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Providence, acting by second causes, When the famous chief Debar was fightwilled that they should erect a splendid { ing in Syria against the generals of the temple at Nicomedia, the residence of the Emperor Heraclius, in the time of the Emperor Dioclesian, as soon as they had | Caliph Abubeker, successor to Mahomet, obtained that sovereign's protection. They } Peter, who commanded at Damascus, built others in other cities; but still they took thither several women, whom he had had a horror of tapers, lustral water, pon- captured, together with soine booty, in tifical habits, &c.; all this pomp and cir- one of his excursions; among the prisoncumstance was in their eyes no other than ers was the sister of Derar. Alvakedi's a distinctive mark of Paganism. These } Arabian History, translated by Ockley, custorns were adopted under Constantine says that she was a perfect beauty, and and his successors, and have frequently that Peter became enamoured of her, paid changed.

great attention to her on the way, and inOur good women of the present day, { dulged her and her fellow-prisoners with who every Sunday hear a Latin mass, at short marches. They encamped in an which a little boy attends, imagine that { extensive plain, under tents, guarded by this rite has been observed from the earli- troops posted at a short distance. Cauest ages that there never was any other, { lah (so this sister of Derar's was named), and that the custom in other countries of proposed to one of her companions, called assembling to offer up prayers to God in Oserra, that they should endeavour to common, is diabolical and quite of recentescape from captivity, and persuaded her origin. There is, undeniably, something rather to die than be a victim to the lewd very respectable in a mass, since it has desires of the Christians. The same Mabeen authorised by the Church ; it is not hometan enthusiasm seized all the women; at all an ancient usage, but is not the less they armed themselves with the ironentitled to our veneration.

pointed staves that supported their tents, There is not, perhaps, a single cere- } and with a sort of dagger, which they mony of this day which was in use in the wore in their girdles ; they then formed a time of the Apostles. The Holy Spirit circle, as the cows do when they present has always conformed himself to the times. their horns to attacking wolves." Peter Ile inspired the first disciples in a mean only laughed at first ; he advanced toapartment; he now communicates his in- } wards the women, who gave him hard spirations in St. Peter's at Rome, which blows with the staves ; after hesitating for cost several millions - equally divine, some time, he at length resolved to use however, in the wretched room, and in force; the sabres of his men were already the superb edifice of Julius II., Leo X., drawn, when Derar arrived, put the Paul III., and Sixtus V.

Greeks to flight, and delivered his sister

and the other captives. AMAZONS.

Nothing can more strongly reseinble Bold and rigorous women have been those times called herois, sung by Homer. often seen to fight like men. History Here are the same single combats at the makes mention of such ; for, without head of armies, the combatants frequently reckoning Semiramis, Thomyris, or Pen- } holding a long conversation before they thesilea---who, perhaps, existed only in commence fighting: and this, no doubt, fable-it is certain that there were many justifies Homer. women in the armies of the first caliphs. Thomas, governor of Syria, Heraclius's

In the tribe of the Homerites, especi- son-in-law, made a sally from Damascus, ally, it was a sort of law, dictated by love and attacked Sergiabil, having first prayed and courage, that in battle wives should } to Jesus Christ.

“Unjust aggressor, succour and avenge their husbands, and said he to Sergiabil, “thou canst not remothers their children.

sist Jesus, my God, who will fight for the



champions of his religion." “ Thuu tell- 1 example of greater or more persevering est an impious lie," answered Sergiabil ;; courage in a woman. " Jesus is not greater before God than, She had been preceded by the celeAdam. God raised him from the dust; , brated Countess De Montfort, in Brittany. he gave life to him as to another man, “ This princess," says D'Argentré, and, after leaving him for some time on { virtuous beyond the nature of her sex, and the earth, took him up into heaven." } valiant beyond all men ; she mounted her After some more verbal skirmishing, the ; horse, and managed him better than any fight began. Thomas discharged an arrow, i esquire; she fought hand to hand, or which wounded young Aban, the son of charged a troop of armed men like the Saib, by the side of the valiant Sergiabil; } most valiant captain ; she fought on sea Aban fell and expired; the news of his ; and land with equal bravery," &c. She death reached his young wife, to whom went, sword in hand, through her states, he had been united but a few days before;} which were invaded by her competitor, she neither wept nor complained, but ran Charles de Blois. She not only sustained to the field of battle, with a quiver at her two assaults, armed cap-à-pie, in the back, and a couple of arrows in her hand; } breach of Hennebon, but she made a with the first of these she killed the sortie with five hundred men, attacked the Christian standard-bearer ; and the Arabs enemy's camp, set fire to it, and reduced seized the trophy, crying, Allah achar! it to ashes. with the other she shot Thomas in the eye, The exploits of Joan of Arc, better and he retired, bleeding into the town. known as the Maid of Orleans, are less

Arabian history is full of similar exam- } astonishing than those of Margaret of ples, but they do not tell us that these Anjou and the Countess De Montfort. warlike women burned their right breast, These two princesses having been brought that they might draw the bow better, nor up in the luxury of courts, and Joan of that they lived without men; on the con- Arc in the rude exercises of country life, trary, they exposed themselves in battle it was more singular, as well as more for their husbands or their lovers; from į noble, to quit a puluce for the field, than which very circumstance we must con- ; a cottage. clude that, so far from reproaching Ariosto The heroine who defended Beauvais and Tasso for having introduced so many was, perhaps, superior to her who raised enamoured warriors into their poems, we the siege of Orleans; for she fought quite ought to praise them for having delineated as well, and neither boasted of being a real and interesting manners.

muid, nor of being inspired. It was in When the crusading mania was at its { 1472, when the Burgundian army was height, there were some Christian women besieging Beauvais, that Jeanne Hachette, who shared the fatigues and dangers of at the head of a number of women, sustheir husbands. To such a pitch, indeed, tained an assault for a considerable time, was this enthusiasm carried, that the Ge- wrested the standard from one of the noese women undertook a crusade of their enemy who was about to plant it on the own, and were on the point of setting outbreach, threw the bearer into the trench, for Palestine to form petticoat battalions; and gave time for the king's troops to arthey had made a vow so to do, but were rive and relieve the town. Her descendabsolved from it by a pope, who was a ants have been exempted from the taille, little wiser than themselves.

(poll tax)—a mean and shameful recomMargaret of Anjou, wife to the unfor- pense ! The women and girls of Beautunate Henry VI. of England, evinced, vais are more flattered by their walking in a juster war, a valour truly heroic; she before the men in the procession on the fought in ten battles to deliver her bus- { anniversary-day. Every public mark of band. History affords no authenticated honour is an encouragement of merit ; but the excinption from the tuille is but a } Datary has asserted, that he meant he proof that the individuals so exempted should be master over Charlemagne. were subjected to this servitude by the Have not things the most venerable misfortune of their birth.

the most sacred the most divine, been There is hardly any nation which does obscured by the ambiguities of language! not boast of having produced such hero- Ask two Christians of what religion they ines: the number of these, however, is are. Each will answer, I am a Catholic. not great ; nature seems to have designed You think they are both of the same comwomen for other purposes. Women have munion; yet one is of the Greek, the other been known but rarely to exhibit them- of the Latin church; and they are irreselves as soldiers. In short, every people concileable. If you seek to be further have had their female warriors; but the informed, you will find that by the word kingdom of the Amazons, on the banks of Catholic, each of them understands unithe Thermodon, is, like most other ancient { versal, in which case universal signifies a stories, nothing more than a poetic fiction. part.

The soul of St. Francis is in heavenAMBIGUITY_EQUIVOCATION. '

s is in paradise. One of these words signiFor want of defining terms, and espe- fies the air ; the other means a garden. cially for want of a clear understanding, The word spirit is used alike to express almost all laws, which ought to be as ertruct, thought, distilled liquor, appaplain as arithmetic and geometry, are as rition. obscure as logogriphes. The melancholy Ambiguity has been so necessary a vice proof of this is, that nearly all processes in all languages, formed by what is called are founded on the sense of the laws, chance and by custom, that the author of always differently understood by the all clearness and truth, himself condespleaders, the advocates, and the judges. cended to speak after the manner of his

The whole public law of Europe had people ; whence it is that Elohim signiits origin in equivocal expressions, begin- fies in some places judges, at other times ning with the Salique law. She shall not gods, and at others angels. inherit Salique land. But what is Sulique “Tu es Petrus, et super hunc pelrum land? And shall not a girl inherit money, { ædificabo ecclesiam meam,” would be or a necklace, left to her, which may be equivocal in a profane tongue, and on a worth more than the land?

profane subject; but these words receive The citizens of Rome saluted Karl, son à divine sense from the mouth which of the Austrasian Pepin le Bref, by the utters them, and the subject to which they name of imperutor. Did they understand are applied. thereby, We confer on you all the prero- } “I am the God of Abraham, the God gatives of Octavius, Tiberius, Caligula, s of Isaac, the God of Jacob; now God is und Claudius ? We give you ali the not the God of the dead, but of the country which they possessed? However, living." In the ordinary sense, these they could not give it; for so far were words might signify, I am the same God they from being masters of it, that they that was worshipped by Abruhum, Isaac, were scarcely masters of their own city. } and Jacob; as the earth, which bore AbraThere never was a more equivocal expres- ham, Isaar, and Jacob, likewise bears sion; and such as it was then it still is. their descendunts; the sun which shines

Did Leo III., the Bishop of Rome who į to-day is the sun that shone on Abraham, is said to have saluted Charlemagne em- Isanc, and Jacob; the law of their chilperor, comprehend the meaning of the dren wus their law. This does not, howwords which he pronounced? The Ger- } ever, signify that Abraham, Isaac, and mans assert, that he understood by them { Jacob are still living. But when the that Charles should be his master The Messiah speaks, there is no longer any ambiguity; the sense is as clear as it is { caused men to exist there also. However divine. It is evident that Abraham, pleasant it may be to dispute, it cannot Isaac, and Jacob, are not among the dead, be denied that the Supreme Being who but live in glory, since this oracle is pro- } lives in all nature, has created, about the nounced by the Messiah : but it was ne forty-eighth degree, two-legged animals cessary that he and no one else should without feathers, the colour of whose skin utter it.

is a mixture of white and carnation, with The discourses of the Jewish prophets { long beards approaching to red; about might seem equivocal to men of gross the line, in Africa and its islands, negroes intellects, who could not perceive their without beards; and in the same latitude, meaning; but they were not so to minds other negroes with beards, some of them illumined by the light of faith.

having wool, and some hair on their All the oracles of antiquity were equi- | heads; and among them other animals Focal. It was foretold to Creesus that a quite white, having neither hair nor wool, powerful empire was to fall; but was it but a kind of white silk. It does not to be his own? or that of Cyrus? It very clearly appear what should have was also foretold to Pyrrhus that the Ro- prevented Cod from placing on another mans might conquer him, and that he continent animals of the same species, of might conquer the Romans. It was im- a copper colour, in the same latitude in possible that this oracle should lie. which, in Africa and Asia, they are found

When Septimius Severus, Pescennius black; or even from making them withNiger, and Clodius Albinus, were con- out beards in the very same latitude in tending for the empire, the oracle of Del- which others possess them. phos, being consulted (notwithstanding To what lengths are we carried by the the assertion of the Jesuit Baltus, that rage for systems joined with the tyranny oracles had ceased) answered, that the of prejudice! We see these animals; brown was very good, the white good for it is agreed that God has had the power nothing, and the African tolerable. It is to place them where they are ; yet it is plain that there are more ways than one not agreed that he has so placed them. of explaining such an oracle.

The same persons who readily admit that When Aurelian consulted the God of the bearers of Canada are of Canadian Palmyra, (still in spite of Baltus), the origin, assert that the men must have God said that the dives fear the falcon. come there in boats, and that Mexico Whatever might happen, the God would must have been peopled by some of the not be embarrassed: the falcon would be descendants of Mugog. As well might the conqueror, and the doves the conquered. it be said, that if there be men in the

Sovereigns, as well as Gods, have moon, they must have been taken thither sometimes made use of equivocation. by Astolpho on his hippogriff, when he Some tyrant, whose name I forget, hav- went to fetch Roland's senses, which were ing sworn to one of his captives, that he corked up in a bottle. If America had would not kill him, ordered that he should been discovered in his time, and there have nothing to eat, saying that he had had then been men in Europe systematic promised not to put him to death, but he enough to have advanced, with the Jesuit had not promised to keep him alive. Lafitau, that the Caribbees descended

from the inhabitants of Caria, and the AMERICA.

Hurons from the Jews, he would have Since framers of systems are continu- done well to have brought back the bottle ally conjecturing on the manner in which containing the wits of these reasoners, Ainerica can have been peopled, we will which he would doubtless have found be equally constant in saying that He { in the moon, along with those of Anwho caused flies to exist in those regions, }gelica's lover.

The first thing done when an inhabited} If the long description of the reign of island is discovered in the Indian Ocean, Sleep throughout all nature did not form or in the South Seas, is to enquire whence an admirable contrast with the cruel incame these people? but as for the trees and quietude of Dido, these lines would be the tortoises, they are, without any hesita- { no other than a puerile amplification ; it tion, pronounced to be indigenous; as if} is the words At non infelii animi Phait was more difficult for Nature to make nissa—“Unhappy Dido,” &c.— which men than to make tortoises. One thing, give them their charm. however, which tends countenance this That beautiful ode of Sappho's which system is, that there is scarcely an island paints all the symptoms of love, and in the Eastern or in the Western Ocean, which has been happily translated into which does not contain jugglers, quacks, every cultivated language, would, doubtknaves, and fools. This, it is probable, } less, have been less touching had Sappho gave rise to the opinion, that these ani- } been speaking of any other than herself; mals are of the same race with ourselves. { it might then have been considered as an AMPLIFICATION.


The description of the tempest, in the It is pretended that amplification is a first book of the Æneid, is not an amplifine figure of rhetoric; perhaps, how- fication ; it is a true picture of all that ever, it would be more reasonable to call happens in a tempest; there is no idea it a defect. In saying all that we ought to repeated, and repetition is the vice of all say, we do not amplify; and if after saying } which is merely amplification. this we amplify, we say too much. To The finest part on the stage in any place a good or bad action in every light, { language is that of Phédre (Phædra.) is not to amplify; but to go further than Nearly all that she says would be tirethis, is to exaggerate and become weari- some amplification, if any other was

speaking of Phædra's passion. Prizes were formerly given in colleges

Athènes me montra mon superbe ememi; for amplification. This was indeed teach- Je le vis, je rowgis, je pâlis, a sa vue;

Un troubles éleva dans mon ame éperdue; ing the art of being diffuse. It would,

Mes yeux ne voyaient plus, je ne pouvai: parier. perhaps, have been better to have given Je sentis tout mon corps et transir et brûler;

Je reconnus Venus et ses traits rédoubtables, the fewest words, and thus teach the art

D'un sang qu'elle poursuit tourmens loéritables. of speaking with greater force and energy. Yes: --Athens showed me my proud enemy:

I saw him-blusbed-turned pale:But while we avoid amplification, let us

A sudden trouble came upon my soul,beware of dryness.

My eyes grew dim-my tongue refused its office,

1 burned-and shivered ;-through my trembling frame I have heard professors teach that cer- Venus in all ber drea iful power I felt, tain passages in Virgil are amplifications, shooting through every vein a separate pang. as for instance the following :

It is quite clear that, since Athens Nox erat, et placidum carpebant fessa soporem

showed her her proud enemy Hippolytus,
Corpora per terras, silvæque et saeva quièrunt
Aquora; qoum medio volvuntur sideri lapsu ;

she saw Hippolytus ; if she blushed and
Quùm tacet omnis ager, pecudes, pietaeque volucres; turned pale, she was doubtless troubled.
Quaeque lacus latè liquidus, quaeque aspera dumis
Rura tenent, somno positae sub nocte silenti

It would have been a pleonasm-a re-
Lenibant curas, et corda oblita laborum :

dundancy, if a stranger had been made At non infelis animi Phapissa.

to relate the loves of Phædra; but it is
'Twas dead of night, when weary bodio close
Their eyes in balmy sleep and soft repose :

Phædra, enamoured and ashamed of her
The winds no longer whisper throngh the woods,
Nor mormuring tides disturb the gentle floods ;

passion - her heart is full-everything
The stars in silent order moved around,
And peace, with downy wings, was brooding on the ground.

escapes The docks and herds, and parti-coloured fowl,

Vi vidi, ut perii, ust me malus abstulit erunr.
Which haunt the woods, and swim the weeds pool,
Stretched on the quiet earth securely lay,

Je le vis, je roogis, je pâlus, à sa vue.
Forgetting the past labours of the day.

I saw him-blusbed-turned pale.-
All else of Nature's common gift partake;
Unhappy Dido was alone awake.

What can be a better imitation of Virgil'


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