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At the time when the Fragments of that Love has various lodgings: and that Petronius made a great poise in the lite- the same word does not always signify the rary world, Meibomius, a noted learned same thing. There is a prodigious differman of Lubeck, read in the printed letter { ence between the love of Tarquin and that of another learned man of Bologna :

-of Celadon-between David's love for “ We have here an entire Petronius, Jonathan, which was stronger than that which I have seen with my own eyes and of women, and the abbé Desfontaines' admired;" — Habemus hic Petronium in- love for little chimney-sweepers. tegrum, quem vidi meis oculis non sine The most singular instance of this abuse admiratione. He immediately set out for of words—these voluntary equivoquesItaly, hastened to Bologna, went to the these misunderstandings which have causlibrarian Capponi, and asked him if ited so many quarrels,-is the Chinese were true that they had the entire Petro- { King-tien. The missionaries having vionius at Bologna. Capponi answered that lent disputes about the meaning of this it was a fact which had long been public. } word, the Court of Rome sent a French“ Can I see this Petronius ?— Be so good man, named Muigrot, whom they made as to show him to me." “ Nothing is the imaginary bishop of a province in more easy,” said Capponi. He then took China, to adjust the difference. Maigrot him to the church in which the body of { did not know a word of Chinese; but the St. Petronius was laid. Meibomius or- emperor deigned to grant that he should dered horses and fled.

be told what he understood by King-tien. If the Jesuit Daniel took a warlike Maigrot would not believe what was told abbot, abbatem martialem, for the abbot him, but caused the emperor of China to Martial, a hundred historians have fallen be condemned at Rome! into still greater mistakes. The Jesuit The abuse of words is an inexhaustible d'Orleans, in bis Revolutions of England, { subject. In history, in morality, in juris. wrote indifferently Northampton or South- } prudence, in medicine, but especially in amplon, only mistaking the north for the theology, beware of ambiguity. south, or vice versa. Metaphysical terms, taken in their pro

ACADEMY. per sense, have sometimes determined the Academies are to universities, as maopinion of twenty nations. Every one turity is to childhood, oratory to grammar, knows the metaphor of Isaiah, How hast or politeness to the first lessons in civility. thou fallen from heaven, there star which } Academies, not being stipendiary, ought rose in the morning? This discourse was to be entirely free: such were the acaimagined to have been addressed to the demies of Italy; such is the French AcaDevil; and as the Hebrew word an-demy; and such, more particularly, is the swering to the planet Venus was rendered {Royal Society of London. in Latin by the word Lueifer, the Devil The French Academy, which formed has ever since been called Lucifer. itself, received, it is true, letters patent

Much ridicule has been bestowed on the { from Louis XIII., but without any saChart of the Tender Passion by Madlle. Jary, and consequently without any subCuderi, The lovers embark on the riverjection : hence it was that the first men

Tendre ; they dine at Tendre sur Estime, in the kingdom, and even princes, sought sup at Tendre sur Inclination, sleep at admission into this illustrious body. The Tendre sur Désir, find themselves the Society of London has possessed the same next morning at Tendre sur Passion, and advantage. lastly at Tendre sur Tendre. These ideas The celebrated Colbert, being a memmay be ridiculous, especially when Clelia, ber of the French Academy, employed Horatius Cocles, and other rude and aus- some of his brethren to compose inscris tere Romans, set out on the voyage: but {tions and devices for the public buildthis geographical chart at least shows us ings. This assembly, to which Boileau and Racine afterwards belonged, soon be- It is known that the word Academy, came an academy of itself. The esta- borrowed from the Greeks, originally blishment of this Academy of Inscrip- signified a society or school of philosophy tions, now called that of the Belles-Lettres, at Athens, which met in a garden bemay, indeed, be dated from the year 1661, queathed to it by Academus. and that of the Academy of Sciences from The Italians were the first who instituted 1666. We are indebted for both esta- such societies after the revival of letters ; blishments to the same minister, who con- the academy Della Crusca is of the tributed in so many ways to the splendour sixteenth century. Academies were afterof the age of Louis XIT.

wards established in every town where After the deaths of Jean Baptiste Col- the sciences were cultivated. bert and the Marquis de Louvois, when The Society of London has never taken Count de Pontchartrain, secretary of state, the title of Academy. had the department of Paris, he entrusted The provincial academies have been of the government of the new academies to signal advantage. They have given birth his nephew, the abbé Bignon. Then to emulation, forced youth to labour, inwere first devised honorary fellowships troduced them to a course of good readrequiring no learning, and without re-{ing, dissipated the ignorance and premuneration; places with salaries dis- judices of some of our towns, fostered a agreeably distinguished from the former ; } spirit of politeness, and, as far as it is fellowships without salaries ; and scholar- possible, destroyed pedantry, ships, a title still more disagreeable, which Scarcely anything has been written has since been suppressed. The Academy } against the French Academy, except friof the Belles-lettres was put on the same { volous and insipid pleasantries. St. Evrefooting; both submitted to the immediate { mond's comedy of The Academicians had control of the secretary of state, and to some reputation in its time; but a proof the revolting distinction of honoraries, { of the little merit it possessed is, that it pensionaries, and pupils.

is now forgotten; whereas, the good saThe abbé Bignon ventured to propose tires of Boileau are immortal. the same regulation to the French Academy, of which he was a member ; but he

ADAM. was heard with unanimous indignation. The least opulent in the Academy were the first to reject his offers, and to prefer

So much has been said and so much liberty to pensions and honours. The written concerning Adam, his wife, the abbé Bignon, who, in the laudable inten- } Preadamites, &c., and the Rabbis have tion of doing good, had dealt too freely put forth so many idle stories respecting with the noble sentiments of his bre- Adam, and it is so dull to repeat what thren, never again set his foot in the others have said before, that I shall here French Academy.

hazard an idea entirely new,-one, at The word Academy became so cele- & least, which is not to be found in any brated, that when Lulli, who was a sort ancient author, father of the church, of favorite obtained the establishment of preacher, theologian, critic, or scholiast, his Opera, in 1692, he had interest enough with whom I am acquainted. I mean the to get inserted in the patent, that it was a profound secresy with respect to Adam Royal Academy of Music, in which Ladies { which was observed throughout the habiand Gentlemen "might sing without de- table earth, Palestine only excepted, until meaning themselves. He did not confer the time when the Jewish books began to the same honour on the dancers; the be known in Alexandria, and were tranpublic, however, have always continued slated into Greek under one of the Prolto go to the Opera, but never to the Acu- i emies. Still they were very little known; demy of Music.

for large books were very rare and very

SECTION I.

dear. Besides, the Jews of Jerusalem ; that the father and mother of the human were so incensed against those of Alex- race have ever been totally unknown to andria, loaded them with so many re- their descendants; so that the names of proaches for having translated their Bible Adam and Eve are to be found in no into a profane tongue, called them so } ancient author, either of Greece, of Rome, many ill names, and cried so loudly to the of Persia, or of Syria, por even amongst Lord, that the Alexandrian Jews concealed the Arabs, until near the time of Mahotheir translation as much as possible: it met It was God's pleasure, that the was so secret, that no Greek or Roman origin of the great family of the world author speaks of it before the time of the should be concealed from all but the emperor Aurelian.

smallest and most unfortunate part of The historian Josephus confesses, in that family. his answer to Appian, that the Jews had How is it that Adam and Eve have not long had any intercourse with other been unknown to all their children? nations :-“We inhabit,” says he, “a How could it be, that neither in Egypt country distant from the sea; we do not nor in Babylon was any trace-any traapply ourselves to commerce, nor have { dition of our first parents to be found? we any communication with other nations. Why were they not mentioned by Orpheus, Is it to be wondered at that our people, hy Linus, or by Thamyris ?-for if they dwelling so far from the sea, and affecting had said but one word of them, it would never to write, have been so little known?" undoubtedly have been caught by Hesiod,

Here it will probably be asked, how and especially by Homer, who speak of Josephus could say that his nation affected everything except the authors of the never to write anything, when they had human race. Clement of Alexandria, twenty-two canonical books, without } who collected so many ancient testimoreckoning the Targum by Onkelos. But nies, would not have failed to quote any it must be considered that twenty-two passage in which mention had been made small volumes were very little when com- of Adam and Eve. Eusebius, in his pared with the multitude of books pre- Universal History, has examined even served in the library of Alexandria, half the most donbtful testimonies, and would of which were burned in Cæsar's war. assuredly have made the most of the

It is certain that the Jews had wriiten smallest allusion, or appearance of an and read very little; that they were pro- } allusion, to our first parents. It is, then, foundly ignorant of astronomy, geometry, { sufficiently clear, that they were always geography, and physics; that they knew utterly unknown to the nations. nothing of the history of other nations ; We do, it is true, find among the and that in Alexandria they first began Brahınins, in the book entitled the Ezourto learn. Their language was a barba- veidam, the names of Adimo and of rous mixture of ancient Phænician and } Procriti his wife. But though Adimo corrupted Chaldee ; it was so poor, that has some little resemblance to our Adam, several moods were wanting in the con- the Indians reply—“We were a great jugation of their verbs,

people established on the banks of the Moreover, as they communicated nei- } Indus and the Ganges many ages before ther their books nor the titles of them to the Hebrew horde moved towards the any foreigner, no one on earth except Jordan. The Egyptians, the Persians, themselves had ever heard of Adum, or and the Arabs, came to us for wisdom Eve, or Abel, or Cain, or Noah. Abruhum and spices when the Jews were unknown alone was, in course of time, known to to the rest of mankind. We cannot have the Oriental nations: but no ancient taken our Adimo from their Adam: our people allowed that Abraham was the Procriti does not in the least resembre root of the Jewish vation.

Ere; besides, their history and ours are Such are the secrets of Providence, entirely different,

“ Moreover, the Veidam, on which the olive on which the fruitful one has been Ezourveidam is a commentary, is believed grafted. That the names of the authors by us to have been composed at a more of mankind should be unknown to manremote period of antiquity than the kind, is a mystery of the highest order. Jewish books; and the Veidam itself is I will venture to affirm, that it has rea newer law given to the Brahmins, fifteen quired a miracle thus to shut the eyes and hundred years after their first law, called ears of all nations—to destroy every moShasta or Shustu-bad.

nument, every memorial of their first Such, or nearly such, are the answers } father. What would Cæsar, Anthony, which the Brahmins of the present day { Crassus, Pompey, Cicero, Marcellus, or have often made to the chaplains of mer- Metellus have thought, if a poor Jew, chant vessels who have talked to them of while selling them balm, had said, “We Adam and Eve, and Cain and Abel, when all descend from one father, Damned the traders of Europe have gone, with Adam." All the Roman senate would arms in their hands, to buy their spices have cried, “Show us our genealogical and lay waste their country.

tree.” Then the Jew would have disThe Phænician Sanchoniathon, who played his ten generations, down to the certainly lived before the period at which time of Noah, and the secret of the iniwe place Moses, and who is quoted by {versal deluge. The senate would have Eusebius as an authentic author, gives asked him, how many persons there were ten generations to the human race, as in the Ark, to feed all the animals for ten dues Moses down to the time of Noah; } whole months, and during the following but, in these ten generations, he mentions year in which no food would be proneither Adam nor Eve, nor any of their duced? The pedlar would have said, descendants, not even Noah himself. “We were eight-Noah and his wife, The names, according to the Greek their three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet, translation by Philo of Biblos, are Æon, and their wives. All this family deGenos, Phor, Libun, Usou, Hulieus, scended in à right line from Adam. Chrisor, Tecnites, Agrove, Amine ; these Cicero, would, doubtless, have enare the first ten generations.

quired for the great monuments, the We do not see the name of Noah or of indisputable testimonies which Noah and Adam in any of the ancient dynastics of his children had left of our common Egypt: they are not to be found among father. After the deluge, he would have the Chaldeans; in a word, the whole said, the whole world would have reearth has been silent respecting them. sounded with the names of Adam and

It must be owned that such a silence Noah, one the father, the other the is unparelleled. Every people has at- restorer of every race.

These names tributed to itself some imaginary origin, { would have been in every mouth as soon yet none has approached the true one. as men could speak, on every parchment

We cannot comprehend how the father as soon as they could write, on the door of all nations has so long been unknown, of every house as soon as they could while, in the natural course of things, his build, on every temple, on every statue, bame should have been carried from and have you known so great a secret, mouth to mouth to the farthest corners of yet concealed it from us! The Jew the earth.

would have answered-It is because we Let us humble ourselves to the decrees are pure and you are impure. The Roman of that Providence which has permitted senate would have laughed and the Jew su astonishing an oblivion. All was would have been whipped : so much are mysterious and concealed in the nation men attached to their prejudices ! guided by God himself, which prepared the wey for Christianity, and was the wild

SECTION. II.

date of the Veidam, of the Shanscrit, or The pious Madame de Bourignon was any other of the ancient Asiatic books. sure that Adam was an hermaphrodite, } It is important to remark, that the Jews like the first men of the divine Plato. were not permitted to read the first chapter God had revealed a great secret to her; } of Genesis before they were twenty-tive but as I have not had the same revela- years old. Many rabbis have regarded tion, I shall say nothing of the matter.

the formation of Adam and Eve and their The Jewish Rabbis have read Adam's adventure as an allegory. Every celebooks, and know the names of his pre- brated nation of antiquity bas imagined ceptor and his second wife ; but as I some similar one; and, by a singular have not read our first parent's books, I concurrence, which marks the weakness shall remain silent. Some acute and of our nature, all have endeavoured to very learned persons are quite astonished explain the origin of moral and physical when they read the Veidam of the ancient evil, by ideas nearly alike. The ChalBrahmins, to find that the first man was deans, the Indians, the Persians, and the created in India, and called Adimo, which Egyptians, have accounted, in similar signifies the begetter, and his wife, Pro- ways, for that mixture of good and evil criti, signifying life. They say that the which seems to be a necessary appendage sect of the Brahmins is incontestably more

to our globe. The Jews, who went out ancient than that of the Jews; that it of Egypt, rude as they were, had yet was not until a late period that the Jews heard of the allegorical philosophy of the could write in the Canaanitish language, Egyptians. With the little knowledge since it was not until late that they esta- thus acquired, they afterwards mixed blished themselves in the little country of that which they received from the PhaCanaan. They say that the Indians were nicians, and from the Babylonians during always inventors, and the Jews always their long slavery. But as it is natural imitators; the Indians always ingenious, and very common for a rude nation to and the Jews always rude.' They say it imitate rudely the conceptions of a pois very hard to believe that Adam, who { lished people, it is not surprising that the was fair and had hair on their head, was Jews imagined a woman formed from the father to the Negroes, who are entirely side of a man, the spirit of life breathed black, and have black wool. What, in- { from the mouth of God on the face of deed, do they not say? As for me, I say } Adam-the Tigris, the Euphrates, the nothing : I leave these researches to the Nile, and the Oxus, having all the same reverend Father Berruyer, of the Society source in a garden, and the forbidden of Jesus. He is the most perfect Innocent }fruit, which brought death into the world, I have ever known : the book has been as well as physical and moral evil. Full burned, as that of a man who wished to of the idea which prevailed among the turn the Bible into ridicule ; but I am ancients, that the serpent was a very cunquite sure he had no such wicked end in ning animal, they had no great difficulty view.

in endowing it with understanding a speech.

This people, who then inhabited only The age for enquiring seriously whether a small corner of the earth, which they or not knowledge was infused into Adam, believed to be long, narrow, and flat, had passed by; those who so long agi- could easily believe that all men came tated the question, had no knowledge, { from Adam. They did not even know that either infused cr acquired.

the Negroes, with a conformation different It is as difficult to know at what time from their own inhabited immense rethe book of Genesis, which speaks of gions ; still less could they have any idea Adam, was written, as it is to know the of America.

SECTION III.

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