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that of Timotheus ; and there is not a s looked forward to this resurrection of the picture presented at Paris in the Hall of { body, why did they take out the brains Apollo (salon d'Apollon), which does not before embalıning them? Were the excel the paintings dug out of Hercula- Egyptians to be resuscitated without

brains ?

Was the ox Apis worshipped at Mem-
phis as a God? as a symbol ? or as an ox?

Justin the Martyr, who wrote about It is likely that the fanatics regurded him the year 270 of the Christian era, was the as a god, the wise as merely a symbol, first who spoke of the Apocalypse; he atand that the more stupid part of the peo- } gelist. In his dialogue with Tryphon,

tributes it to the apostle John the Evanple worshipped the ox. Did Cambyses do right in killing this ox with his own

that Jew asks him if he does not believe hand? Why not? He showed to the that Jerusalem is one day to be re-estabimbecile that their God might be put on

lished ? Justin answers, that he believes the spit without Nature's arming herself it, as all Christians do who think aright. to revenge the sacrilege. The Egyptians

“ There was among us,” says he, have been much extolled. I have not } certain person named John, one of the heard of a more miserable people. There twelve apostles of Jesus; he foretold must always have been in their character, { that the faithful shall pass a thousand and in their government, some radical years in Jerusalem.” vice which has constantly made vile slaves

The belief in this reign of a thousand of them. Let it be granted, that in times years was long prevalent among the almost unknown they conquered the Christians. This period was also in great earth; but in historical times they have credit among the Gentiles. The souls of been subjugated by all who have chosen the Egyptians returned to their bodies at to take the trouble,—by the Assyrians, the end of a thousand years ; and, accordby the Greeks, by the Romans, by the ing to Virgil, the souls in purgatory were Arabs, by the Mamelukes, by the Turks, exercised for the same space of time ;

The New Jerusalem by all, in short, but our crusaders, who et mille per annos.

more ill-advised than the of a thousand years was to have twelve Egyptians were cowardly. It was the gates, in memory of the twelve aposties; Mameluke militia that beat the French its form was to be square; its length, under St. Louis. There are, perhaps, breadth, and height, were each to be a but two things tolerable in this nation; thousand stadii, i.e. five hundred leagues ; the first is, that those who worshipped an

so that the houses were to be five hundred ox, never sought to compel those who leagues high. It would be rather disaadored an ape to change their religion ; } greeable to live in the upper story; but the second, that they have always hatched we find all this in the 21st chapter of the chickens in ovens.

Apocalypse. We are told of their pyramids ; but

If Justin was the first who attributed they are monuments of an enslaved peo

the Apocalypse to St. John, some perple. The whole nation must have been

sons have rejected his testimony ; because set to work on them, or those unsightly in this same dialogue with the Jew Trymasses could never have been raised. phon, he says that, according to the relaAnd for what use were they? To pre- he went into the Jordan, made the water

tion of the Apostles, Jesus Christ, when serve in a small chamber the mummy of some prince, or governor, or intendant, boil,—which, however, is not to be found which his soll was to re-animate at the in any writing of the Apostles. end of a thousand years. But if they

The same St. Justin confidently cites




the oracles of Sibyls; he moreover pre- ; did not reckon the Apocalypse among the tends to have seen the remains of the canonical books. It is very singular that places in which the seventy-two interpre- Laodicea, one of the churches to which ters were confined in the Egyptian pharos, the Apocalypse was addressed, should in Herod's time. The testimony of a { have rejected a treasure designed for itman who had had the misfortune to see self; and that the bishop of Ephesus, these places, seems to indicate that he who attended the council, should also might possibly have been confined there } have rejected this book of St. John, who himself.

was buried at Ephesus. St. Irenæus, who comes afterwards, and It was visible to all eyes that St. John who also believed in the reign of a thou- was continually turning about in his grave, sand years, tells us, that he learned from causing a constant rising and falling of the an old man, that St. John wrote the Apo- earth. Yet the same persons who were calypse. But St. Irenæus is reproached sure that St. John was not quite dead, with having written, that there ought to were also sure that he had not written the be but four gospels, because there are but { Apocalypse. But those who were for the four quarters of the world, and four car- } thousand years' reign, were unshaken in dinal points, and Ezekiel saw but four their opinion. Sulpicius Severus, in his animals. He calls this reasoning a de- } Sacred History, book xi., as mad monstration. It must be confessed, that and impious those who did not receive Irenæus's method of demonstrating is the Apocalypse. At length, after numequite worthy of Justin's power of sight. rous oppositions of council to council, the

Clement of Alexandria, in his Electa, { opinion of Sulpicius Severus prevailed. mentions only an Apocalypse of St. Peter, The matter having been thus cleared up, to which great importance was attached. { the Church came to the decision, from Tertullian, a great partisan of the thou- which there is no appeal, that the Apocasand years' reign, not only assures us that {lypse is incontestably St. John's. St. John foretold this resurrection and Every Christian communion has apreign of a thousand years in the city of plied to itself the prophesies contained in Jerusalem, but also asserts that this Jeru- } this book. The English have found in it salem was already beginning to form itself the revolutions of Great Britain ; the Luin the air, where it had been seen by all therans, the troubles of Germany; the the Christians of Palestine, and even by French reformers, the reign of Charles the Pagans, at the latter end of the night, { IX. and the regency of Catherine de Mefor forty nights successively ; but, unfor- dicis: and they are all equally right. tunately, the city always disappeared as Bossuet and Newton have both comsoon as it was day-light.

mented on the Apocalypse; yet, after all, Origen, in his preface to St. John's the eloquent declamations of the one, and Gospel, and in his homilies, quotes the } the sublime discoveries of the other, have oracles of the Apocalypse; but he like- done them greater honour than their wise quotes the oracles of Sibyls. And commentaries. St. Dionysius of Alexandria, who wrote about the middle of the third century, says, in one of his fragments preserved by Two great men, but very different in Eusebius, that nearly all the doctors re- { their greatness, have commented on the jected the Apocalypse as a book devoid } Apocalypse, in the seventeenth century ; of reason; and that this book was com-{- Newton, to whom such a study was posed, not by St. John, but by one Ce-very ill suited; and Bossuet, who was rinthus, who made use of a great name to better fitted for the undertaking. Both give more weight to his reveries.

gave additional weapons to their enemies The council of Laodicea, held in 360, by their commentaries; and, as has else


where been said, the former consoled man- } It was entitled Apocalypse, because in it kind for his superiority over them, while he exposed the dangers and defects of the the latter made his enemies rejoice. monastic life; and Melito's Apocalypse,

The Catholics and the Protestants have (Apocalypse de Méliton), because Melito, both explained the Apocalypse in their Bishop of Sardis, in the second century, favour, and have each found in it exactly had passed for a prophet. This bishop's what has accorded with their interests. } work has none of the obscurities of St. They have made wonderful commenta- John's Apocalypse. Nothing was ever ries on the great beast with seven heads clearer. The bishop is like a magistrate and ten horns, with the hair of a leopard, saying to an attorney, “You are a forger, the feet of a bear, the throat of a lion, the and a cheat-do you comprehend me?" strength of a dragon ; and, to buy and The Bishop of Bellay computes, in his sell, it was necessary to have the charac- Apocalypse or Revelations, that there were ter and number of the beast, which num- } in his time ninety-eight orders of monks ber was 666.

endowed or mendicant, living at the exBossuet finds that this beast was evi- } pense of the people, without employing dently the Emperor Dioclesian, by making themselves in the smallest labour. He an acrostic of his name. Grotius believed reckoned six hundred thousand monks in that it was Trajan. A curate of St. Sul- | Europe. The calculation was a little pice, named La Chétardie, known from strained ; but it is certain that the real some strange adventures, proves that the number of the monks was rather too beast was Julian. Jurieu proves that the large. beast is the Pope. One preacher has de

He assures us that the monks are enemonstrated that it was Louis XIV. A {mies to the bishops, curates, and magisgood Catholic has demonstrated that it is į tratesWilliam, King of England. It is not easy That, among the privileges granted to to make them all agree.

the Cordeliers, the sixth privilege is, the There have been warm disputes con- certainty of being saved, whatever horrible cerning the stars which fell from heaven crime you may have committed, provided to earth, and the sun and moon, which you belong to the Order of St. Franciswere struck with darkness in their third That the monks are like apes; the parts.

higher they climb, the plainer you see their There are several opinions respecting posteriors. the book that the angel made the author That the name of monk has become so of the Apocalypse eat, which book was infamous and execrable, that it is regarded sweet to the mouth and bitter to the sto- by the monks themselves as a foul remach. Jurieu asserted that the books of proach, and the most violent insult that his adversary were designated thereby; } can be offered them. and his argument was retorted upon him- My dear reader, whoever you are, self.

minister or magistrate, consider attentively There have been disputes about this the following short extract from our verse :-“And I heard à voice from hea- } bishop's book :ven, as the voice of many waters, and as “ Figure to yourself the Convent of the the voice of a great thunder; and I heard } Escurial or of Mount Cassino, where the the voice of harpers harping on their harps." } cænobites have everything necessary, use

It is quite clear, that it would have {ful, delightful, superfluous, and superbeen better to have respected the Apo- } abundant--since they have their yearly calypse, than to have commented upon it. revenue of a hundred and fifty thousand,

Camus, Bishop of Bellay, printed, in four hundred thousand, or five hundred the last century, a large book against the thousand crowns; and judge whether monks, which an unfrocked monkabridged. } Monsieur l'Abbé has wherewithal to allow himself, and those under him, to sleep That to maintain, as the orthodox do, after dinner.

that in the divine essence there are several “ Then imagine an artisan or labourer, distinct persons, and that the Eternal is with no dependence except on the work not the only true God, but that the Son of his hands, and burdened with a large and the Holy Ghost must be joined with family, toiling like a slave, every day, and him, is to introduce into the church of at all seasons, to feed them with the bread ( Christ an error the most gross and danof sorrow and the water of tears; and say, gerous, since it is openly to favour polywhich of the two conditions is pre-emi- , theismnent in poverty.”

That it implies a contradiction, to say This is a passage from the Episcopul that there is but one God, and that, neverApocalypse, which needs no commentary: theless, there are three persons, each of There only wants an angel to come and { which is truly Godfill his cup with the wine of the monks, That this distinction, of one in essence, to slake the thirst of the labourers who and three in person, was never in Scripplough, sow, and reap, for the monasteries. ture

But this prelate, instead of writing a That it is manifestly false ; since it is useful book, only composed a satire. certain that there are no fewer essences Consistently with his dignity, he should than persons, nor persons than essenceshave stated the good as well as evil. He That the three persons of the Trinity should have acknowledged that the Bene- are, either three different substances, or dictines have produced many good works, , accidents of the divine essence, or that and that the Jesuits have rendered great essence itself without distinctionservices to literature. He might have That, in the first place, you make three blessed the brethren of La Charité, and Godsthose of the Redemption of the Captives. That, in the second, God is composed Our first duty is to be just. Camus gave of accidents ; you adore accidents, and too much scope to his imagination. St. { metamorphose accidents into persons François de Sales advised him to write That, in the third, you, unfoundedly moral romances; but he abused the ad-, and to no purpose, divide an indivisible vice.

subject, and distinguish into three that ANTI-TRINITARIANS. which within itself has no distinctionThese are heretics who might pass for

That if it be said, that the three personother than Christians. However, they alities are neither different substances in acknowledge Jesus as Saviour and Medi- the divine essence, nor accidents of that ator; but they dare to maintain, that no- essence, it will be difficult to persuade thing is more contrary to right reason than ourselves that they are anything at all what is taught among Christians concern- That it must not be believed that the ing the Trinity of persons in one only most rigid and decided Trinitarians have divine essence, of whom the second is be- { themselves any clear idea of the way in gotten by the first, and the third proceeds which the three hypostases subsist in God, from the other two

without dividing his substance, and conThat this unintelligible doctrine is not sequently without multiplying it to be found in any part of Scripture- That St. Augustin himself, after al

That no passage can be produced which vancing on this subject a thousand reaso:1authorises it; or to which, without in any- {ings alike dark and false, was forced to wise departing from the spirit of the text, confess that nothing intelligible could be a sense cannot be given more clear, more said about the matter. natural, or more conformable to common They then repeat the passage in this finotions, and to primitive and immutable {ther, which is, indeed, a very singulir truths

one :—“ When," says he, “it is asked

cap. 9–

what are the thrce, the language of man; in earth, the spirit, and the water, and the fails, and terms are wanting to express blood : and these three are one." Calthem." Three persons has, however, met acknowledges that these two verses been said—not for the purpose of express- are not in any ancient Bible: indeed, it ing anything, but in order to say some- would be very strange if St. John had thing and not remain mute.” Dictum spoken of the Trinity in a letter, and said est tres persona, non ut aliquid diceretur, not a word about it in his Gospel. We sed ne taceretur."-DE TRINIT. lib. v. find no trace of this dogma, either in the

canonical or in the apocryphal gospels. That modern theologians have cleared All these reasons, and many others, might up this matter no better.

excuse the Anti-Trinitarians, if the counThat, when they are asked what they cils had not decided. But, as the heretics understand by the word person, they ex- pay no regard to councils, we know not plain themselves only by saying, that it is what measures to take to confound them. a certain incomprehensible distinction, by < Let us content ourselves with believing, which are distinguished in one nature and wishing them to believe. only, a Father, a Son, and a Holy Ghost

APOCRYPHA-APOCRYPHAL. That the explanation which they give of (FROM THE GREEK WORD SIGNIFYING hidden.) the terms begetting and proceeding, is no It has been very well remarked, that more satisfactory ; since it reduces itself the Divine writings might, at one and the to saying, that these terms indicate certain same time, be sacred and apocryphal; incomprehensible relations existing among sacred, because they had undoubtedly been the three persons of the Trinity

dictated by God himself; apocryphal, beThat i may be hence gathered that the cause they were hidden from the nations, state of the question between them and and even from the Jewish people. the orthodox is, to know whether there are That they were hidden from the nations in God three distinctions, of which no one before the translation executed at Alexhas any definite idea, and among which andria, under the Ptolemies, is an acthere are certain relations of which no one knowledged truth. Josephus declares it has any more idea.

in the answer to Appian, which he wrote From all this they conclude, that it would after Appian’s death ; and his declaration be wiser to abide by the testimony of the has not the less strength because he seeks Apostles, who never spoke of the Trinity, } to strengthen it by a fable. He says, in and to banish from religion for ever all his history, that the Jewish books being terms which are not in the Scriptures—as all-divine, no foreign historian or poet had Trinity, person, essence, hypostasis, hypo ever dared to speak of them. And, imstatio and personal union, incarnation, mediately after assuring us that no one generation, proceeding, and many others of had ever dared to mention the Jewish the same kind; which being absolutely laws, he adds, that the historian Theopomdevoid of meaning, since they are repre-pus, having only intended to insert somesented by no real existence in nature, can thing concerning them in his history, God excite in the understanding none but false, struck him with madness for thirty days; vague, obscure, and undefinable notions. { but that, having been informed in a dream

To this article, let us add what Calmet that he was mad only because he had says in his Dissertation on the following wished to know divine things, and make passage of the Epistle of John the Evan- them known to the profane, he asked pargelist :-—" For there are three that bear don of God, who restored him to his record in heaven, the Father, the Word, senses. and the Holy Ghost; and these three are Josephus, in the same passage, also one: and there are three that bear witness relates, that a poet, named Theodectes,

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