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SECTION I.

employing artillery to destroy a cottage. the same thing, at the sources of the Besides, why remove Lucretius' reveries Guadalquivir, the Guadiana, the Douro, to substitute those of Descartes ?

and the Ebro. For of Pison we easily Cardinal Polignac has inserted in his & make Phæris, and of Phæris we easily poem some very fine lines on the disco- make the Bætis, which is the Guadalquiveries of Newton ; but in these, unfortu- vir. The Gihon, it is plain, is the Guanately for himself, he combats demon- diana, for they both begin with a G. And strated truths. The philosophy of New- the Ebro, which is in Catalonia, is unton is not to be discussed in verse; it is questionably the Euphrates, both beginscarcely to be approached in prose.- ning with an E. Founded altogether on geometry, the ge- But a Scotchman comes, and in his turn nius of poetry is not fit to assail it. The demonstrates that the garden of Eden was surface of these truths may be decorated at Edinburgh, which has retained its with fine verses; but to fathom them, cal- name; and it is not unlikely that, in a few culation is requisite, and not verse. centuries, this opinion will prevail. ANTIQUITY.

The whole globe was once burned, says a man conversant with ancient and modern

history; for I have read in a journal, that Have you not sometimes seen, in a charcoal quite black has been found a villagt, Pierre Aoudri and his wife Pero- hundred feet deep, among mountains nelle striving to go before their neighbours covered with wood. And it is also susin a procession? “Our grandfathers," }pected that there were charcoal-burners say they, “rung the bells, before those in this place. who elbow us now had so much as a stable Phaeton's adventure sufficiently shows of their own."

that everything has been boiled, even to The vanity of Pierre Aoudri, his wife, } the bottom of the sea. The sulphur of and his neighbours, knows no better.— Mount Vesuvius incontrovertibly proves They grow warm. The quarrel is an im- that the banks of the Rhine, the Danube, portant one, for honour is in question. the Ganges, the Nile, and the Great YelProofs must now be found. Some learned } low River, are nothing but sulphur, nitre, church-singer discovers an old rusty iron and oil of guiacum, which only wait for pot, marked with an A, the initial of the the moment of explosion to reduce the brazier's name who made the pot. Pierre earth to ashes, as it has already once been. Aoudri persuades himself that it was the The sand on which we walk is an evident helmet of one of his ancestors. So Cæsar proof that the universe has vitrified, and descended from a hero and from the god- that our globe is nothing but a ball of dess Venus. Such is the history of na- įglass-like our ideas. tions; such is, very nearly, the knowledge But if fire has changed our globe, water of early antiquity.

has produced still more wonderful revoThe learned of Armenia demonstrate lutions. For it is plain that the sea, the that the terrestrial paradise was in their tides of which, in our latitudes, rise eight country: Some profound Swedes demon- feet, has produced the mountains, which strate that it was somewhere about Lake are sixteen to seventeen thousand feet high. Wenner, which exhibits visible remains } This is so true, that some learned men, of it. Some Spaniards, too, demonstrate who never were in Switzerland, found a that it was in Castile. While the Japa- < large vessel there, with all its rigging, penese, the Chinese, the Tartars, the In- trified, either on Mount St. Gothard or at dians, the Africans, and the Americans, the bottom of a precipice—it is not posiare so unfortunate as not even to know tively known which ; but it is quite certhat a terrestrial paradise once existed at tain that it was there. Therefore, men the sources of the Pison, the Gihon, the were originally fishes—Q. E. D Tigris and the Euphrates, or, which is Coming down to antiquity less ancient,

SECTION II.

let us speak of the times when most bar- | ferring a great deal. The thing, however, barous nations quitted their own countries is not mathematically impossible ; and if to seek others which were not much better. } it be demonstrated, I assent: it would be It is true, if there be anything true in very uncivil to refuse to the Welches what ancient history, that there were Gaulish } is granted to the Tartars. robbers, who went to plunder Rome in the time of Camillus. Other robbers from Gaul had, it is said, passed through Illyria On the Antiquity of Usages to sell their services as murderers to other Who have been the greatest fools, and murderers in the neighbourhood of Thrace: { who the most ancient fools ? Ourselves ? they bartered their blood for bread, and or the Egyptians ? or the Syrians ? or at length settled in Galatia. But who some other people? What was signified were these Gauls ? Were they natives of } by our misletoe? Who first consecrated Berry and Anjou ? They were, doubt- a cat ?-It must have been he who was the less, some of those Gauls whom the Ro- most troubled with mice. In what nation mans called Cisalpine, and whom we call did they first dance under the boughs of Transalpine-famishing mountaineers, in- trees in honour of the gods ? Who first habiting the Alps and the Appennines. made processions, and placed fools, with The Gauls of the Seine and the Marne caps and bells, at the head of them? Who did not then know that Rome existed ; first carried a Priapus through the streets, and could not resolve to cross Mount } and fixed one like a knocker at the door? Cenis, as was afterwards done by Han- What Arab first took it into his head to nibal, to steal the wardrobes of the Roman hang his wife's drawers out at the window, senators, whose only moveables were the day after his marriage ? gown of bad grey cloth, decorated with a

All nations have formerly danced at the band, the colour of bull's blood; two time of the new moon. Did they then small knobs of ivory, or rather dog's bone, give one another the word ? No: no more fixed to the arms of a wooden chair; and } than they did to rejoice at the birth of a a piece of rancid bacon in their kitchens. son, or to mourn, or seem to mourn, at

The Gauls, who were dying of hunger, } the death of a father. Every one is very finding nothing to eat at home, went to glad to see the moon again, after having try their fortune further off; as the Ro- lost her for several nights. There are a mans afterwards did, when they ravaged hundred usages so natural to all men, that so many countries ; and as the people of it cannot be said the Biscayans taught the North did at a later period, when they them to the Phrygians, or the Phrygians destroyed the Roman empire.

to the Biscayans. And whence have we received our vague Fire and water have been used in teminformation respecting these emigrations ? ples. This custom needed no introducFrom some lines written at a venture by tion. A priest did not choose always to the Romans : for, as for the Celts, Wel- have his hands dirty. Fire was necessary ches, or Gauls, whom some would have to cook the immolated carcases, and to us believe to have been eloquent, neither burn slips of resinous wood and spices, in they nor their bards could at that time order to combat the odour of the sacerread or write.

dotal shambles. But, to infer from these that the Gauls But the mysterious ceremonies which or Celts, afterwards conquered by a few it is so difficult to understand, the usages of Cæsar's legions, then by a horde of which nature does not teach-in what Goths, then by a horde of Burgundians, place, when, where, how, why, were they and lastly by a horde of Sicambri, under invented? Who communicated them to one Clodovic, had before subjugated the other nations? It is not likely that it whole earth, and given their names and should, at the same time, have entered the their laws to Asia, seems to me to be in- ? head of an Arab and of an Egyptian, to mut off one end of his son's prepuce ; nor voured his father, and that he devoured that a Chinese and a Persian should, both } his children. No allegory is more reaat once, have resolved to castrate little sonable : Time devours the past and the boys.

present, and will devour the future. It can never have been that two fathers, Why seek for vain and gloomy explain different countries, have, at the same nations of a feast so universal, so gay, and moment, formed the idea of cutting their so well known? When I look well into sons' throats to please God. Some na-{ antiquity, I do not find a single annual tions must have communicated to others festival of a melancholy character ; or, at their follies, serious, ridiculous, or bar- } least, if they begin with lamentations, they barous.

end in dancing and revelry. If tears are In this antiquity men love to search, to shed for Adoni or Adonai, whom we call discover, if possible, the first madman and Adonis, he is soon resuscitated, and rethe first scoundrel who perverted human joicing takes place. It is the same with nature.

the feasts of Isis, Osiris, and Horus. The But, how are we to know whether Jehu, } Greeks, too, did as much for Ceres as for in Phænicia, by immolating his son, was { Proserpine. The death of the serpent the inventor of sacrifices of human blood ? { Python was celebrated with gaiety. A

How can we be assured that Lycaon} feast day and a day of joy were one and was the first who ate human flesh, when the same thing. At the feasts of Bacchus we do not know who first began to eat { this joy was only carried too far. fowls?

I do not find one general commemorar We seek to know the origin of ancient tion of an unfortunate event. The instifeasts. The most ancient and the finest is tutors of the feasts would have shown that of the Emperors of China tilling and themselves to be devoid of common sense, sowing the ground, together with their first } if they had established at Athens a celemandarins. The second is, that of the bration of the battle lost at Cheronea, and Thesmophoria at Athens. To celebrate at Rome another of the battle of Cannæ. at once agriculture and justice, to show They perpetuated the remembrance of men how necessary they both are, to unite what might encourage men, and not of the curb of law with the art which is the } that which might fill them with cowardice source of all wealth-nothing is more wise, or despair. This is so true, that fables more pious, or more useful.

were invented for the purpose of instituting There are old allegorical feasts to be feasts. Castor and Pollux did not fight found everywhere, as those of the return for the Romans near Lake Regillus; but, of the seasons. It was not necessary that at the end of three or four hundred years, one nation should come from afar off, to some priests said so, and all the people teach another that marks of joy and friend-} danced. Hercules did not deliver Greece ship for one's neighbours may be given on from a hydra with seven heads; but Herthe first day of the year. This custom has cules and his hydra were sung. been that of every people. The Saturnalia of the Romans are better known than those of the Allobroges and the Picts; because Festivals founded on Chimeras. there are many Roman writings and I do not know that there was, in all monuments remaining, but there are none antiquity, a single festival founded on an of the other nations of western Europe. established fact. It has been elsewhere

The feast of Saturn was the feast of remarked, how extremely ri liculous those Time. He had four wings; Time flies schoolmen appəar, who say to you, with quickly. His two faces evidently signi- a magisterial air :-Here is an ancient fying the concluded and the commencing hymn in honour of Apollo, who visited year. The Greeks said that he had de- Claros; therefore, Apollo went to Claros ;

SECTION III.

morrow-a

a chapel was erected to Perseus ; there- ; burning of the whole city, in the reign of fore, he delivered Andromeda. Poor Charles II. We made songs while the men! you should rather say, therefore, massacres of Bartholomew were still gothere was no Andromeda.

ing on. Some pasquinades have been But what, then, will become of that preserved, which were made the day after learned antiquity which preceded the thc assassination of Coligni : there was olympiads? It will become what it is-printed in Paris, Passio Domini nostri an unknown time, a time lost, a time of Gaspardi Colignii secundum Bartholoallegories and lies, a time regarded with } mæum. contempt by the wise, and profoundly dis- It has a thousand times happened that cussed by blockheads, who like to float in the Sultan, who reigns in Constantinople, a void, like Epicurus’ atoms.

has made his eunuchs and odalisks dance There were everywhere days of pen- in apartments stained with the blood of ance, days of expiation in the temples ; } his brothers and his viziers. but these days were never called by a name What do the people of Paris do, on answering to that of feasts. Every feast- } the very day that they are apprised of the day was sacred to diversion : so true is loss of a battle and the death of a hunthis, that the Egyptian priests fasted on {dred brave officers ? They run to the the eve, in order to eat the more on the play and the opera.

tom which our monks have What did they when the wife of Marpreserved. There were, no doubt, mourn- shal D'Ancre was given up in the Grève lul ceremonies. It was not customary to

to the barbarity of her persecutors ? dance the Greek brawl while interring or

When Marshal De Marillac was dragged carrying to the funeral pile a son or a to execution in a waggon, by virtue of a daughter; this was a vublic ceremony, } paper signed by robed lackies in Cardinal but certainly not a feast

De Richelieu's anti-chamber?-When a lieutenant-general of the army, a foreigner,

who had shed his blood for the state, conOn the Antiquity of Feasts, which, it has demned by the cries of his infuriated enebren asserted, were always mournful.

mies, was led to the scaffold in a dungMen of ingenuity, profound searchers cart, with a gag in his mouth ?—When a into antiquity, who would know how the young man of nineteen, full of candour, earth was made a hundred thousand years | dent, was carried to the most dreadful of

courage, and modesty, but very impruago, if genius could discover it, have asserted, that mankind, reduced to a very

punishments ? They sang vaudevilles. small number in both continents, and still of the Seine. Such has he been at all

Such is man, at least man on the banks terrified at the innumerable revolutions which this sad globe had undergone, per- have always had hair, and larks feathers.

times, for the same reason that rabbits petuated the remembrance of their calamities by dismal and mournful comn.emorations. Every feast,” say they, was a day

On the Origin of the Arts. of horror, instituted to remind men that What! we would know the precise their fathers had been destroyed by the theology of Thoth, Zerdusht, or Sanchofires of the volcanoes, by rocks falling } niathon, although we know not who infrom the mountains, by eruptions of the vented the shuttle. The first weaver, the sea, by the teeth and claws of wild beasts, { first mason, the first smith, were undoubtby war, pestilence and famine."

edly great geniuses; yet no account has Then we are not made as men were } been made of them. And why? Bethen. There was never so much rejoicing cause not one of them invented a perfect m London, as after the plague and the art. Ile who first hollowed the trunk of

SECTION IV.

SECTION V.

an oak for the purpose of crossing a river, } and Spain, tells us, that in his time the did not build galleys; nor did they who houses were built of a sort of mortar, piled up unhewn stones, and laid pieces covered with thatch or oak shingles, and of wood across them, dream of the pyra- that the people did not make use of tiles. mids. Every thing is done by degrees, } What was the time of Vitruvius? It was and the glory belongs to no one.

that of Augustus. The arts had scarcely All was done in the dark, until philo- yet reached the Spaniards, who had mines sophers, aided by geometry, taught men of gold and silver, or the Gauls, who had to proceed with accuracy and safely. fought for ten years against Cæsar.

It was left for Pythagoras, on his return The same Vitruvius informs us, that in from his travels, to show workmen the the opulent and ingenious town of Marway to make an exact square. He took seilles, which traded with so many nathree rules, one two, one three, one four, tions, the roofs were only of a kind of clay and one five feet long, and with these he mixed with straw. made a rightangled triangle. Moreover, He

says, that the Phrygians dug themit was found that the side 5 furnished a selves habitations in the ground : they square just equal to the two squares pro- stuck poles round the hollow, brought duced by the sides 4 and 3; a method of them together at top, and laid earth over importance in all regular works.

them. The Hurons and the Algonquins This is the famous theorem which he are better lodged. This gives us no very had brought from India, and which, we } lofty idea of Troy, built by the gods, and have elsewhere said, was known in China the palace of Priam :long before, according to the relation of

Apparet domus lotů., et atria longa patescunt; the Emperor Cam-hi. Long before Plato, Apparent Priami et veterum penetralia regum. the Greeks made use of a single geome- A mighty breach is made; the rooms concealed trical figure to double the square.

Appcar, and all the palace is revealed

The balls of audience, and of public state.-Dryden. Archytas and Erastothenes invented a method of doubling the cube, which was

To be sure, the people are not lodged impracticable by ordinary geometry, and like kings; huts are to be seen near the which would have done honour to Archi- Vatican and near Versailles. medes,

Besides, industry rises and falls among This Archimedes found the method of nations by a thousand revolutions :calculating exactly the quantity of alloy

El campos ubi Troja fuit. mixed with gold; for gold had been Now waves the sheas where Troy once stood. worked for ages before the fraud of the We have our arts; the ancients had workers could be discovered. Knavery theirs. We could not make a galley with existed long before mathematics. The three benches of oars; but we can build pyramids, built with the square, and cor. ships with a hundred pieces of cannon. responding exactly with the four cardinal We cannot raise obelisks a hundred feet points, sufficiently show that geometry was high, in a single piece; but our meridians known in Egypt from time immemorial ; { are more exact. and yet it is proved that Egypt is quite a The byssus is unknown to us; but the new country.

stuffs of Lyons are more valuable. Without philosophy, we should be little The Capitol was worthy of admiration; above the animals, that dig or erect their the church of St. Peter is larger and more habitations, prepare their food in them, beautiful. take care of their little ones in their dwell- The Louvre is a master-piece when ings, and bave besides the good fortune, compared with the palace of Persepolis, which we have not, of being born ready the situation and ruins of which do but clothed.

tell of a vast monument of barbaric wealth. Vitruvius, who nad travelled in Gaul Rameau's music is probably better than

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