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The hatred was equal on both sides, of animadversion, were even any shadow having the same foundation-Religion. of it to be found in the sacred writings ;

Alexander, having possessed himself but as they do not make the slightest of Tyre by means of that famous cause- mention of it, we are quite at liberty to way which is still the admiration of all see that it is ridiculous. generals, went to punish Jerusalem, There can be no doubt that Alexander which lay not far out of his way. The subdued that part of India which lies on Jews, headed by their high priest, came this side the Ganges, and was tributary and humbled themselves before him, of- to the Persians. Mr. Holwell, who lived fering him money—for angry conquerors for thirty years among the Brahmins of are not to be appeased without money. } Benares, and the neighbouring countries, Alexander was appeased, and they re- and who learned not only their modern mained subject to Alexander and to his language but also their ancient sacred successors. Such is the true as well as tongue, assures us, that their annals atthe only probable history of the affair. test the invasion by Alexander, whom

Rollin repeats a story told about four they call Mahadukoit Kounha-great hundred years after Alexander's expedi- robber, great murderer. These peaceful tion, by that romancing, exaggerating his people could not call him otherwise ; intorian, Flavius Josephus, who may be deed, it is hardly to be supposed that pardoned for having taken every oppor- they gave any other name to the kings of tunity of setting off his wretched country Persia. The same annals say, that Alexto the best advantage. Rollin repeats, ander entered by the province now called after Josephus, that Jaddus the high- Candahar, and it is probable that there priest, having prostrated himself before were always some fortresses on that Alexander, the prince, seeing the name frontier. of Jehovah engraved on a plate of gold Alexander afterwards descended the attached to Jaddus's cap, and understand river Zombodipo, which the Greeks called ing Hebrew perfectly, fell prostrate in his Sind. In the history of Alexander there turn, and paid homage to Jaddus. This is not a single Indian name to be found. excess of civility having astonished Par- The Greeks never called an Asiatic town menio, Alexander told him, that he had or province by their own name. They known Jaddus a long time; that he had dealt in the same manner with the Egypappeared to him, in the same habit and {tians. They would have thought it a the same cap, ten years before, when dishonour to the Greek tongue, had they he was meditating the conquest of Asia introduced into it a pronunciation which (a conquest which he had not then even they thought barbarous—if

, for instance, thought of); that this same Jaddus had they had not called the city of Aloph exhorted him to cross the Hellespont, as- Memphis. suring him that God would march at the Mr. Holwell says, that the Indians head of the Greeks, and that the God of never knew either Porus or Taxiles; inthe Jews would give him the victory over deed these are not Indian words. Nethe Persians. This old woman's tale vertheless, if we may believe our mismakes but a sorry figure in the history sionaries, there are still some Indian lords of such a man as Alexander.

who pretend to have descended from An Ancient History well digested was Porus. Perhaps the missionaries have an undertaking calculated to be of great fattered them wiù_this origin until they service to youth; it is to be wished that have adopted it, There is, at least, no it had not been in some degree marred country in Europe, in which servility has by the adoption of some absurdities. The not invented and vanity received genealostory of Jaddus would be entitled to our gies yet more chimerical. respect—it would be beyond the reach if Flavius Josephus bas related a ri.

diculous fable about Alexander and a priests of Augustus. Horace positively Jewish pontiff

, Plutarch, who wrote long tells hiin after Josephus, in his turn seems not to have been sparing in fables concerning Jurandisque tuum par nomen ponimus arus this bero. He has even out done Quintus Here was truly a sacrilegious adoration ; Curtius. Both assert that Alexander, yet we are not told that it excited diswhen marching towards India, wished to content. have himself adored, not only by the Pero The contradictions in the character of sians but also by the Greeks. The ques- Alexander would be more difficult to retion is, what did Alexander, the Persiaus, į concile, did we not know that men, esthe Greeks, Quintus Curtius, and Plu- pecially men called heroes, are often very tarch, understand by adoring? We must inconsistent with themselves, and that the never lose sight of the great rule- Define life or death of the best citizens, or the your terms.

fate of a province, has more than once If by adoring he meant invoking a man depended on the good or bad digestion of as a divinity-offering to him incense and a well or ill advised sovereign. sacrifices-raising to him altars and tem- But how are we to reconcile improbable ples, it is clear that Alexander required facts related in a contradictory manner? nothing of all this. If, being the con- Some say that Callisthenes was crucified queror and master of the Persians, he by order of Alexander for not having acchose that they should salute him after { knowledged him to be the son of Jupiter. the Persian manner; prostrating them- But the cross was not a mode of execuselves on certain occasions ; treating him, } tion among the Greeks. Others say that in short, like what he was, a sovereign of{ he died long afterwards, of too great corPersia, there is nothing in this but what pulency. Athenæus assures us, that he is very reasonable and very common. was carried, like a bird, in an iron cage, The members of the French parliament, { until he was devoured hy vermin. in their beds of justice, address the king Amongst all these different stories, diskneeling; the third estate address the tinguish the true one if you can. Some states-general kneeling, a cup of wine is adventures are supposed by Quintus Curpresented kneeling, to the king of En- tius to have happened in one town, and by gland ; several European sovereigns are Plutarch in another, the two places being served kneeling at their consecration. The five hundred leagues apart. AlexanGreat Mogul, the Emperor of China, and der, armed and alone, leaped from the the Emperor of Japan, are always ad- top of a wall into a town which he was dressed kneeling. The Chinese Colaos besieging: according to Quintus Curtius, of an inferior order bend the knee before it was on the borders of Candahar; acthe Colaos of a superior order. Wecording to Plutarch near the mouth of the adore the Pope, and kiss the toe of his < Indus. When he arrived on the Malabar right foot. None of these ceremonies coast, or near the Ganges,—no matter have ever been regarded as adoration in which, it is only nine hundred miles from the strict sense of the word, or as a wor- the one to the other,-he gave orders to ship like that due to the Divinity. seize ten of the Indian philosophers, called

Thus, all that has been said of the pre- by the Greeks gymnosophists, who went tended adoration exacted by Alexander, about as naked as apes ; to those he prois founded on ambiguity.

posed ridiculous questions, promising Octavius, surnamed Augustus, really them very seriously that he who gave the caused himself to be adored in the worst answers should be hanged the first, strictest sense of the word. Temples and and the rest in due order. This reminds altars were raised to him. There were us of Nebuchadonosor, who would absolutely put his Magi to death, if they did the wonders of the world, has also ceased not divine one of his dreams which he to exist. had forgotten ; and of the Caliph of the The city was always very flourishing Thousand and One Nights, who was to under the Ptolemies and the Romans. strangle his wife as soon as she had It did not decline under the Arabs, nor finished her story. But it is Plutarch did the Mamelukes or the Turks, who who relates this nonsense; therefore it successively conquered it, together with must be respected, for he was a Greek. the rest of Egypt, suffer it to go to decay.

This latter story is entitled to the same } It preserved some portion of iis greatness credit with that of the poisoning of Alex- until the passage of the Cape of Good ander by Aristotle ; for Plutarch tells us, } Hope opened a new route to the Indies, that somebody had heard one Agnotemis and once more gave a new direction to say, that he had heard Antigonus say, } the commerce of the world, which Alex. that Aristotle sent a bottle of water from ander had previously changed, and which Nonacris, a town in Arcadia, which water had been changed several times before was so extremely cold, that they who } Alexander. drank it instantly died ; that Antipater The Alexandrians were remarkable, sent this water in a horn ; that it arrived under all their successive denominations, at Babylon quite fresh; that Alexander for industry united with levity; for love of drank of it; and that, at the end of six { novelty, accompanied by a close applidays, he died of a continued fever. cation to commerce, and to all the arts

Plutarch has, it is true, some doubts that make commerce flourish ; and for a respecting this anecdote. All that we contentious and quarrelsome spirit, joined can be quite certain of is, that Alexander, to cowardice, superstition, and debauchery at the age of twenty-four, had conquered } --all which never changed. Persia by three battles; that his genius The city was peopled with Egyptians, was as great as his valour; that he } Jews, and Turks, all of whom, though changed the face of Asia, Greece, and poor at first, enriched themselves by trafEgypt, and gave a new direction to the {fic. Opulence introduced the cultivation commerce of the world ; and that Boi- of the fine arts, with a taste for literature, leau should have been more sparing of and consequently for disputation. his ridicule, since it is not very likely The Jews built a magnificent temple, that Boileau would have done more in as and translated their books into Greek, short a time.

which had become the language of the ALEXANDRIA.

country. So great were the animosities

among the native Egyptians, the Greeks, More than twenty towns have borne the Jews, and the Christians, that they the name of Alexandria, all built by were continually accusing one another to Alexander and his captains, who became the governor, to the no small advantage so many kings. These towns are so many of his revenue. There were even frequent monuments of glory, far superior to the and bloody seditions, in one of which, in statues which servility afterwards erected the reign of Caligula, the Jews, who to power; but the only one of them exaggerate every thing, assert that reliwhich attracted the attention of the world {gious and commercial jealousy united, by its greatness and its wealth, was that cost them fifty thousand men, whom the which became the capital of Egypt. Alexandrians murdered. This is now but a heap of ruins ; for it Christianity, which the Origens, Cleo is well known that one half of the city has ments and others had established and renbeen re-built on another site, near the { dered admirable by their lives, degenesea. The light-house, formerly one of rated into a mere spirit of party. The

Christians adopted the manners of the glass; others manufacture paper; they Egyptians ; religion yielded to the desire seem to be, and indeed are of all trades : of gain; and all the inhabitants, divided not even the gout in their feet and hands in every thing else, were unanimous only can reduce them to entire inactivity; the in the love of money. This it was which very blind work. Money is a God which produced that famous letter from the the Christians, Jews, and all inen, adure emperor Adrian to the consul Servianus, alike.” which Vopiscus gives us as follows:- This letter of an emperor, whose disADRIANI EPISTOLA, Ex Libris Phle

cernment was as great as his valour, sufCONTIS LIBERTI EJUS PRODITA.

ficiently proves that the Christians, as

well as others, had become corrupted in Adrianus Augustus Serviano Cos. Vo.

this abode of luxury aud controversy : Ægyptum, quam mihi laudabas, Ser- } but the manners of the primitive Chrisviane carissime, totam didici, levem, tians had not degenerated every where ; pendulam, et ad omnia famæ monumenta } and although they had the misfortune to volitantem. Illi qui Serapin

colunt Chris- be for a long time divided into different tiani sunt, et devoti sunt Serapi qui se sects, which detested and accused one Christi episcopus dicunt. Nemo illic another, the most violent enemies of Archisynagogus Judæorum, nemo Sema- } Christianity were obliged to acknowledge rites, nemo Christianorum presbyter, non that the purest and the greatest souls were mathematicus, non aruspex, non aliptes. {to be found among its proselytes. Such Ipse ille Patriarcha, quùm Ægyptum is the case even at the present day, in venerit

, ab aliis Serapidem adorare, ab cities wherein the degree of folly and aliis cogitur CHRISTUM. Genus hominis frenzy exceeds that of ancient Alexseditiosissimum, injuriosissimum. Ci-andria. vitas opulenta, dives, fecunda, in qua

ALGIERS. nemo vivat otiosus. Alii vitrum constant, The principal object of this Dictionary ab aliis charta conficitur ; omnes certè } is philosophy. It is not, therefore, as lymphiones cujuscunque artis et videntur geographers that we speak of Algiers, but et habentur. Podagrosi quod agant ha- } for the purpose of remarking, that the bent, cæci quod faciant; ne chiragri qui- first design of Louis XIV. when he took dem apud cos otiosi vivunt. Unus illis the reins of government, was to deliver deus est; hunc Christiani, hunc Judæi, Christian Europe from the continual dehunc homnes venerantur et gentes. predations of the Barbary corsairs. This

Which may be rendered thus- project was an indication of a great mind.

“ My dear Servian, I have seen that He wished to pursue every road to glory. Egypt of which you have spoken so } It is somewhat astonishing that, with the highly ; I know it thoroughly. It is a spirit of order which he showed in his light, uncertain, fickle nation. The wor- } court, in his finances, and in the conduct shippers of Serapis turn Christians, and of state affairs, he had a sort of relish for they who are at the head of the religion ancient chivalry, which led him to the of Christ devote themselves to Serapis. } performance of generous and brilliant There is no chief of the Rabbis, no Sa- actions, even approaching to the romantic. maritan, no Christian priest, who is not } It is certain that Louis inherited from his an astrologer, a diviner, a pander. When mother a deal of that Spanish gallantry, the Greek Patriarch comes into Egypt, } at once noble and delicate, with much of some press him to worship Serapis, others that greatness of soul—that passion for to adore Christ. They are very sedi- glory—that lofty pride, so conspicuous in tious, very vain, and very quarrelsome old romances. He talked of fighting the The city is commercial, opulent, and po- emperor Leopold, like a knight seeking pulous. No one is idle. Some make adventures. The erection of the pyramid at Rome, the assertion of his right of} twenty guns, and infest all our seas like precedence, and the idea of having a port} vultures seeking their prey. When they near Algiers to curb the pirates, were see a inan-of-war, they fy; when they likewise of this class. To this latter at- see a merchant vessel they seize it. Our tempt he was moreover excited by Pope } friends and our relatives, men and women, Alexander VII. and by Cardinal Mazarin { are made slaves ; and we must humbly before his death. He had for some time supplicate the barbarians to deign to redebated with himself whether he should ceive our money for restoring to us their go on this expedition in person, like captives. Charles the Fifth ; but he had not vessels 16 Some Christian states have had the to execute so great an enterprise, whether shameful prudence to treat with them, in person or by his generals. The at- and send them arms wherewith to attack tempt was therefore fruitless: and it could { others, bargaining with them as merchants, not be otherwise.

while they negociate as warriors. It was, however, of service in exercis- “Nothing would be more easy than to ing the French marine, and prepared the } put down these marauders ; yet it is not worli to expect some of those noble and done. But how many other useful and heroic actions which are out of the ordin- easy things are entirely neglected! The ary line of policy, such as the disinterested necessity of reducing these pirates is acaid lent to the Venetians besieged in knowledged in every prince's cabinet ; Candia, and to the Germans pressed by yet no one undertakes their reduction. the Ottoman arms at St. Gothard. When the ministers of different courts ac

The details of the African expeditioncidentally talk the matter over, they do are lost in the number of successful or { but illustrate the fable of tying the bell unsuccessful wars, waged justly or un- į round the cat's neck. justly, with god or bad policy. We shall “ The order of the Redemption of merely give the following letter, which } Captives is the finest of all monastic was written some years ago on the subject institutions, but it is a sad reproach to us. of the Algerine piracies :

The kingdoms of Fez, Algiers, and Tunis, “It is to be lamented, Sire, that the have no murabous of the Redemption of proposals of the order of Malta were not { Captives ; because, though they take acceded to, when they offered, on consi- many Christians from us, we take scarcely deration of a moderate subsidy from each any Mussulmen from them. Christian power, to free the seas from the “ Nevertheless, they are more attached pirates of Algiers, Morocco, and Tunis. { to their religion than we are to ours; for The knights of Malta would then have no Turk or Arab ever turns Christian, been truly the defenders of Christianity. while they have hundreds of renegadoes The actual force of the Algerines is but amongst them, who even serve in their two fifty-gun ships, five of about forty, expeditions. An Italian, named Pelegini, and four of thirty guns; the rest are not { was, in 1712, captain-general of the Alworth mentioning.

gerine galleys. The miramolin, the bey, “ It is shameful to see their little barks the dey, all have Christian females in seizing our merchant vessels every day} their seraglios, but there are only two Turk, throughout the Mediterranean. They ish girls who have found lovers in Paris. even cruise as far as the Canaries and “The Algerine land force consists of the Azores.

twelve thousand regular soldiers only ; “Their soldiery, composed of a variety } but all the rest of the men are trained to of nations-ancient Mauritanians, ancient arms; and it is this that renders the conNumidians, Arabs, Turks, and even Ne- } quest of the country so difficult. The groes, set sail

, almost without provisions, Vandals, however, easily subdued it; yet in tight vessels carrying from eighteen to { we dare not attack it.”

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