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of the largest and most beautiful countries because he always says true and useful upon earth; to drive them from it would things in a pleasing manner, because he have been a finer exploit than to abuse always gives both precept and example, them.

and because he is varied, passing with The Empress of Russia supplies a great perfect ease, and without ever failing in example. She takes from them Azoph purity of language, and Tangarok, Moldavia, Wallachia, and From grave to gay, from lively to severe. Georgia; she pushes her conquests to the His reputation among men of taste is ramparts of Erzerum ; she sends against proved by the fact, that his verses are them fleets from the remotest parts of the known by heart; and to philosophers it Baltic, and others covering the Euxine : must be pleasing to find that he is almost but she does not say in her manifestos, always in the right. that a pigeon whispered in Mahomet's į As we have spoken of the preference

which may sometimes be given to the

moderns over the ancients, we will here ART OF POETRY.

venture to presume that Boileau's Art of A MAN of almost universal learning~ Poetry is superior to that of Horace. Mea man even of genius, who joins philoso-thod is certainly a beauty in a didactic phy with imagination, uses, in his excel poem; and Horace has no method. We ient article ENCYCLOPEDIA, these remark- { do not mention this as a reproach ; for his able words:-“ If we except this Perrault, poem is a familiar epistle to the Pisos, and some others, whose merits the versi- and not a regular work like the Georgics : fier Boileau was not capable of appreciat- but there is this additional merit in Boiing,” &c.

leau, a merit for which philosophers This philosopher is right in doing justice should give him credit. to Claude Perrault, the learned translator The Latin Art of Poetry does not seem of Vitruvius, a man useful in more arts near so finely laboured as the French. than one, and to whom we are indebted | Horace expresses himself, almost throughfor the fine front of the Louvre and for { out, in the free and familiar tone of his other great monuments; but justice other epistles. He displays an extreme should also be rendered to Boileau. Had clearness of understanding and a refined he been only a versifier, he would scarcely | taste, in verses which are happy and have been known; he would not have been spirited, but often without connection, and one of the few great men who will hand sometimes destitute of harmony; he has down the age of Louis XIV. to posterity, not the elegance and correctness of Virgil. His tart Satires, his fine Epistles, and, | His work is very good, but Boileau's apabove all, his Art of Poetry, are master-pears to be still better : and, if we except pieces of reasoning as well as poetry :- the tragedies of Racine, which have the

sapere est principium et fons.”. The superior merit of treating the passions and art of versifying is, indeed, prodigiously surmounting all the difficulties of the difficult, especially in our language, where } stage, Despréaux's Art of Poetry is, inalexandrines follow one another two by { disputably, the poem which does most two; where it is rare to avoid monotony ; Į honour to the French language. where it is absolutely necessary to rhyme ; It is lamentable when philosophers are where noble and pleasing rhymes are too enemies to poetry. Literature should be limited in number; and where a word out } like the house of Mæcenas—" est locus of its place, or a harsh syllable, is suffi- < unicuique suus." cient to spoil a happy thought. It is like The author of the Persian Letters - 50 dancing on a rope in fetters; the greatest easy to write, and among which some are success is of itself nothing.

very pretty, others very bold, others inBoileau's Art of Poetry is to be admired, different, and others frivolous—this au


thor, I say, though otherwise much to be do to himself, did good to other princes recommended, yet having never been able against his will: this is proved by what to make verses, although he possesses you have said in your history of Brandenimagination and often superiority of style, burgh. makes himself amends, by saying that If that monarch were known only from " contempt is heaped upon poetry,” that his banishment of six or seven hundred “ lyric poetry is harmonious extrava- } thousand useful citizens—from his irrupgance," &c. Thus do men often seek to {tion into Holland, whence he was soon depreciate the talents which they cannot } obliged to retreat—from his greatness, attain.

which stayed him at the bank, while his “ We cannot reach it,” says Montaigne; } troops were swimming across the Rhine ; " let us revenge ourselves by speaking ill } if there were no other monuments of his of it.” But Montaigne, Montesquieu's glory than the prologues to his operas, fol predecessor and master in imagination and lowed by the battle of Hochstet, his per. philosophy, thought very differently of son and his reign would go down to pos poetry.

terity with but little eclat. But the enHad Montesquieu been as just as he couragement of all the fine arts by his was witty, he could not but have felt that taste and munificence; the conferring of several of our fine odes and good operasso many benefits on the literary men of are worth infinitely more than the plea- other countries; the rise of his kingdom's santries of Rica to Usbeck, imitated from commerce at his voice; the establishment Dufréni's Siamois, and the details of what of so many manufactories; the building passed in Usbeck's seraglio at Ispa- of so many fine citadels; the construction

of so many admirable ports ; the union of We shall speak more fully of this too the two seas by immense labour, &c., still frequent injustice, in the article Critic oblige Europe to regard Louis XIV. and

his age with respect.

And, above all, those great men, unique ARTS, FINE ARTS.

in every branch of art and science, whom [ARTICLE DEDICATED TO THE KING OF nature then produced at one time, will PRUSSIA.]

render his reign eternally memorable. The

age was greater than Louis XIV., but it SIRE,- The small society of amateurs, shed its glory upon him. a part of whom are labouring at these Emulation in art has changed the face rhapsodies at Mount Krapak, will say no- } of the continent, from the Pyrenees to the thing to your majesty on the art of war. Icy Sea. There is hardly a prince in GerIt is an heroic, or-it may be--an abo- many who has not made useful and glominable art. If there were anything fine rious establishments. in it, we would tell your majesty, with- What have the Turks done for glory? out fear of contradiction, that you are the Nothing. They have ravaged three emfinest man in Europe.

pires and twenty kingdoms; but any one You know, Sire, the four ages of the city of ancient Greece will always have a arts. Almost everything sprung up and greater reputation than all the Ottoman was brought to perfection under Louis together. XIV.; after which many of these arts, See what has been done in the course banished from France, went to embellish of a few years at Petersburgh, which was ad enrich the rest of Europe, at the fatal a bog at the beginning of the seventeenth period of the destruction of the celebrated century. All the arts are there asseredict of Henry IV.-pronounced irrevo- } bled, while in the country of Orpheus, able, yet so casily revoked. Thus, the Linus, and Ilomer, they are annilsgreatest injury which Louis XIV. could lated.


That the Recent Birth of the Arts proves earth. Pomponatius used to say—“ Se

declination of atoms one day formed our not the Recent Formation of the Globe. il mondo non é eterno, per tutti santi e

All philosophers have thought matter molto vecchio.”—“ If this world be not eternal; but the arts appear to be new. eternal-by all the saints, it is very old.” Even the art of inaking bread is of recent Slight Inconveniences attached to the Arts. origin. The first Romans ate boiled grain; those conquerors of so many nations had They who handle lead and quicksilver neither wind-mills nor water-mills. This are subject to dangerous colics, and very truth seems, at first sight, to controvert serious affections of the nerves. They the doctrine of the antiquity of the globe who use pen and ink are attacked by ver as it now is, or to suppose terrible revo-} min, which they have continually to shake lutions in it. Irruptions of barbarians can off ; these vermin are some ex.jesuits, who hardly annihilate arts which have become employ themselves in manufacturing necessary. Suppose that an army of Ne- libels: You, Sire, do not know this race groes were to come upon us, like locusts, of animals; they are driven from your from the mountains of southern Africa, states, as well as from those of the Emthrough Monomotapa, Monoëmugi, &c., press of Russia, the King of Sweden, and traversing Abyssinia, Nubia, Egypt, Syria, the King of Denmark, my other protectors Asia Minor, and all Europe, ravaging and The ex-jesuits Polian and Nonotte, who overturning everything in its way: there like me cultivate the fine arts, persecute would still be a few bakers, tailors, shoe-me even unto Mount Krapak, crushing makers, and carpenters left; the necessary me under the weight of their reputation, arts would revive ; luxury alone would and that of their genius, the specific grabe annihilated. Such was the case at the vity of which is still greater. Unless your fall of the Roman empire; even the art of majesty vouchsafe to assist me against writing became very rare ; nearly all those these great men, I am undone. which contribute to render life agreeable

ASMODEUS. were for a long time extinct. Now, we are every day inventing new ones.

No ope at all versed in antiquity is From all this, no well-grounded infer- ignorant that the Jews knew

othing of ence can be drawn against the antiquity the angels but from the Persians and of the globe. For, supposing that a flood Chaldeans, during the Captivity. It was of barbarians had entirely swept away the they, who, according to Calmet, taught arts of writing and making bread sup- them that there are seven principal angels posing even that we had had bread, or before the throne of the Lord. They also pens, ink, and paper, only for ten years-taught them the names of the devils. He the country which could exist for ten years whom we call Asmodeus, was named without eating bread or writing down its Hashmodaï or Chammadaï. “Weknow," thoughts, could exist for an age, or a hun- says Calmet, “ that there are various sorts dred thousand ages, without these helps. of devils, some of them princes and mas

It is quite clear that man and the other ter-demons, the rest subalterns." animals can very well subsist without How was it that this Hashmodaï was bakers, without romance-writers, and sufficiently powerful to twist the necks of without divines, as witness America, and seven young men who successively exas witness also three-fourths of our own poused the beautiful Sarah, a native of continent. The recent birth of the arts Rages, fifteen leagues from Ecbatana ? amongst us, does not prove the recent for- The Medes must have been seven times mation of the globe, as was pretended by as great Manichees as the Persians. The Epicurus, one of our predecessors in re- good principle gives a husband to this verie, who supposed that, by chance, the maiden; and behold ! the bad principle

this king of demons, Hashmodaï, destroys never lay a fish's heart upon the gridiron ? the work of the beneficent principle seven Why was not this expedient made use of times in succession.

in the affair of Martha Brossier ; that of But Sarah was a Jewess, daughter of the nuns of Loudun; that of the misthe Jew Raguel, and a captive in the tresses of Urban Gandier: that of La country of Ecbatana. How could a Me- Cadiére ; that of Father Girard; and those dian demon have such power over Jewish of a thousand other demoniacs in the bodies ? It has been thought that As- times when there were demoniacs ? modeus or Chan.madaï was a Jew like- The Greeks and Romans, who had so wise; that he was the old serpent which many philters wherewith to make themnad seduced Eve; and that he was pas- selves beloved, had others to cure love ; sionately fond of women, sometimes se- they employed herbs and roots. The ducing them, and sometimes killing their agnus castus had great reputation. The husbands through an excess of love and moderns have administered it to young jealousy.

nuns, on whom it has had but little Indeed the Greek version of the Book effect. Apollo, long ago, complained 10 of Tobit gives us to understand, that As- Daphne, that, physician as he was, he had modeus was in love with Sarah—“oti never yet met with a simple that would daimonion philei autein.” It was the cure loveopinion of all the learned of antiquity,

lleu mibi! quod nullis amor est medicabilis berbis, that the genii, whether good or evil, had

What balm can heal the wounds that love bas made! a great inclination for our virgins, and the fairies for our youths. Even the Scrip- The smoke of sulphur was tried ; but tures, accommodating themselves to our Ovid, who was a great master, declares weakness, and condescending to speak in { that this recipe was useless.the language of the vulgar, say figuratively, that “the sons of God saw the

Nec fugiat viro sulphure victus amor.

Sulphur-believe me-drives not love away. daughters of men, that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which The smoke from the heart or liver of a they chose."

fish was more efficacious against AsmoBut the angel Raphael, the conductor deus. The reverend father Calmet is of young Tobit, gives him a reason more consequently in great trouble, being unworthy of his ministry, and better calcu- able to comprehend how this fumigation lated to enlighten the person whom he is could act upon a pure spirit. But he guiding. He tells him that Sarah's seven might have taken courage from the recolhusbands were given up to the cruelty of lection, that all the ancients gave bodies Asmodeus, only because, like horses or to the angels and demons. They were mules, they had married her for their very slender bodies; as light as the small pleasure alone. “ Her husband," says particles that rise from a broiled fish; the angel, “ must observe continence with they were like smoke; and the smoke her for three days, during which time { from a fried fish acted upon them by they must pray to God together.” sympathy.

This instruction would seem to have Not only did Asmodeus flee, but been quite sufficient to keep off Asmo-Gabriel went and chained him in Upper deus; but Raphael adds, that it is also Egypt, where he still is. He dwells in necessary to have the heart of a fish grilled a grotto near the city of Saata or Taata. over burning coals. Why, then, was not Paul Lucas saw and spoke to him. They this infallible secret afterwards resorted to cut this serpent in pieces, and the pieces in order to drive the Devil from the bodies immediately joined again. To this fact of women ? Why did the apostles, who } Calmet cites the testimony of Paul Lucas, were sent on purpose to cast out devils, ļ which testimony I must also cite. It is

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thought that Paul Lucas's theory may be then greater than that of the body of a joined with that of the vampires, in the man or a beast, might force it to float. next compilation of the Abbé Guyon. Josephus's error consists in assigning a

false cause to a phenomenon which inay ASPHALTUS.

be perfectly true.

As for the want of fish, it is not increA Chaldee word, signifying a species dible. It is, however likely, that this of bitumen. There is a great deal of it in lake, which is fifty or sixty miles long, is the countries watered by the Euphrates : not all asphaltic, and that while receiving it is also to be found in Europe, but of a the waters of the Jordan it also receives bad quality. An experiment was made the fishes of that river : but perhaps the by covering the tops of the watch-houses $ Jordan too is without fish, and they are on each side of one of the gates of Ge- to be found only in the upper lake of neva: the covering did not last a year, 3 Tiberias. and the mine has been abandoned. How- Josephus adds, that the trees which ever, when mixed with rosin, it may be grow on the borders of the Dead Sea, used for lining cisterns : perhaps it will bear fruits of the most beautiful appearsome day be applied to a more useful ance, but which fall into dust if you purpose.

attempt to taste them. This is less pro The real asphaltus is that which was bable; and disposes one to believe that obtained in the vicinity of Babylon, and Josephus either had not been on the spot, with which it is said that the Greek fire or has exaggerated according to his own was composed.

and his countrymen's custom. No soil Several lakes are full of asphaltus, or a { seems more calculated to produce good bitumen resembling it, as others are as well as beautiful fruits than a salt and strongly impregnated with nitre. There sulphureous one, like that of Naples, of is a great sake of nitre in the desart of Catania, and of Sodom. Egypt, which extends from lake Mæris The Holy Scriptures speak of five cities to the entrance of the Delta; and it has being destroyed by fire from heaven. On no other name than the Nitre Lake. this occasion, natural philosophy bears

The Lake Asphaltites, known by the testimony in favour of the Old Testament name of Sodom, was long famed for its -although the latter has no need of it, bitumen ; but the Turks now make no use and they are sometimes at variance. We of it, either because the mine under the } have instances of earthquakes, accompawater is diminished, or because its qua- nied by thunder and lightning, which lity is altered, or because there is too have destroyed much more considerable much difficulty in drawing it from under towns than Sodom and Gomorrah. the water. Oily particles of it, and some- But the river Jordan necessarily dis times large masses separate, and float on charging itself into this lake without an the surface; these are gathered together, { outlet, this Dead Sea, in the same man mixed up, and sold for balm of Mecca. ner as the Caspian, must have existed as

Flavius Josephus, who was of that long as there has been a river Jordan ; country, says that, in his time, there were therefore, these towns could never stand no fish in the lake of Sodom, and the on the spot now occupied by the lake of water was so light that the heaviest bodies Sodom. The Scripture, too, says nothing would not go to the bottom. It seems at all about this ground being changed that he meant to say so heavy instead of so } into a lake; it says quite the contrary ;light. It would appear that he had not Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and made the experiment. After all, a stag- upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire, from nant water, impregnated with salts and the Lord out of heaven. And Abraham compact matter, its specific matter being got up early in the morning, and be looked

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