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perfect sphere, without beginning or end. į angelic bands, amongst whom was RaaGod conducts the whole creation by a { bon, the next in dignity to Mozazor. general providence, resulting from a de- } Forgetful of the blessing of their creation, termined principle. Thou shalt not seek and of their duty, they rejected the power to discover the nature and essence of the of perfection, and exercised the power of Eternal, nor by what laws he governs : imperfection. They did evil in the sight such an undertaking would be vain and of the Eternal; they disobeyed him ; they criminal. It is enough for thee to con- refused to submit to God's lieutenant and template day and night, in his works, his his coadjutors Vishna and Siva, saying, wisdom, his power, and his goodness. We will govern! and, without fearing the

After paying to this opening of the power and the anger of their Creator, disShastah the tribute of admiration which is seminated their seditious principles in the due to it, let us pass to the creation of the celestial army. They seduced the angels, angels.

and persuaded a great multitude of them

to rebel; and they forsook the throne of Second Chapter of the Shastah.

the Eternal ; and sorrow came upon the The Eternal, absorbed in the contem- } faithful angelic spirits; and, for the first plation of his own existence, resolved, in time, grief was known in heaven. the fulness of time, to communicate his glory and his essence to beings capable of } Chapter IV.Punishment of the Guilty feeling and partaking his beatitude as well

Angels. as of contributing to his glory. The Eternal willed it, and they were. He

The Eternal, whose omniscience, preformed them partly of his own essence, science, and influence extend over all capable of perfection or imperfection, ac

things, except the action of the beings cording to their will.

whom he has created free, beheld with The Eternal first created Brahma, grief and anger the defection of Mozazor, Vishna, and Siva, then Mozazor, and all | Raabon, and the other chiefs of the angels, the multitude of the angels. The Eternal

Merciful in his wrath, he sent Brahma, gave the pre-eminence to Brahma, Vishna, Vishna, and Siva, to reproach them with and Siva. Brahma was the prince of the their crime, and bring them back to their angelic army; Vishna and Siva were his duty; but, confirmed in their spirit of incoadjutors. The Eternal divided the an- dependence, they persisted in their revolt. gelic army into several bands, and gave The Eternal then commanded Siva to to each a chief. They adored the Eternal, march against them, armed with almighty ranged around his throne, each in the de- power, and hurl them down from the high gree assigned him. There was harmony place to the place of darkness, into the in heaven. Mozazor, chief of the first { Ondera, there to be punished for a thouband, led the canticle of praise and ador- sand years multiplied by a thousand. ation to the Creator, and the song of obe

Abstract of the Fifth Chapter. dience to Brahma, his first creature; and the Eternal rejoiced in his new creation. At the end of a thousand years, BrahChapter 111.The Fall of « Purt of {mency of the Eternal in favour of the

ma, Vishna, and Siva, implored the clethe Angels.

delinquents. The Eternal vouchsafed to From the creation of the celestial army, { deliver them from the prison of the Onderu, joy and harmony surrounded the throne and place them in a state of probation of the Eternal for a thousand years mul- { during a great number of solar revolutiplied by a thousand; and would have tions. There were other rebellions against lasted until the end of time, had not envy { God, during this time of penitence. sized Mozazor and other princes of the It was at one of these periods that God

created the earth ; where the penitent an- § Sabbath was observed among the Persians gels underwent several metempsychoses, in the most ancient times. one of the last of which was their trans- The second angel presides over the formation into cows. Hence it was that seventh day, and is called Debadur, cows became sacred in India. Lastly, The third is Kur, which probably was they were metamorphosed into men. So afterwards converted into Cyrus. He is that the Indian system of angels is pre- the angel of the sun. cisely that of the Jesuit Bougeant, who The fourth is called Muh, and presides asserts, that the bodies of beasts are inha- over the moon. bited by sinful angels. What the Brah- Thus each angel has his province. It mins had invented seriously, Bougeant, was among the Persians that the doctrine more than four thousand years after, ima- of the guardian angel and the evil angel gined in jest—if, indeed, this pleasantry was first adopted. It is believed that of his was not a remnant of superstition, ? Raphael was the guardian angel of the combined with the spirit of system-making, Persian empire. as is often the case. Such is the history of the angels among

Angels of the Hebrews. the ancient Brahmins, which, after the The Hebrews knew nothing of the fall lapse of about fifty centuries, they still of the angels, until the commencement of continue to teach. Neither our merchants the Christian era. This secret doctrine of who have traded to India, nor our mis- the ancient Brahmins must have reached sionaries, have ever been informed of it; them at that time ; for it was then that for the Brahmins, having never been edi- į the book attributed to Enoch, relative to fied by their science or their manners, the sinful angels driven from heaven, was have not communicated to them their se- fabricated. crets. It was left for an Englishman, Enoch must have been a very ancient named Holwell, to reside for thirty years writer ; since, according to the Jews, he at Benares, on the Ganges, an ancient lived in the seventh generation before the school of the Brahmins, to learn the an- Deluge : but as Seth, still more ancient cient sacred Sanscrit tongue, in order at than he, had left books to the Hebrews, length to enrich our Europe with this they might boast of having some from singular knowledge; just as Mr. Sale < Enoch also. According to them, Enoch lived a long time in Arabia, to give us a wrote as follows :faithful translation of the Koran, and in- “ It happened, after the sons of men formation relative to ancient Sabaism, had multiplied in those days, that daughters which has been succeeded by the Mus- were born to them, elegant and beautiful. sulman religion; and as Dr. Hyde con- “ And when the angels, the sons of tinued for twenty years his researches into heaven, beheld them, they became enaeverything concerning the religion of the moured of them, saying to each other, Magi.

Come, let us select for ourselves wives

from the progeny of men, and let us beget Angels of the Persians.

children, The Persians had thirty-one angels.- “ Then their leader Samyaza said to The first of all, who is served by four other them, I fear that you may perhaps be inangels, is named Bahaman ; he has the disposed to the performance of this enterinspection of all animals except man, over { prise ; whom God has reserved to himself an im- “ And that I alone shall suffer for so mediate jurisdiction.

grievous a crime. God presides over the day on which the “But they answered him and said, We sun enters the Ram; and this day is a all swear ; Sabbath, which proves that the feast of the “ And bind ourselves by mutual exe


crations, that we will not change our in- ; God, or of their defeat, or of their fall into tention, but execute our projected under- hell, or of their hatred to mankind. taking.

Nearly all the commentators on the Old “ Then they swore all together, and all Testament unanimously say, that before bound themselves by mutual execrations the Babylonian captivity, the Jews knew Their whole number was two hundred, not the name of any angel. The one that who descended upon Ardis, which is the appeared to Manoah, father of Sampson, top of Mount Armon.

would not tell his name. ** That mountain, therefore, was called When the three angels appeared to Armon, because they had sworn upon it, } Abraham, and he had a whole calf dressed and bound themselves by mutual execra- to regale them, they did not tell him their tions.

One of them said, “ I will come “ These are the names of their chiefs : ; to see thee next year, if God grant me Samyaza, who was their leader-Uraka- } life ; and Sarah thy wife shall have a barameel, Akabeel, Tamiel, Ramuel, Da- son. nel, Azkeel, Sarakuyal, Asael, Armers, Calmet discovers a great affinity between Batraal, Anane, Zavebé, Samsaveel, Er- this story and the fable which ()vid relates tael, Turel, Yomyael, Arazyal. These in his Fasti, of Jupiter, Neptune, and were the prefects of the two hundred Mercury, who, having supped with old angels, and the remainder were all with Hyreus, and finding that he was afflicted them.

with impotence, urined upon the skin of a “ Then they took wives, each choosing calf which he had served up to them, and for himself; whom they began to ap- ordered him to bury this hide watered proach, and with whom they cohabited; with celestial urine in the ground, and teaching them sorcery, incantations, and leave it there for nine months. At the the dividing of roots and trees.

end of the nine months, Hyreus uncovered " And the women, conceiving, brought his hide, and found in it a child, which forth giants ;

was named Orion, and is now in the hea“ Whose stature was each three hun- {vens. Calmet moreover says, that the dred cubits," &c.

words which the angels used to Abraham The author of this fragment writes in may be rendered thus:--A child shall be the style which seems to belong to the pri- } born of your calf. mitive ages. He has the same simplicity. Be this as it may, the angels did not He does not fail to name the persons, nor tell Abraham their names; they did not does he forget the dates; here are no re- even tell them to Moses ; and we find the flections, no maxims. It is the ancient } name of Raphael only in Tobit, at the Oriental manner.

time of the Captivity. The other names It is evident that this story is founded of angels are evidently taken from the on the sixth chapter of Genesis :-“There } Chaldeans and the Persians. Raphael, were giants in the earth in those days, { Gabriel, Uriel, &c., are Persian or Babyand also after that, when the sons of God } lonian. The name of Israel itself is came in unto the daughters of men, and Chaldean; as the learned Jew Philo exthey bare children to them, the same be- pressly says, in the account of his depucame mighty men which were of old, tation to Caligula. men of renown." Genesis and the book We shall not here repeat what has been of Enoch perfectly agree respecting the elsewhere said of angels. coupling of the angels with the daughters Whether the Greeks and the Romans adof men, and the race of giants which sprung from this union; but neither this Enoch,

mitted the Existence of Angels. nor any book of the Old Testament, They had gods and demi-gods enow speaks of the war of the angels against to dispense with all other subaltern beings.


When Gods alike and mortals rose 1o birth,

Mercury executed the commissions of y angel of Marcus Brutus, which appeared Jupiter, and Iris those of Juno; never- to him before the battle of Philippi. theless, they admitted genii and demons. The doctrine of guardian angels was versified by Hesiod, who was cotemporary The doctrine of Angels is one of the with Homer. In his poem of The Works oldest in the world. It preceded that of and Days, he thus explains it :

the Immortality of the Soul. This is not

surprising : philosophy is necessary to A golden race the immtals formed on earth

the belief that the soul of mortal man is of many-languaged men; they lived of olit,

immortal ; but imagination and weakness When Saturn reigned in heaven-an age of gold. Like Gods they lived, with calm untroubled mind, are sufficient for the invention of beings Free from the toil and anguish of our kind. Nor sad decrepid age approaching nigh,

superior to ourselves, protecting or perTheir limbs misshaped w th gwolo deformity.

secuting us. Yet it does not appear that Strangers to ill, they Nature's banquet proved, Rich in earth's fruits, and of the blest beloved : the ancient Egyptians had any notion of They sank to death, as opiate slumber stole

these celestial beings, clothed with an Soft o'er the sense, and whelmed the willing soul. Theirs was each good: the grain-exuberant soil ethereal body, and administering to the Poured the full harvest, uncompelled by toil: The virtuous many dwelt in common, blest,

orders of a God. The ancient BabyloAnd all unen vying shared what all in peace possessid. nians were the first who admitted this theWhen on this race the verdant earth had lain, By Jove's high will they rose a Genii train :

ology. The Hebrew books employ the Earth-wanderug dæmons, they their charge began, The ministers of good and guards of man:

angels from the first book of Genesis Veiled with a mantle of aërial night,

downwards: but the book of Genesis was D'er earth's wide space they wing their hovering Hight; Dispense the fertile treasures of the ground,

not written before the Chaldeans had beAnd bend their all-observant glance aro'nd; To mark he deed unjust, the just approve,

come a powerful nation : nor was it until Their kingly office, delegate from Sove.

the captivity of Babylon that the Jews ELTON'S Translalion.

learned the names of Gabriel, 1 aphael, The farther we search into antiquity, } Michael, Uriel, &c. which were i iven to the more we see how modern nations the angels. The Jewish and ( hristian have by turns explored these now almost religions being founded on the fall of abandoned mines. The Greeks, who so Adam, and this fall being founded on the long passed for inventors, imitated Egypt, temptation by the evil angel, the devil, it which had copied from the Chaldeans, } is very singular that not a word is said in who owed almost every thing to the In- {the Pentateuch of the existence of the dians. The doctrine of the guardian an- } bad angels, still less of their punishment gels, so well sung by Hesiod, was after- and abode in hell. wards sophisticated in the schools : it The reason of this omission is evident: was all that they were capable of doing the evil angels were unknown to the Every man has his good and his evil } Jews until the Babylonian captivity; then genius, as each one had his particular it is that Asmodeus begins to be talked star

of, whom Raphael went to bind in Upper Est genius patale comes qni temperat astrum. Egypt; there it is that the Jews first Socrates, we know, had his good an- hear of Satan. This word Satun was gel; but his bad angel must have go- } Chaldean ; and the book of Job, an inverned him. No angel but an evil one habitant of Chaldea, is the first that makes could prompt a philosopher to run from mention of him. house to house, to tell people, by ques- The ancient Persians said that Satan tion and answer, that father and mother, { was an angel or genius who had made preceptor and pupil, were all ignorant war upon the Dives and the Peris, that and imbecile. A guardian angel in that is, the Fairest of the East. event will find it very difficult to save his Thus, according to the ordinary rules protégé from the hemlock.

of probability, those who are guided by We are acquainted only with the evil reason alone might be permitted to think,


that, from this theology, the Jews and { Homer were-celestial beings, subordiChristians at length took the idea that the nate to a supreme being. The imaginaevil angels had been driven out of heaven, tion which produced the one, probably and that their prince had tempted Eve in produced the other. The number of the the form of a serpent.

inferior gods increased with the religion of It has been pretended that Isaiah, in } Homer. Among the Christians, the numhis fourteenth chapter, had this allegory ber of the angels was augmented in the in view when he said : Quomodò occidisti | course of time. de cælo, Lucifer, qui manè orieburis ?- The writers known by the names of “ How hast thou fallen from Heaven, o į Dionysius the Areopagite and Gregory I. Lucifer, son of the morning ?”

fixed the number of angels in nine choirs, It was this same Latin verse, trans- { forming three hierarchies ; the first conlated from Isaiah, which procured for the sisting of the Seraphim, Cherubim, and Devil the name of Lucifer. It was for- ( Thrones; the second of the Denominagotten that Lucifer signifies that which } tions, Virtues and Powers ; and the third sheds light. The words of Isaiah, too, of the Principalities, Archangels, and, have received a little attention : he is } lastly, the Angels, who give their denospeaking of the dethroned king of Baby- mination to all the rest. It is hardly allon; and, by a common figure of speech, { lowable for any one but a pope, thus to he says to him: How hast thou fallen settle the different ranks in heaven. from heaven, thou brilliant star ?

It does not at all appear that Isaiah sought, by this stroke of rhetoric, to es- Angel, in Greek, envoy, The reader tablish the doctrine of the angels precipi- } will hardly be the wiser for being told tated into hell. It was scarcely before that the Persians had their peris, the Hethe time of the primitive Christian church } brews their mulakim, and the Greeks their that the fathers and the rabbis exerted | demonoi. themselves to encourage this doctrine, in But it is perhaps better worth knowing, order to save the incredibility of the story that one of the first of man's ideas has alof a serpent which seduced the mother of ways been, to place intermediate beings men, and which, condemned for this bad between the Divinity and himself; such action to crawl on its belly, has ever since } were those demons, those genii, invented been an enemy to man, who is always in the ages of antiquity. Man always striving to crush it, while it is always en- made the Gods after his own image ; deavouring to bite him. There seemed } princes were seen to communicate their to be somewhat more of sublimity in ce- orders by messengers; therefore, the Dilestial substances precipitated into the } vinity had also his couriers. Mercury, abyss, and issuing from it to persecute Iris, were couriers or messengers. mankind.

The Jews, the only people under the It cannot be proved by any reasoning conduct of the Divinity himself, did not at that these celestial and infernal powers first give names to the angels whom God exist ; neither can it be proved that they vouchsafed to send them; they borrowed do not exist. There is certainly no con- the names given them by the Chaldeans tradiction in acknowledging the existence when the Jewish nation was captive in of beneficent and malignant substances Babylon; Michael and Gabriel are named which are neither of the nature of God } for the first time by Daniel, a slave among nor of the nature of man : but a thing, to those people. The Jew Tobit, who be believed, must be more than possible. } lived at Nineveh, knew the angel Raphaël,

The angels who, according to the Ba who travelled with his son to assist him bylonians and the Jews, presided over in recovering the money due to him from Liations, were precisely what the gods of the Jew Gabael.

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