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It is, however, very strange that the

ADORATION. Jewish people were permitted to read the books of Exodus, where there are so Is it not a great fault in some modern many miracles which shock reason, yet languages, that the same word which is were not allowed to read before the age { used in addressing the Supreme Being, oftwenty-five, the first chapter of Genesis, is also used in addressing a mistress? We in which all is necessarily miracle, since not unfrequently go from hearing a serthe creation is the subject. Perhaps it mon, in which the preacher has talked of was, because God, after creating the man nothing but adoring God in spirit and in ænd woman in the first chapter, makes truth, to the Opera, where nothing is to them again in another, and it was thought be heard but the charming object of my expedient to keep this appearance of con- adoration, &c. tradiction from the eyes of youth. Per- The Greeks and Romans, at least, did haps it is, because it is said, that God's not fall into this extravagant profanation. mude man in his own image, and this Horace does not say that he adores Laexpression gave the Jews too corporeal } lage; Tibullus does not adore Delia ; nor an idea of God. Perhaps it was is even the term adoration to be found in because it is said, that God took a rib Petronius. from Adam's side to form the woman; If anything can excuse this indecency, and the young and inconsiderate, feeling it is the frequent mention which is made their sides, and finding the right number { in our operas and songs of the Gods of of ribs, might have suspected the author ancient fable. Poets have said that their of some infidelity. Perhaps it was, be- mistresses were more adorable than these cause God, who always took a walk at false divinities ; for which no one could noon in the garden of Eden, laughed at blame them. We have insensibly become Adam after his fall, and this tone of familiarised with this mode of expression, ridicule might tend to give youth too until at last, without any perception of great a taste for pleasantry. In short, the folly, the God of the universe is adevery line of this chapter furnishes very dressed in the same terms as an operaplausible reasons for interdicting the read- singer. ing of it; but such being the case, one But to return to the important part of cannot very clearly see how it was that our subject.—There is no civilized nation the other chapters were permitted. It is, which does not render public adoration besides, surprising that the Jews were to God. It is true, that neither in Asia not to read this chapter until they were nor in Africa is any person forced to the twenty-five. One would think that it mosque or temple of the place : each one should first have been proposed to child- goes of his own accord. This custom of hood, which receives everything without assembling together should tend to unite examination, rather than to youth, whose the minds of men, and render them more pride is to judge and to laugh. On the gentle in society; yet have they been seen other hand, the Jews of twenty-five years < raging against each other, even in the dd, having their judgments prepared consecrated abode of Peace. The Temple and strengthened, might be more fitted of Jerusalem was deluged with blood by to receive this chapter than inexperienced { zealots who murdered their brethren; and minds.

our churches have more than once been We shall say nothing here of Adam's defiled by carnage. second wife, named Lillah, whom the In the article China, it will be seen ancient Rabbis have given him. It must that the Emperor is the Chief Pontiff, be confessed that we know very few and that the worship is august and simple. anecdotes of our family.

There are other countries in which it is simple without any magnificence, as

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among the reformers of Europe and in which would only serve to render them
British America. In others, wax-tapers } irreconcilable.
must be lighted at noon, although in the One only God being adored throughout
primitive ages they were held in abomi- the known world, shall those who ac-
nation. A convent of nuns, if deprived knowledge him as their father never cease
of their tapers, would cry out that the to present to him the revolting spectacle
light of the faith was extinguished, and of his children detesting, anathematising,
the world would shortly be at an end. persecuting, and massacreing one another
The Church of England holds a middle} by way of argument ?
course between the pompous ceremonies It is hard to determine precisely what
of the Church of Rome and the plainness } the Greeks and Romans understood by
of the Calvinists.

adoring, or whether they adored Fauns, Throughout the East, songs, dances, Sylvans, Dryads, and Naiads, as they and torches, formed part of the ceremo- adored the twelve superior Gods. It is nies essential in all sacred feasts. No { not fikely that Adrian's minion, Antinous, sacerdotal institution existed among the was adored by the Egyptians of later Greeks without songs and dances. The times with the same worship which they Hebrews borrowed this custom from their paid to Serapis ; and it is sufficiently neighbours; for David sang and danced proved that the ancient Egyptians did before the Ark.

not adore onions and crocodiles as they St. Matthew speaks of a canticle sung did Isis and Osiris. Ambiguity abounds by Jesus Christ himself, and by his apos- everywhere and confounds everything ; tles, after their Passover. This canticle, we are obliged, at every word, to exwhich is not admitted into the authorised | claim, What do you mean? we must books, is to be found in fragments in the constantly repeat-- Define your terms. 237th' letter of St. Augustine to bishop is it quite true that Simon, called the Chretius; and, whatever disputes there Magician, was adored among the Romans? may have been about its authenticity, it It is not more true that he was utterly is certain that singing was employed in all unknown to them. religious ceremonies. Mahomet found St. Justin, in his Apology, which was this a settled mode of worship among the as little known at Rome as Simon was, Arabs; it is also established in India; Stells us that this God had a statue erected but does not appear to be in use among on the Tyber, or rather near the Tyber, the lettered men of China. The ceremo- between the two bridges, with this innies of all places have some resemblance scription-Simoni deo suncto. St. Irenæus and some difference : but God is wor- and Tertullian attest the same thing ; but shipped throughout the earth. Woe, to whom do they attest it? To people assuredly, unto them who do not adore who had never seen Rome-to Africans, him as we do! whether erring in their to Allobroges, to Syrians, and to some of tenets or in their rites ? They sit in the the inhabitants of Sichem. They had shadow of death ; but the greater their certainly not seen this statue, the real misfortune, the more are they to be pitied inscription on which was Semo sancho deo and supported.

fidio, and not Simoni sancto deo. They It is indeed a great consolation for us, should at least have consulted Dionysius that the Mahometans, the Indians, the of Halicarnassus, who gives this incripChinese, the Tartars, all adore one only {tion in his fourth book. Semo sunco was God; for so far they are our kindred. an old Sabine word, signifying half God Their fatal ignorance of our sacred mys- j and half man: we find in Livy, Bona teries can only inspire us with tender Semoni sunco censuerunt consecranda. compassion for our wandering brethren. This god was one of the most ancient in Far from us be all spirit of persecution Roman worship, having been consecrated

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by Tarquin the Proud; and was consi- to be a magician, as it is certain, that dered as the God of alliances and good there was an Apollonius of Tyana. It faith. It was the custom to sacrifice an it is also true that this Simon who was ox to him, and to write any treaty made { born in the little country of Samaria, with a neighbouring people upon the skin. gathered together some vagabonds, whom He had a temple near that of Quirinus ; he persuaded that he was one sent by offerings were sometimes presented to God; he baptized, indeed, as well as the him under the name of Semo the father, Apostles, and raised altar against altar. and sometimes under that of Sancus fidius; The Jews of Samaria, always hostile to whence Ovid says in his Fasti those of Jerusalem, ventured to oppose

Quærebam nonas Sanco, Fidove referrem, this Simon to Jesus Christ, acknowAn tibi, Semo patet.

ledged by the Apostles and Disciples, all Such was the Roman divinity, which, of whom were of the tribe of Benjamin for so many ages was taken for Simon or that of Judah, He baptized like the Magician. St. Cyril of Jerusalem { them; but to the baptism of water he had no doubts on the subject; and St. added fire, saying, that he had been foreAugustin, in his first book of Heresies, I told by John the Baptist in these words tells us that Simon the Magician himself _“ He that cometh after me is mightier procured the erection of this statue, toge-than I; he shall baptise you with the ther with that of his Helena, by order of{ Holy Ghost and with fire." the emperor and senate.

Simon lighted a lambent flame over This strange fable, the falsehood of the baptismal font with naptha, from the which might so easily have been disco Asphaltic lake. His party was very vered, was constantly connected with strong : but it is very doubtful whether another fable, which relates that Simon his disciples adored him; St. Justin is and St. Peter both appeared before Nero, { the only one who believes it. and challenged each other which of them Menander, like Simon, said he was should soonest bring to life the corpse of sent by God to be the saviour of men. a near relative of Nero's, and also raise All the false Messiahs, Barcochebas eshimself highest in the air ; that Simon pecially, called themselves sent by God; caused himself to be carried up by devils but not even Barcochebas demanded to in a fiery chariot ; that St. Peter and St. be adored. Men are not often erected Paul brought him down by their prayers; } into divinities while they live; unless, that he broke his legs, and in consequence indeed, they be Alexanders, or Roman died; and that Nero, being enraged, put emperors, who expressly order their both St. Peter and St. Paul to death, slaves so to do. But this is not, strictly

Abdias, Marcellinus, and Hegisippus, speaking, adoration ; it is an extraordihave each related this story, with a little nary homage, an anticipated apotheosis, difference in the details. Amobius, St. } a fattery as ridiculous as those which are Cyril of Jerusalem, Sulpicius Severus, lavished on Octavius by Virgil and Philaster, St. Epiphanius, Isidorus of Horace. Damietta, Maximus of Turin, and several

ADULTERY. other authors, successively gave currency to this error, and it was generally

We are not indebted for this expression adopted ; until, at length, there was to the Greeks; they called adultery moifound at Rome a statue of Semo sancus cheia, from which came the latin mæchus, deus fidius, and the learned father Mabil- which we have not adopted. We owe it lon dug up an ancient monument with neither to the Syriac tongue nor to the the inscription Semoni sanco deo fidio. Hebrew, a jargon of the Syriac, in which

It is nevertheless certain, that there adultery is called niuph. In Latin, was a Simon, whom the Jews believed } adulteratio signified ulteration-adulteration, one thing put for anothera} The women of Lacedæmon, we are counterfeit, as false keys, false bargains, told, knew neither confession nor adut false signatures ; thus he, who took poses- tery. It is true that Menelaus had ex sion of another's bed, was called adulter. perienced the intractability of Helen; bus

In a similar way, by antiphrasis, the Lycurgus set all right by making the name of coccyr, a cuckoo, was given to women common, when the husbands were the poor husband into whose nest a { willing to lend them, and the wives constranger intruded. Pliny, the naturalist, sented. Every one might dispose of his says, “ Coccyr ova subdit in nidis aliensis ; } own. In this case a husband had not to ita plerique alienus urores faciunt matres' apprehend that he should foster in his _" the cuckoo deposits its eggs in the house the offspring of a stranger; all chilnest of other birds; so the Romans not dren belonged to the republic, and not to unfrequently made mothers of the wives any particular family, so that no one was of their friends." The comparison is not injured. Adultery is an evil only in as over just. Coccyr signifying a cuckoo, much as it is a theft; but we do not steal we have made of it cuckold. What a that which is given to us. The Lacedænumber of things do we owe to the monians, therefore, had good reason for Romans ! But as the sense of all words saying that adultery was impossible among is ject to change, the term applied to them. cuckold, which, according to good gram- It is otherwise in our modern nations, mar, should be the gallant, is appropriated where every law is founded on the printo the husband. Some of the learned {ciple of meum and tuum. assert, that it is to the Greeks we owe the It is the greatest wrong, the greatest emblem of the horns, and that they be- injury, to give a poor fellow children stowed the appellation of goat upon a which do not belong to him and lay upon husband, the disposition of whose wife him a burden which he ought not to resembled that of a female of the same

Races of heroes have thus been species. Indeed, they used the epithet utterly bastardised. The wives of the son of a goat in the same way as the mo- Astolphos and the Jocondas, through a dern vulgar do an appellation which is depraved appetite, a momentary weakmuch more literal.

ness, have become pregnant by some These vile terms are no longer made deformed dwarf—some little page, devoid use of in good company. Even the word alike of heart and mind : and both the adultery is never pronounced. We do bodies and souls of the offspring have not now say, Madame la Duchesse { borne testimony to the fact." In some lives in adultery with Monsieur le Che countries of Europe, the heirs to the valier - Mladame la Marquise has a greatest names are little insignificant apes, criminal intimacy with Monsieur l'Abbé;" who have in their halls the portraits of

Monsieur l'Abbé is this their pretended fathers, six feet high, week the lover of Madame la Marquise." handsome, well-made, and carrying a When ladies talk of their adulteries to broad-sword which their successors of their female friends, they say, “ I confess the present day would scarcely be able to I have some inclination for him.They } lift. Important offices are thus held by used formerly to confess that they felt men who have no right to them, and some esteem; but since the time when a whose hearts, heads, and arms, are uncertain citizen's wife accused herself to } qual to the burden. her confessor of having esteem for a In some provinces of Europe, the girls counsellor, and the confessor enquired as make love, without their afterwards beto the number of proofs of esteem afforded, coming less prudent wives. In France, ladies of quality have esteemed no one, it is quite the contrary; the girls are shut and gone but little to confession. up in convents, where, hitherto, they have

bear.

but we say,

received a most ridiculous education. { even fears to contract an illicit intimacy Their mothers, in order to console them, with a maid or a widow. In this stats teach them to look for liberty in marriage of sorrow and perplexity, he addresses the Scarcely have they lived a year with their following complaints to the Church, of husbands when they become impatient to which he is a member :ascertain the force of their attractions. A “My wife is criminal; and I suffer young wife neither sits, nor eats, nor walks, the punishment. A female is necessary nor goes to the play, but in company with { to the comfort of my life—nay, even to women who have each their regular in the preservation of my virtue; yet she is trigue. If she has not her lover like the refused me by the Church, which forbids rest

, she is to be unpaired ; and ashamed } me to marry an honest woman. The of being so, she is afraid to show her civil law of the present day, which is, self.

unhappily, founded on the canon law, The Orientals proceed quite in another deprives me of the rights of humanity. way. Girls are brought to them and war- }The Church compels me to seek either ranted virgins on the words of a Circassian. pleasures which she reprobates, or shameThey marry them, and shut them up as a ful consolations which she condemns; she measure of precaution, as we shut up our forces me to be criminal. maids. No jokes there upon ladies and “ If I look round among the nations their husbands ! no songs !—nothing re- of the earth, I see no religion except the sembling our quodlibets about horns and Roman Catholic, which does not recogcuckoldom! We pity the great ladies of nise divorce and second marriage as a Turkey, Persia, and India ; but they are natural right. What inversion of order, 8 thousand times happier in their serag- then, has made it a virtue in Catholics lios than our young women in their con- to suffer adultery, and a duty to live vents.

without wives when their wives have thus It sometimes happens amongst us, that shamefully injured them ? Why is a a dissatisfied husband, not choosing to cankered tie indissoluble, notwithstand institute a criminal process against his }ing the great maxim adopted by the Code, wife for adultery, which would subject Quicquid ligatur dissolubile est ? A sehim to the imputation of barbarity, con- }paration of person and property is granted tents himself with obtaining a separation me, but not a divorce. The law takes of person and property.

from me my wife, and leaves me the word And here we must insert an abstract sacrament! I no longer enjoy matrimony, of a memorial, drawn up by a good man but still I am married ! What contrawho finds himself in this situation. diction! What slavery! These are his complaints ; are they just “ Nor is it less strange that this law of or not?

the Church is directly contrary to the A Memorial, written by a Magistrate,

words which she believes to have been about the year 1764.

pronounced by Jesus Christ: “Whosoever

shall put away his wife, except it be for A principal magistrate of a town in fornication, and shall marry another, comFrance is so unfortunate as to have a wife mitteth adultery.' who was debauched by a priest before her “I have no wish here to inquire marriage, and has since brought herself whether the pontiffs of Rome have a to public shame; he has, however, con right to violate at pleasure the law of him tented himself with a private separation. whom they regard as their master: whether This man, who is forty years old, healthy, when a kingdom wants an heir, it is allowand of a pleasing figure, has need of fe- able to repudiate the woman who is male society. He is too scrupulous to incapable of giving one ; nor whether a seek to seduce the wife of another; he turbulent wife, one attacked by lunacy, or

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