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one guilty of murder, should not be Joseph was married; and I wish to be divorced as well as an adultress : I con- married. If I, an Alsatian, am depenfine myself to what concerns my own sad ? dent on a priest who lives at Rome, and situation. God permits me to marry has the barbarous power to deprive me of again; but the bishop of Rome forbids a wife,--he may as well make me an me?

eunuch to sing Miserere in his chapel.” « Divorce was customary among Catholics under all the Emperors, as well as

A plea for Wives. in all the disjointed members of the Equity requires that, after giving this Roman Empire. Almost all those kings & memorial in favour of husbands we should of France who are called of the first ruce, also lay before the public the plea on be repudiated their wives and took fresh half of wives presented to the junta of ones. At length came one Gregory IX. Portugal, by one Countess D'Arcira. It an enemy to emperors and kings, who, is in substance as follows: by a decree, made the bonds of marriage “The Gospel has forbidden adultery indissoluble; and his decretal became to my husband as well as to me; we shall the law of Europe. Hence, when a king be damned alike; nothing is more cerwished to repudiate an adulterous wife,tain. Although he has been guilty of fifty according to the law of Jesus Christ, he infidelities—though he has given my neck could not do so without seeking some lace to one of my rivals, and my ear-rings ridiculous pretext. Saint Louis was to another, I have not called upon the obliged, in order to effect his unfortunate judges to order his head to be shaved, divorce from Eleanora of Guienne, 10 himself to be shut up with monks, and allege a relationship which did not exist; his property to be given to me: yet I, for and Henry IV., to repudiate Margaret having but once imitated him—for having of Valois brought forward a still more { done that with the handsoinest young man unfounded pretence—a want of consent. in Lisbon, which he is allowed to do Thus a lawful divorce was to be obtained every day with the homeliest and most by falsehood.

stupid creatures of the court and the city, “ What! may a sovereign abdicate his must be placed on a stool to answer the cTown, and shall he not without the questions of a set of licentiates, every one Pope's permission, abdicate his faithless of whom would be at my feet were he wife ? And is it possible that men, en- alone with me in my closet; must have lightened in other things, have so long the finest hair in the world cut from my submitted to this absurd and abject head; be confined with nuns who have slavery?

not common sense; be deprived of my “ Let our priests and our monks abstain portion and marriage settlement, and see from women, if it must be so; they have my property given to my fool of a husmy consent. It is detrimental to the band, to assist him in seducing other woprogress of population, and a misfortune men, and committing fresh adulteries. I for them; but they deserve that misfor- ask if the thing is just ? if it is not evitune which they have contrived for them- dent that the cuckolds are the lawselves. They are the victims of the makers ? Popes, who in them wish to possess slaves “ The answer to my complaint is, that - soldiers without family or country, { I am but too fortunate in not being stoned living for the Church; but I, a magistrate, at the city gate by the canons and the who serve the state the whole day long, } people, as was the custom with the first have occasion for a woman at nighi; { nation of the earth—the cherished nation and the Church has no right to deprive —the chosen people--the only one which me of a possession allowed me by the was right when all others were wrong. Deity. The Apostles were married ; “To these barbarians I reply, that

CONCLUSION OF THE CHAPTER ON

ADULTERY.

when the poor woman, taken in adultery, { condemned by the House of Peers, should was presented to her accusers by the the little man prove unfaithful! It is Master of the Old and of the New Law, clear that, if women have not their hushe did not order her to be stoned ; on the bands punished, it is when they are not contrary, he reproached their injustice, the strongest.” tracing on the sand, with his finger, the old Hebrew proverb, · Let him who is without sin cast the first stone. All then retired; the oldest being the first to de- In order to obtain an equitable verdict part, since, the greater their age, the more in an action for adultery, the jury should adulteries they had committed. be composed of twelve men and twelve

“The doctors of the canon law tell me, women, with an hermaphrodite to give that this story of the woman taken in the casting vote in the event of necessity. adultery is related only in the gospel of But singular cases may exist wherein St. John, and that there it is nothing more raillery is inapplicable, and of which it is than an interpolation; that Leontius and { not for us to judge. Such is the advenMaldonat affirm that it is but to be found lure related by St. Augustine in his serin one ancient Greek copy; that not one mon on Christ's preaching on the Mount. of the twenty-three first commentators Septimius Acyndicus, proconsul of has spoken of it; that neither Origen, nor Syria, caused a Christian of Antioch, who St. Jerome, nor St. John Chrysostom, nor was unable to pay the treasury a pound Theophylact, nor Nonnus, knew anything of gold (the amount to which he was of it; and that it is not in the Syriac taxed), to be thrown into prison, and Bible, nor in the version of Ulphilas. threatened with death. A wealthy man

“Such are the arguments advanced by promised the unfortunate prisoner's wife my husband's advocates, who would not to furnish her with the pound, if she would only shave my head, but stone me also. consent to his desires. The wife hastened

“ However, those who plead for me to inform her husband, who begged that say, that Ammonius, a writer of the third she would save his life at the expense of century, acknowledges the truth of this } his rights, which he was willing to give story; and that St. Jerome, while he up. She obeyed; but the man who owed rejects it in some passages, adopts it in her the gold deceived her by giving her a others; in short, that it is now authenti- sackful of earth. The husband, being cated. Here I hold, and say to my hus- still unable to pay the tax, was about to band -- If you are without sin, shave my be led to the scaffold; but this infamous head, confine me, take my property; but transaction having come to the ears of the if you have committed more sins than I } proconsul, he paid the pound of gold from have, it is I who must shave you, have his own coffers, and gave to the Christian you confined, and seize your possessions. couple the estate from which the sackful In both cases the justice is the same.' of earth had been taken.

“ My husband replies, that he is my It is certain that, far from injuring her superior and my head; that he is taller husband, the wife, in this instance, acted than me by more than an inch; that he conformably to his will; not only obeyis as rough as a bear; and that, conse-ing him, but also saving his life. Št. quently, I owe him everything, and he Augustin does not venture to decide on owes me nothing.

the guilt or virtue of this action; he is “But, I ask if Queen Anne of Eng- afraid to condemn it. land is not the heud of her husband ? if It is, in my opinion, very singular that the Prince of Denmark, who is ber High Bayle should pretend to be more severe Admiral, does not owe her an entire obe-than St. Augustin. He boldly condemns dience? and if she would not have him the poor woman. This would be incon

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ocivable, did we not know how much citizens. He who was then at their head almost every writer has suffered his pen said to him gravely—“Friend Chancellor, to belie his heart—with what facility his thou oughtest to know that our Lord and own feelings have been sacrificed to the Saviour Jesus Christ hath forbidden us fear of enraging some evil-disposed pe- to affirm otherwise than by yea or nay: dant—in a word, how inconsistent he has he hath expressly said:-1 forbid thee to been with himself.

swear by heuven, because it is the throne of A Father's Reflection.

God: by the earth, because it is his foot

stool; by Jerusalem, because it is the city A word on the contradictory education of the king of kings; or by thy head, be which we bestow upon our daughters. } cause thou canst not change the colour of We inculcate an immoderate desire of a single hair. This, friend, is positive; pleasing; we dictate when nature does and we will not disobey God to please enough without us, and add to her lessons thee and thy parliament.” “ It is imevery refinement of art. When they are possible to argue better," replied the perfectly trained, we punish them if they Chancellor ; " but be it known to thee, put in practice the very arts which we that Jupiter one day ordered all beasts of have been so anxious to teach! What burden to get shod; horses, mules, and should we think of a dancing-master who, even camels, instantly obeyed; the asses having taught a pupil for ten years, would alone resisted; they made so many repro break his leg because he had found him sentations, and brayed so long, that Judancing with other people ?

piter, who was good-natured, at last said Might not this paragraph be added to to them, “ Asses, I grant your prayer: you the chapter of contradictions ?

shall not be shod; but the first slip you AFFIRMATION ON OATH.

make, you shall have a most sound cudo

gelling.Weshall not say anything of the affirm- It must be allowed that, hitherto, the ations so frequently made use of by the Quakers have made no slips. learned. To affirm, to decide, is allowable only in geometry. In everything

AGAR, OR HAGAR
else let us imitate the Doctor Metaphrastes When a man puts away his mistress-
of Molière-it may be so; the thing is his friend—the partner of his bed
feasible ; it is not impossible; we shall see. he must either make her condition tolera-
Let us adopt Rabelais' perhaps, Mon-bly comfortable, or be regarded, amongst
taigne's what know I ? the Roman non us, as a man of a bad heart.
liquet, or the doubt of the Athenian aca- We are told that Abraham was very rich
demy: but only in profane matters, be it in the desert of Gerar, although he did
understood, for in sacred things, we are not possess an inch of land. However,
well aware that doubting is not permitted. we know with the greatest certainty, that

The primitives, in England called {he defeated the armies of four great kings
Quakers, are allowed to give testimony in { with three hundred and eighteen shep-
a court of justice on their simple affirma- herds.
tion, without taking an oath. The peers He should, then, at least have given
of the realm have the same privilege—the a small flock to his mistress Agar, when he
lay peers affirming on their honour, and sent her away in the desert. I speak
the bishops laying their hands on their always according to worldly notions, al
hearts. The Quakers obtained it in the ways reverencing those incomprehensible
reign of Charles II., and are the only sect ways which are not our ways.
in Europe so honoured.

I would have given my old companion The Lord Chancellor Cowper wished { Agar a few sheep, a few goats, a few suits to compel the Quakers to swear like other of clothes for herself and our son Ismael,

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a good she-ass for the mother and a pretty } have been known to ruin themselves in foal for the child, a camel to carry their this pursuit. luggage, and at least two men to attend The number of those who have believed them and prevent them from being de- in transmutations is prodigious, and the voured by wolves.

number of cheats has been in proportion But when the Father of the Faithful to that of the credulous. At Paris we exposed his poor mistress and her child have seen Signor Dammi, Marquis of in the deseri, he gave them only a loaf Conventiglio, obtain some hundred louis and a pitcher of water.

from several of the nobility that he might Some impious persons have asserted make them gold to the amount of two or that Abraham was not a very tender fa- three crowns. ther-that he wished to make his bastard The best trick that has ever been person die of hunger, and to cut his legiti- formed in alchymny was that of a Rosimate son's throat! But again let it be crucian, who, in 1620, went to Henry, remembered, that these ways were not our Duke of Bouillon, of the house of Tuways.

renne, Sovereign Prince of Sedan, and Ít is said that poor Agar went away addressed him as follows : into the desert of Beer-sheba. There was “ You have not a sovereignty proporno desert of Beer-sheba ; this name was } tioned to your great courage, but I will not known until long after : but this is a make you richer than the emperor. I mere trifle; the foundation of the story cannot remain for more than two days in is not the less authentic.

your states, having to go to Venice to hold It is true that the posterity of Agar's the grand assembly of the brethren; I son Ismael took ample revenge on the only charge you to keep the secret. Send posterity of Sarah's son Isaac, in favour to the first apothecary of your town for of whom he had been cast out. The Sa- some litharge; throw into it one grain of racens, descending in a right line from the red powder which I will give you; Ismael, made themselves masters of Je- put the whole into a crucible; and in a rusalem, which belonged by right of con- quarter of an hour you will have gold.” quest to the posterity of Isaac. I would The prince performed the operation, have made the Saracens descend from and repeated it three times, in presence Sarah; the etymology would then have of the virtuoso. This man had prebeen neater.

viously bought up all the litharge from It has been asserted that the word Sa- the apothecaries of Sedan, and got it reracen comes from saruc, a robber. I do sold after mixing it with a few ounces of not believe that any people have ever gold. The adept, on taking leave, made called themselves robbers ; nearly all have the Duke of Bouillon a present of all his been robbers, but it is not usual for them transmuting powder. to take the title. Saracen descending The prince, having made three ounces from Sarah, appears to me to sound of gold with three grains, doubted not better.

that with three hundred thousand grains

he should make three hundred thousand ALCHYMY.

ounces, and that he should in a week The emphatic al places the alchymist possess eighteen thousand seven hundred as much above the ordinary chymist, as and fifty pounds of gold, besides what he the gold which he obtains is superior to should afterwards make. It took at least other metals. Germany still swarms three months to make this powder. The with people who seek the philosopher's philosopher was in haste to depart; he stone, as the water of immortality has was without anything, having given all to been sought in China, and the fountain the prince, and wanted some ready money of youth in Europe. In France, some in order to hold the states-general of here

SECTION I.

metic philosophy. He was a man very sovereign of the day of justice! Thee moderate in his desires, and asked only we adore! to thee only do we look for twenty thousand crowns for the expenses protection. Lead us in the right wayof Jis journey. The duke, ashamed to in the way of those whom thou hast give so small a sum, presented him with { loaded with thy graces, and not in the forty thousand. When he had consumed way of the objects of thy wrath—of them all the litharge in Sedan, he made no more { who have gone astray." gold, nor ever more saw his philosopher Such is the introduction. Then come or his forty thousand crowns.

three letters, A, L, M, which, according All pretended alchymic transmutations to the learned Sale, are not understood, have been performed nearly in the same į for each commentator explains them in manner. To change one natural produc- his own way; but the most common tion into another, for example, iron into opinion is, that they signify Ali, Latif, silver, is a rather difficult operation, since MagidGod. Grace, Glory. it requires two things a little above our God himself then speaks to Mahomet, power—the annihilation of the iron and in these words : creation of the silver.

“ This book admitteth not of doubt. We must not, however, reject all dis- It is for the direction of the just, who becoveries of secrets and all new inventions. lieve in the depths of the faith, who obIt is with them as with theatrical pieces, serve the times of prayer, who distribute there may be one good out of a thousand. in alms what it has pleased me to give

them, who believe in the revelation ALCORAN.

which hath descended to thee, and was OR, MORE PROPERLY, THE KORAN. delivered to the prophets before thee.

Let the faithful have a firm assurance in

the life to come ; let them be directed by Turs book governs with despotic sway their Lord ; and they shall be happy. the whole of northern Africa, from Mount “ As for unbelievers, it mattereth not Atlas to the desert of Barca, the whole of whether thou callest them or no: they do Egypt, the coasts of the Ethiopian Sea to not believe; the seal of unbelief is on the extent of six hundred leagues, Syria, ? their hearts and on their ears; a terrible Asia Minor, all the countries round the } punishment awaiteth them. Black and the Caspian Seas (excepting “ There are some who say, "We bethe kingdom of Astracan) the whole em- lieve in God and in the Last Day,' but in pire of Hindostan, all Persia, a great their hearts they are unbelievers. They part of Tartary; and in Europe, Thrace, think to deceive the Eternal; they deMacedonia, Bulgaria, Servia, Bosnia, ceive themselves without knowing it. Greece, Epirus, and nearly all the islands Infirmity is in their hearts, and God as far as the little strait of Otranto, which {himself increaseth this infirmity," &c. terminates these immense possessions. These words are said to have incom

In this prodigious extent of country parably more energy in Arabic. Indeed, there is not a single Mahometan who the Koran still passes for the most elehas the happiness of reading our sacred gant and most sublime book which has books; and very few of our literati are been written in that language. acquainted with the Koran, of which we We have imputed to the Koran a great almost always form a ridiculous idea, number of foolish things which it never notwithstanding the researches of our contained. It was chiefly against the really learned men.

Turks, who had become Mahometans, The first lines of this book are as fol- that our monks wrote so many books, at low :- Praise to God, the sovereign of a time when no other opposition was of all, worlds--to the God of mercy, the much service against the conquerors of

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