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Iron Mask was at Pignerol in 1662. Be- į never his face. As for his age, he himsides, how should the Duke of Beaufort self told the apothecary oʻxhe Bastille, a have been arrested in the midst of his little before his death, that he believed he army ? how could he have been trans- was about sixty : the apothecary's son-inferred to France without some one's know- law, Marsolam, surgeon to Marshal De ing something about it? and why should Richelieu, and afterwards to the Duke of he have been imprisoned ? and why { Orleans the regent, has repeated this to masked ?

me several times. To conclude; why Others have imagined that he was Count was an Italian name given to him ? he Vermandois, natural son to Louis XIV., was always called Murchiali. The writer who, it is well known, died of the small- of this article, perhaps, knows more on pox when with the army in 1683, and the subject than Father Griffet, though he was buried in the town of Arras.

will not say more. It has since been supposed that the It is true that Nicholas Fouquet, suDuke of Monmouth, who was publicly perintendant of the finances, had many beheaded by order of King James in friends in his disgrace, and that they per1685, was the Man in the Iron Mask. severed even until judgment was passed But either the duke must have come to on him. It is true that the chancellor, life again, and afterwards have changed, who presided at that judgment, treated the order of time, putting the year 1662 { the illustrious captive with too much rifor the year 1685; or King James, who gour. But it was not Michel le Tellier, never pardoned any one, and therefore { as stated in some editions of the Siècle de merited all his misfortunes, must have Louis XIV.; it was Pierre Seguier.pardoned the Duke of Monmouth, and } This inadvertency, of having placed one put to death in his stead some one who for the other, is a fault which must be perfectly resembled him. In the latter corrected. case, a person must have been found kind It is very remarkable that no one knows enough to have his head publicly cut off where this celebrated minister died; not to save the Duke of Monmouth ; all Eng- that it is of any importance to know it, land must have been deceived in the per- for his death, not having led to any event son; then King James must have begged { whatever, is like all other indifferent ocof Louis XIV. that he would be so good { currences ; but this serves to prove how as to become his gaoler. Louis XIV. completely he was forgotten towards the having granted King James this smail close of life-how worthless that worldly favour, could not have refused to show { consideration is which is so anxiously the same regard for King William and sought for—and how happy they are who Queen Anne, with whom he was at war; } have no higher ambition than to live and but would have been careful to maintain ; die unknown. This knowledge is far the dignity of gaoler, with which King more useful than that of dates. James had honoured him, to the end of the chapter.

Father Griffet does his utmost to perAll these illusions being dissipated, it suade us that Cardinal Richelieu wrote a remains to be known who this constantly- bad book. Well ! many statesmen have masked prisoner was, at what age he died, done the same. But it is very fine to see and under what name he was buried. It him strive so hard to prove that, accord. is clear that, if he was not allowed to walk } ing to Cardinal Richelieu, “our allies, in the court of the Bastille, nor to see his { the Spaniards," so happily governed by a physician, except in a mask, it was for Bourbon, “are tributary to hell, and fear that some very striking resemblance make the Indios tributary to hell!”— would be discovered in his features. He { Cardinal Richelieu's POLITICAL TESTAwas permitted to show his tongue, but MENT is not that of a polite man.

That “ France had more good ports on { memory shall be reproached with this unthe Mediterranean than the whole Spanish fortunate work, full of anachronisins, igmonarchy.”—This Testament exaggerates. norance, ridiculous calculations, and

That " to keep up an army of fifty thou- acknowledged falsities. Let people strive sand men, it is best to raise a hundred as hard as they please to persuade themthousand.” This Testament throws selves that the greatest minister was the money away.

most ignorant and tedious as well as the That “when a new tax is imposed, the most extravagant of writers; it may afpay of the soldiers is increased."—Which ford some gratification to those who dehas never been done either in France or test his tyranny. It is also a fact worth elsewhere.

preserving in the history of the human That “the parliaments and the other mind, that this despicable work was superior cours should be made to pay the praised for more than thirty years, while taille."-An infallible means of gaining { it was believed to be that great minister's; their hearts, and making the magistracy and quite as true, that the pretended respectable.

Testament made no noise in the world That “the Noblesse should be forced until thirty years after the Cardinal's to serve and to enrol themselves in the death ; that it was not printed until fortycavalry.”—The better to preserve their two years after that event; that the oriprivileges.

nal signed by him has never been seen ; That “Genoa was the richest city in that the book is very bad; and that it Italy.” . Which I wish it were.

scarcely deserves to be mentioned. That “

we must be very chuste."— The Did Count de Moret, son of Henry testutor might add, like certain preachers, IV., who was wounded in the little skirDo whut I say, not what I do.

mish at Castelnaudari, live until the year Than "an abbey should be given to 1693 under the name of the hermit Jean the holy Chapel at Paris.”—A thing of } Buptiste? What proof have we that this great importance at the crisis in which hermit was the son of Henry IVEurope then stood.

None. That “Pope Benedict XI. gave a deal Did Jeanne d'Albret de Navarre, moof trouble to the Cordeliers, who were ther of Henry IV. after the death of Anpiqued on the subject of poverty, that is į toine, marry a gentleman named Guyon, io say, of the revenues of the order of St. who was killed in the massacre of St. Francis. They were exasperated against } Bartholomew? Had she a son by him, him to such a degree, that they made war who preached at Bourdeaux ? These upon him by their writings.”—More im- } facts are detailed at great length in the portant still; and more learned !—espe- Remarks on Bayle's Answers to the cially when John XXII. is taken for Questions of a Provincial, folio, page Benedict XI.; and when, in a Political } 689.

Testament, nothing is said of the manner Was Margaret of Valois, wife to Henry in which the war against Spain and the } IV., brought to bed of two children seEmpire was to be conducted, nor of the cretly after her marriage ? ineans of making peace, nor of present We might fill volumes with inquiries dangers, nor of resources, nor of alliances, like these. But how much pains should nor of the generals and ministers who we be taking to discover things of no use were to be employed, nor even of the to mankind! Let us rather seek cures Dauphin, whose education was of so for the scrofula, the gout, the stone, the much importance to the State, nor, in gravel, and a thousand other chronic or short, of any one object of the ministry. acute diseases. Let us seek remedies for

I consent with all my heart, since it the distempers of the mind, no less terrimust be so, that Cardinal Richelieu's ble and no less mortal; let us labour to

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bring the arts to perfection, and to lessen: God ? He was at most unfaithful only the miseries of the human race; and let to Athanasius and his party, at a time us not waste our time over the anas, the, when the world was divided between the anecdotes, and curious stories of our day, i Athanasians and the Eusebians. But the collections of pretended bon-mots, Theodoric could not regard him as a man &c. the Letters to a friend, the Anony- unfaithful to God, because he had remous letters, the Reflections on the new jected the term consubstantial, after adtragedy, &c. &c. &c.

mitting it at first. To cut off bis favourI read in a book lately published, that ite's head for such a reason could cerLouis XIV. exempted all new-married - tainly be the act of none but the wickedest men from the taille for five years. I have fool and most barbarous blockhead that not found this fact in any collection of ever existed. What would you say of edicts, nor in any memoir of that time. Louis XIV. if he had beheaded the Duke

I read in the same book that the king de la Force because the Duke de la of Prussia has fifty livres given to every ? Force had quitted Calvinism for the religirl with child. There is, in truth, nogion of Louis XIV ? better way of laying out money, nor of? I have just opened a History of Holencouraging propagation : but I do not land, in which I find that, in 1672, believe that this royal munificence is true; { Marshal De Luxembourg harangued bis at least I have never witnessed it.

troops in the following manner- Go, An anecdote of greater antiquity has my children, plunder, rob, kill, ravish; just fallen under my eye, and appears to and if there be anything more abominame to be a very strange one. It is said ble, fail not to do it, that I may find I in a Chronological History of Italy, that have not been mistaken in selecting you the great Arian, Theodoric, he who is re- as the bravest of men." presented to have been so wise, had, This is certainly a very pretty haamongst his ministers, a Catholic, for rangue. It is as true as those given us by whom he had a great liking, and who { Livy, but it is not in his style. To comproved worthy of all his confidence. plete the dishonour of typography, this l'his minister thought he should rise still } fine piece is inserted in several new dichigher in his master's favour by embrac- tionaries, which are no other than imposing Arianism; but Theodoric had him im- tures in alphabetical order. mediately beheaded, saying, !! a mun is It is a trifling error in the Abrégé not fuithful to God, how cun he be fuith- Chronologique de l'Histoire de France ful to me, who am but a man? The com- (Chronological Abridgment of the Hispiler remarks, that this trait does great story of France) to suppose that Louis honour to Theodoric's manner of thinking XIV., after the peace of Utrecht, for with respect to religion !

which he was indebted to the English, I pique myself on thinking, in matters after nine years of misfortune, and after of religion, better than Ostrogoth, Theo- the many great victories which the Engdoric, the assassin of Symmachus and lish had gained, said to the English amBoetius ; because I am a good Catholic, bassador, “ I have always been master at and he was an Arian. But I declare this home, and sometimes abroad; do not reking worthy of being confined as a mad- mind me of it.” This speech would man, if he were so atrociously besotted. I have been very ill-timed, very false as it What! he immediately cut off his minis- regarded the English, and would have ter's head, because that minister had at exposed the king to a most galling reply. last come over to his own way of thinking. The author himself confessed to me, How was a worshipper of God, who that the Marquis de Torcy, who was prepassed from the opinion of Athanasius to sent at all the Earl of Stair's audiences, that of Arius and Eusebius, unfaithful to had always given the lie to this anecdote. It is, assuredly, neither true nor likely, } tenant of police went to take this madand has remained in the later editions of man, who was pointed out to him. He this book only because it was put iri the found a man making reverences in a way first. This error, however, does not at all different from the French, speaking in disparage this very useful work, in which singing tone, and looking quite astonall the great events, arranged in the most ished. He expressed great pity for his convenient order, are perfectly authenti- derangement, ordered his hands to be cated.

tied behind him, and sent him to CharenAll these little tales, designed to em- ton, where, like the Abbé Desfontaines, bellish history, do but dishonour it; and he was flogged twice a-week. The Chiunfortunately, almost all ancient histories į nese did not at all understand this meare little else than tales. Mallebranche thod of receiving strangers; he had was right, when, speaking on this subject, passed only two or three days in Paris, he said, “I think no more of History and had found the manners of the French than I do of the news of my parish.” very odd. He lived two years on bread

and water, amongst madmen and keepers ; In 1723, Father Fouquet, a Jesuit, { and believed that the French nation conreturned to France from China, where he sisted of these two species, the one part had passed twenty-five years Religious dancing while the other flogged them. disputes had embroiled him with his At length, when two years had elapsed, brethren ; he had carried with him to the ministry changed, and a new lieuteChina a gospel different from theirs, and nant of police was appointed. This manow brought back to France memorials į gistrate commenced his administration by against them. Two Chinese literati made visiting the prisons. He also saw the the voyage along with him; one of them lunatics at Charenton. After conversing died on the way, the other came with with them, he asked if there were no other Father Fouquet to Paris. This Jesuit was { persons for him to see? He was told that to take the Chinese to Rome secretly, as there was one more unfortunate man, but a witness of the conduct of the good { that he spoke a language which nobody fathers in China, and in the mean time understood. A Jesuit, who accompanied Fouquet and his companion lodged at the magistrate, said it was the peculiarity the house of the Professed, Rue St. An- of this man's madness, that he never gave toine.

an answer in French ; nothing would be The reverend fathers received advice of got from him, and he thought it would be their reverend brother's intentions. Fou- better not to take the trouble of calling quet was no less quickly informed of the him. The minister insisted. The unfordesigns of the reverend fathers ; he lost tunate man was brought, and threw himnot a moment, but set off post the same self at his feet. The lieutenant sent for night for Rome. The reverend fathers the king's interpreters, who spoke to him had interest enough to get him pursued ; in Spanish, Latin, Greek, and English ; but the Chinese only was taken. This but he constantly said Kanton, Kanton, poor fellow did not understand a word of and nothing else. The Jesuit assured French. The good fathers went to Car- them he was possessed. The magistrate, dinal Dubois, who at that time needed having at some time heard it said that their support; and told him that they there was a province in China called Kanhad amongst them a young man who had ton, thought this man might perhaps have gone mad, and whom it was necessary to come from thence. An interpreter to the confine. The Cardinal immediately foreign missions was sent for, who could granted a lettre-de-cachet, than which ; murder Chinese. All was discovered. there is sometimes nothing which a min- The magistrate knew not what to do, nor ister is more ready to grant. The lieu- the Jesuit what to say. The Duke de


Bourbon was then prime minister ; the Japan. It is said, that a Russian noblecircumstance having been related to him,man-indignant at this jesuitical insolence, he ordered money and clothes to be given ; which reaches the farthest corners of the to the Chinese, and sent him back to his earth, even after the extinction of the own country, whence it is not thought { Order-has resolved to find some means that many literati will come and see us in of sending, to the President of the Trifuture. It would have been more politic bunal of Rites at Pekin, an extract in to have kept this man and treated him } Chinese from these Memoirs, which may well, than to have sent him to give his serve to make the aforesaid Ko, and the countrymen the very worst opinion of the } Jesuits who labour with him, better French.


ANGELS. About thirty years ago, the French Jesuits sent secret missionaries to China, who enticed a child from his parents in Angels of the Indians, Persians, &c. Canton, and brought him to Paris, where

The author of the article Angel in the they educated him in their convent of La Encyclopedia, says that all religions have Rue St. Antoine. This boy became a admitted the existence of angels, although Jesuit at the age of fifteen ; after which it is not demonstrated by natural reason. he remained ten years in France. He

We have no reason but natural reason. knows both French and Chinese perfectly, What is supernatural is above reason. If and is very learned. M. Bertin, comp- I mistake not, it should have been, several troller-general, and afterwards secretary religions (and not all) have acknowledged of state, sent him back to China in 1763,

the existence of angels. That of Numa, ufter the abolition of the Jesuits. He that of Sabaism, that of the Druids, that calls himself ko, and signs himself, Ku, of the Scythians, and that of the PhæniJesuit.

cians and ancient Egyptians, did not adIn 1772, there were fourteen Jesuits in mit their existence. Pekin, amongst whom was brother Ko,

We understand by this word, ministers who still lives in their house. The Em- of God, deputies, beings of a middle peror Kien-Long has kept these monks of order between God and man, sent to make Europe about him in quality of painters, known to us his orders. engravers, watch-makers, and mechanics, with an express, prohibition from ever dis-mins boast of having possessed in writing,

At the present time, in 1772, the Brahputing on religion, or causing the least for just four thousand eight hundred and trouble in the empire. The Jesuit Ko has sent manuscripts of entitled the Shastah, fifteen hundred years

seventy-eight years, their first sacred law, his own composition from Pekin to Paris, before their second law, called Veidam, entitled, Memoirs relative to the History, signifying the word of God. The Shastah Arts, und Sciences of the Chinese, by the contains five chapters : the first, of God Missionariés at Pekin. This book is and his attributes; the second, of the printed, and is now selling at Paris by creation of the angels ; the third, of the Nyon the bookseller. The author attacks fall of the angels; the fourth, of their all the philosophers of Europe. Ile calls punishment; the fifth, of their pardon and a prince of the Tartar race, whom the Je- the creation of man. suits had seduced, and the late Emperor

It is good, in the first place, to observe Yong-Chin had banished, an illustrious the manner in which this book speaks of martyr to Jesus Christ. This Ko boasts God. of making many neophytes, who are ardent spirits, capable of troubling China even First Chapter of the Shastah. more than the Jesuits formerly troubled God is one: he has created all : it is a

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