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In the laws of the Jews, that is, in Le-{ Eve, and damned mankind. Jesus came viticus and Deuteronomy, not the least to redeem mankind, and to triumph over mention is made of the existence of the the devil, who tempts us still. Yet this angels — much less of the worship of į fundamental tradition is to be found nothem. Neither did the Sadducees believe where but in the apocryphal book of in the angels.

Enoch ; and there it is in a form quite But in the histories of the Jews, they different from that of the received tradiare much spoken of. The angels were stion. corporeal ; they had wings at their backs, St. Augustin, in his 109th letter, does as the Gentiles feigned that Mercury had not hesitate to give slender and agile boat his heels ; sometimes they concealed { dies to the good and bad angels. Pope their wings under their clothing. How Gregory I. has reduced to nine choirscould they be without bodies, since they to nine hierarchies or orders, the ten all ate and drank, and the inhabitants of choirs of angels acknowledged by the Sodom wanted to commit the sin of pe- Jews. derasty with the angels who went to Lot's The Jews had in their temple two chehouse?

rubs, each with two heads—the one that The ancient Jewish tradition, accord- of an ox, the other that of an eagle, with ing to Ben Maimon, admits ten degrees, six wings. We paint them now in the ten orders of angels :-1. The chaios form of a flying head, with two small ecodesh, pure, holy. 2. The ofamin, wings below the ears. We paint the answift. 3. The oralim, strong. 4. The {gels and archangels in the form of young chasmalim, Aames. 5. The seraphim, men, with two wings at the back. As for sparks. 6. The malakim, angels, mes- the thrones and dominations, no one has sengers, deputies. 7. The elohim, gods yet thought of painting them. ar judges. 8. The ben elohim, sons of St. Thomas, at question cviii. article 2, the gods. 9. The cherubim, images. } says, that the Thrones are as near to God 10. The ychim, animated.

as the Cherubim and the Seraphim, beThe story of the Fall of the Angels is { cause it is upon them that God sits. Scot not to be found in the books of Moses. has counted a thousand million of angels. The first testimony respecting it is that of The ancient mythology of the good and Isaiah, who, apostrophising the King of bad genii, having passed from the East to Babylon, exclaims, "Where is now the Greece and Rome, we consecrated this exactor of tributes ?. The pines and the opinion, for admitting for each individual cedars rejoice in his fall. How hast thou a good and an evil angel, of whom one fallen from heaven, O Hellel, star of the assists him and the other torments him, morning ?" It has been already observed from his birth to his death ; but it is not that the word Hellel has been rendered yet known whether these good and bad by the Latin word Lucifer; that after- } angels are continually passing from one to wards, in an allegorical sense, the name another, or are relieved by others. On of Lucifer was given to the prince of the { this point, consult St. Thomas's Dream. angels, who made war in heaven ; and It is not known precisely where the anthat, at last, this word, signifying Phos- gels dwell—whether in the air, in the void, phorus and Aurora, has become the name or in the planets. It has not been God's of the devil.

pleasure that we should be informed of The Christian religion is founded on their abode. the Fall of the Angels. Those who revolted were precipitated from the spheres

ANNALS. which they inhabited into hell, in the cen- How many nations have long existed, tre of the earth, and became devils. A and still exist, without annals. There devil, in the form of a serpent, tempted { were none in all America, that is, in une

half of our globe, excepting those of į tiquity, are the Indian, the Chinese, and Mexico and Peru, which are not very an- the Hebrew. cient. Besides, knotted cords are a sort { We cannot give the name of annals to of books which cannot enter into very į vague and rude fragments of history minute details. Three-fourths of Africa without date, order, or connection. They never had annals; and, at the present are riddles proposed by antiquity to posday, in the most learned nations, - in terity, who understand nothing at all of those which have even used and abused them. the art of writing the most, ninety-nine We venture to affirm that Sanchoniaout of a hundred individuals may be re- thon, who is said to have lived before the garded as not knowing anything that hap- time of Moses, composed annals. He pened there farther back than four gene- probably limited his researches to cosmorations, and as almost ignorant of the gony, as Hesiod afterwards did in Greece. names of their great-grandfathers. Such We advance this latter opinion only as a is the case with nearly all the inhabitants doubt; for we write only to be informed, of towns and villages, very few families and not to teach. holding titles of their possessions. When But what deserves the greatest attention a litigation arises respecting the limits of is, that Sanchoniathon quotes the books a field or a meadow, the judges decide ac- of the Egyptian Thoth, who, he tells us, cording to the testimony of the old men; } lived eight hundred years before him. and possession constitutes the title. Some Now Sanchoniathan probably wrote in great events are transmitted from father to } the age in which we place Joseph's adson, and are entirely altered in passing venture in Egypt. from mouth to mouth. They have no We commonly place the epoch of the other annals.

promotion of the Jew Joseph to the Look at all the villages of our Europe, į prime-ministry of Egypt at the year of so polished, so enlightened, so full of im- the creation 2,300. mense libraries, and which now seems to If, then, the books of Thoth were groan under the enormous mass of books. written eight hundred years before, they In each village, two men at most, on an were written in the year 1500 of the creaverage, can read and write. Society ation. Therefore, their date was a hunloses nothing in consequence. All works dred and fifty-six years before the Deluge. are performed-building, planting, sow- } They must, then, have been engraven on ing, reaping, as they were in the remotest stone, and preserved in the universal intimes. The labourer has not even leisure ; undation. to regret that he has not been taught to Another difficulty is, that Sanchoniaconsume some hours of the day in read- { thon does not speak of the Deluge, and ing. This proves that mankind had no that no Egyptian writer has ever been need of historical monuments, to cultivate quoted who does speak of it. But these the arts really necessary to life.

difficulties vanishes before the Book of It is astonishing, not that so many | Genesis, inspired by the Holy Ghost. tribes of people are without annals, but We have no intention here to plunge that three or four nations have preserved into the chaos which eighty writers have them for five thousand years or there- sought to clear up, by inventing different abouts, through so many violent revolu- chronologies : we always keep to the Old tions which the earth has undergone. } Testament. Nut a line remains of the ancient Egyp- We only ask, whether in the time of tian, Chaldean, or Persian annals, nor of } Thoth, they wrote in hieroglyphics, or in those of the Latins and Etruscans. The alphabetical characters ?inly annals than can boast of a little an- Whether stone and brick had vet been

laid aside for vellum, or any other mate- ç matic Sanction abolished them again. rial ?

Francis I. by a private treaty which he Whether Thoth wrote annals, or only a made with Leo X. and which was not incosmogony

serted in the concordat, allowed the pope Whether there were some pyramids al- to raise this tribute, which produced him ready built in the time of Thoth ?--- annually, during that prince's reign, a

Whether Lower Egypt was already in hundred thousand crowns of that day, achabited ?

{cording to the calculation then made by Whether canals had been constructed, Jacques Capelle, advocate-general to the to receive the waters of the Nile ?

parliament of Paris. Whether the Chaldeans had already The parliament, the universities, the taught the arts of the Egyptians, and clergy, the whole nation, protested against whether the Chaldeans had received them this exaction; and Henry II. yielding from the Brahmins ?

at length to the cries of his people, reThere are persons who have resolved newed the law of Charles VII. by an all these questions; which once occa- edict of the 3d of September, 1551. sioned a man of sense and wit to say of a The paying of annats was again forgrave doctor, “ That man must be very bidden by Charles IX. at the States of ignorant, for he answers every question Orleans, in 1560 :-"By the advice of that is asked him."

our council, and in pursuance of the deANNATS.

crees of the Holy Councils, the ancient

ordinances of the kings our predecessors, The epoch of the establishment of an- and the decisions of our courts of parlianats is uncertain ; which is a proof that ment, we order that all conveying of gold the exaction of them is a usurpation—an { and silver out of our kingdom, and payextortionary custom. Whatever is not ing of money under the name of annats, founded on an authentic law, is an abuse. } vacant or otherwise, shall cease, on pain Every abuse ought to be reformed, unless of a four-fold penalty on the offenders." the reform is more dangerous than the This law, promulgated in the general abuse itself. Usurpation begins by small assembly of the nation, must have seemed and successive encroachments ; equity irrevocable ; but, two years afterwards, and the public interest at length exclaim the same prince, subdued by the court of and protest : then comes policy, which { Rome, at that time powerful, re-estabdoes its best to reconcile usurpation with { lished what the whole nation and himself equity, and the abuse remains.

had abrogated. In several dioceses, the bishops, chap- Henry, IV. who feared no danger, but ters, and arch-deacons, after the exam- feared Rome, confirmed the annats by an ple of the popes, imposed annats upon the edict of the 22d of January, 1596. cures. In Normandy, this exaction is Three celebrated jurisconsults, Ducalled droit de déport. Policy having no moulin, Lannoy, and Duaren, have 'interest in maintaining this pillage, it was written strongly against annats, which abolished in several places; it still exists they call a real simony, If, in default of in others; so true is it that money is the their payment, the pope refuses his bulls. first object of worship !

? Duaren advises the Gallican church to In 1409, at the council of Pisa, Pope imitate that of Spain, which, in the Alexander V.expressly renounced annats ;} twelfth council of Toledo, charged the Charles VII. condemned them by an archbishop of that city, on the pope's re

ict of April, 1418; the council of } fusal, to provide for the prelates appointed sle declared that they came under the { by the king.

mination of simony; and the Prag- It is one of the most certain maxims of

ANTHROPOMORPHITES.- ANTI-LUCRETIUS.

83

a man.

French law, consecrated by article four- painters and sculptors. As soon as they teen of our liberties, that the bishop of could draw a little or shape a figure, they Rome has no power over the temporali- made an image of the Divinity. ties of benefices, but enjoys the revenues If the Egyptians consecrated cats and of annats only by the king's permission. gnats, they also sculptured Isis and But ought there not to be a term to this į Osiris. Bel was carved at Babylon, llerpermission? What avails our enlighten- cules at Tyre, Brahma at India. ment, if we are always to retain our The Mussulmans did not paint God as abuses?

The Guebres had no image of The amount of the sums which have the Great Being. The Sabean Arabs did been and still are paid to the pope, is not give the human figure to the stars. truly frightful. The attorney-general, { The Jews did not give it to God in their Jean de St. Romain, has remarked that, temple. None of these nations cultivated in the time of Pius II. twenty-two bish- the art of design; and if Solomon placed opricks having become vacant in France figures of animals in his temple, it s in the space of three years, it was neces- likely that he had them carved at Tyre; sary to carry to Rome a hundred and } but all the Jews have spoken of God as twenty thousand crowns ; that sixty-one of a man. abbeys having also become vacant, the Although they had no images, they like sum had been paid to the court of seem to have made God a man on all ocRome; that, about the same time, there casions. He comes down into the garhad been paid to this court for provisions den; he walks there every day at noon; for the priorships, deaneries, and other { he talks to his creatures; he talks to the inferior dignities, a thousand crowns ; } serpent; he makes himself heard by Mothat for each curate there was at least a ses, in the bush ; he shows him only his gráce expectative, which was sold for back parts on the mountain ; he nevertwenty-five crowns; besides an infinite theless talks to him, face to face, like one number of dispensations, amounting to friend to another. two millions of crowns. St. Romain In the Koran, too, God is always lived in the time of Louis XI. Judge, I looked up to as a king. In the twelfth then, what these sums would now amount } chapter, a throne is given him above the to. Judge how much other states have waters. He had this Koran written by given. Judge whether the Roman com- a secretary, as kings have their orders. monwealth, in the time of Lucullus, drew He sent this same Koran to Mahomet, by more gold and silver from the nations the angel Gabriel, as kings communicate conquered by its sword, than the popes, their orders through the great officers of the fathers of those same nations, have the crown. In short, although God is drawn from them by their pens.

declared in the Koran to be neither beSupposing that St. Romain's calcula- getting nor begotten, there is, neverthetion is too high by half, which is very un- } less a morsel of anthropomorphism. likely, does there not still remain a sum In the Greek and Latin churches, God sufficiently considerable to entitle us to } has always been painted with a great call the apostolical chamber to an ac- beard. count, and demand restitution,-seeing that there is nothing at all apostolical in

ANTI-LUCRETIU'S. such an amount of money?

The reading of the whole poem of the ANTHROPOMORPHITES.

late Cardinal Polignac has confirmed me

in the idea which I formed of it when he They are said to have been a small read to me the first book. I am moresect of the fourth century; but they were over astonished that, amidst the dissiparather the sect of every people that had tions of the world and the troubles in

public life, he should have been able to sold for money the remission of the most write a long work in verse, in a foreign horrible enormities. I beheld, on one language ;-he, who could hardly have hand, infatuated men, stained with vices, made four good lines in his own tongue. and seeking to purify themselves before It seems to me that he often united the impure gods; and on the other, knaves strength of Lucretius and the elegance of who boasted that they could justify the Virgil. I admire him, above all, for that most perverse by initiating them in myfacility with which he expresses such dif- steries, by dropping bullock's blood on ficult things.

their heads, or by dipping them in the Perhaps, indeed, his Anti-Lucretius is waters of the Ganges. I beheld the most too diffuse, and too little diversified; but unjust wars undertaken with perfect sanche is here to be examined as a philose-tity, so soon as a ram's liver was found pher, not as a poet. It appears to me unspotted, or a woman, with hair dishethat so fine a mind as his should have į velled and rolling eyes, uttered words of done more justice to the morals of Epi- which neither she nor any one else knew curus, who, though he was a very bad the meaning. In short, I beheld all the natural philosopher, was, nevertheless, a countries of the earth stained with the very worthy man, and always taught blood of human victims, sacrificed by barmildness, temperance, moderation, and barous pontiffs to barbarous gods. I conjustice, virtues which his example incul- sider that I did well to detest such relicated still more forcibly.

gions. Mine is virtue. I exhorted my In the Anti-Lucretius, this great man disciples not to meddle with the affairs of is thus apustrophised

this world, because they were horribly go

verned. A true Epicurean was mild, Si virtutis eras avidus, rectique bonique Tam sitiens, quid relligio tibi sancta nocebat?

moderate, just, amiable—a man of whom Aspera quippe nimis visa est. Asperrima certè

no society had to complain—one who did

not pay executioners to assassinate in Perjuris ac fædifragis, Epicure, parabas. Solam hominun faecem poteras, dev, taque fureis

public those who thought differently from Corpora, ac.

himself. From hence to the holy religion If virtue, justice, goodness, were thy care, Why didst thou tremble at Religion's call' -

in which you have been bred, there is but one step. I destroyed the false gods ;

and, had I lived in your day, I would Ha' thy solicitud-thy dearest aim

have recognised the true ones. To find a refuge for the guilty soul, &c.

Thus might Epicurus justify himself But Epicurus might reply to the car- } concerning his error. He might even dinal : “If I had had the happiness of entitle himself to pardon respecting the knowing, like you, the true God,-of be- dogma of the immortality of the soul, by ing born, like you, in a pure and holy re- } saying :-“Pity me for having combated ligion, I should certainly not have re- a truth which God revealed five hundred jected that revealed God, whose tenets years after my birth. I thought like all were necessarily unknown to my mind, the first Pagan legislators of the world; but whose morality was in my heart. 1 and they were all ignorant of this truth." could not admit the existence of such I wish, then, that Cardinal Polignac gods as were announced to me by Pagan- had pitied while he condemned Epicurus : ism. I was too rational to adore divinities it would have been no detriment to fine made to spring from a father and a mo-poetry: ther, like mortals, and like them, to make With regard to physics, it appears to war upon one another. I was too great a me that the author has lost much time and friend to virtue, not to hate a religion many verses in refuting the declination of which now invited to crime by the ex- atoms and the other absurdities which ample of those gods themselves, and now swarm in the poem of Lucretius. This is

Gaudenti vitiis, sed non virtutis amanti.
Ergo perfugium culpa, solisque b nignus

W bose laws are barsh to vicious minds alone
Not to the spirit that delights in virtue.
No, no-the worst of men, the worst of erimes

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