Moses had sidered it as a canonical book. lived six score years, God came to an- The second History of the Death of nounce to him that he must die, and had Moses is likewise a conversation with but three hours more to live. The bad God. It is no less pleasant and curious angel Samael was present at the conver- { than the first. A part of this dialogue is sation. As soon as the first hour had as follows: passed, he began to laugh for joy, that he Moses.— I pray thee, O Lord, let me should so soon carry off the soul of enter the land of promise, at least for two Moses ; and Michael began to weep:} or three years. “ Be not rejoiced, thou wicked beast," God.-No: my decree expressly saith said the good to the bad angel ; “Moses that thou shalt not enter it. is going to die; but we have Joshua in Moses.—Grant, at least, that I may be his stead."

carried thither after my death. When the three hours had elapsed, God.-No; neither dead nor alive. God commanded Gabriel to take the dy- Moses.-Alas! but, gnod Lord, thou ing man's soul. Gabriel begged to be showest such clemency to thy creatures ! excused. Michael did the same. These thou pardonest them twice or three times ; two angels having refused, God addressed { I have sinned but once, and am not to be himself to Zinguiel. But this angel was forgiven ! no more willing to obey than the others. God.--Thou knowst not what thiou “T,” said he, " was formerly his precep- { sayest; thou hast committed six sins. tor, and I will not kill my disciple."

I remember to have sworu

thy death, or the destruction of Israel ; sembled in my bosom, and do not foilow one of the two must be accomplished. If my coinmandments, I shall reject you, thou wilt live Israel must perish.

and say to you.-Depart from me; I Moscs.-0 Lord, be not so hasty. All know you not ; depart from me, ye workis in thy hands. Let Moses perish, ra- ers of iniquity.' ther than one soul in Israel.

He afterwards attributes to Jesus Christ After several discourses of this sort, the these words ; —“Keep your flesh chaste, echo of the mountain says to Moses, and the seal unspotted, in order that you “Thou hast but five hours to live." At may receive eternal life.” the end of five hours, God sends for Ga- În the Apostolical Constitutions, combriel, Zinguiel, and Samael. He pro- }posed in the second century, we find these mises Moses that he shall be buried, and words—“ Jesus Christ has said, Be ye carries away his soul.

honest exchange-brokers.” When we reflect that nearly the whole We find many similar quotatious, not earth has been infatuated by similar sto- one of which is taken from the four gosries, and that they have formed the edu- pels recognised by the Church as the only cation of mankind, the fables of Pilpay, canonical ones. They are, for the most Lokman, or Æsop, appear quite reason- part, taken from the Gospel according to able.

the Hebrews, a gospel which was trans

lated by St. Jerome, and is now consiApocryphal Books of the New Law.

dered as apocryphal. Fifty Gospels, all very different from St. Clement the Roman says, in his seone another, of which there remain only cond Epistle—“The Lord, being asked four entire-that of James, that of Nico- when his reign should come, answered -demus, that of the infancy of Jesus, and When two shall make one, when that that of the birth of Mary. Of the rest we { which is without shall be within, when have nothing more than fragments and the male shall be female, and when there slight notices.

shall be neither female nor male." The traveller Tournefort, sent into These words are taken from the Gospel Asia by Louis XIV. informs us that the according to the Egyptians ; and the text Georgians have preserved the gospel of } is repeated entire by St. Clement of Alexthe Infancy, which was probably commu- andria. But what could the author of nicated to them by the Azmenians. the Egyptian gospels, and what could St.

In the beginning, several of these gos- { Clement himself be thinking of? The pels, now regarded as apocryphal, were words which he quotes are injurious to cited as authentic, and were even the Jesus Christ; they give us to understand only gospels that were cited. In the Acts that he did not believe that his reign of the Apostles we find these words, ut- would come at all. To say that a thing tered by St. Paul, (chap. xx., ver. 35,) { will take place when two shall make one, “And remember the words of the Lord when the male shall be female, is to say Jesus, how he said, it is more blessed to that it will never take place. A passage give than to receive."

like this is rabbinical, much rather than St. Barnabas, in his Catholic Epistle, evangelical. (No 4 and 7,) makes Jesus Christ speak There were also two apocryphal Acts thus—“ Let us resist all iniquity ; let us of the Apostles. They are quoted by St. hate it.

Such as would see { Epiphanius. In these Acts it is related me enter into my kingdom, must follow that St. Paul was the son of an idolatrous me through pain and sorrow.'

father and mother, and turned Jew in St. Clement, in his second Epistle to order to marry the daughter of Gamaliel ; the Corinthians, puts these words into the and that either being refused, or not findmouth of Jesus Christ—" If you are as- ing her a virgin, he took part with the

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