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tne hungry, and pacify the quarrels of } Constantine, prodigal as he was of hunian families—instead of giving scandal to the blood, did not carry his cruelty to so mad whole empire by your dissensions." and absurd an access, as to order his

But Osius addressed an obstinate audi- executioners to assassinate the man who tory. The council of Nice was assem- should keep an heretical book, while he bled, and the Roman empire was torn by suffered the heresiarch to live. a spiritual civil war. This war brought At court every thing soon changes. on others, and mutual persecution has Several non-consubstantial bishops, with continued froin age to age, unto this day. some of the eunuchs and the women,

The melancholy part of the affair was, spoke in favour of Arius, and obtained that as soon as the council was ended, the the reversal of the lettre-de cuchet. The persecution began; but Constantine, same thing has repeatedly happened in when he opened it, did not yet know how our modern courts, on similar occasions. he should act, nor upon whom the perse- The celebrated Eusebius, bishop of cution should fall. He was not a Chris- Cæsarea, known by his writings, which tian, though he was at the head of the evince no great discernment, strongly acChristians. Baptism alone then consti- cused Eustatius, bishop of Antioch, of tuted Christianity, and he had not been being a Sabellian; and Eustatius accused baptized; he had even re-built the Temple | Eusebius of being an Arian. A council of Concord at Rome. It was, doubtless, was assembled at Antioch ; Eusebius perfectly indifferent to him whether Alex-gained his cause ; Eustatius was disander of Alexandria, or Eusebius of placed; and the See of Antioch was Nicomedia, and the priest Arius, were offered to Eusebius, who would not acright or wrong ; it is quite evident, from cept it; the two parties armed against the letter given above, that he had a pro- } each other; and this was the prelude to found contempt for the dispute.

controversial warfare. Constantine, who But there happened that which always had banished Arius for not believing in happens and always will happen in every the consubstantial son, now banished court. The enemies of those who were Eustatius for believing in him ;-nor are afterwards named Arians, accused Euse- such revolutions uncommon. bius of Nicoinedia of having formerly St. Athanasius was then bishop of taken part with Licinius against the Em- } Alexandria: he would not admit Arius, peror.” “I have proofs of it,” said { whom the Emperor had sent thither, into Constantine in his letter to the church of the town, saying that “ Arius was excomNicomedia, “ from the priests and dea- {municated; that an excommunicated cons in his train whom I have taken, &c." {man ought no longer to have either home

Thus, from the time of the first greator country ; that he could neither eat nor council, intrigue, cabal, and persecution sleep anywhere; and that it was better to were established, together with the tenets obey God than man." A new council of the church, without the power to dero- } was forthwith held at Tyre, and new gate from their sanctity. Constantine lettres-de-cachet were issued. Athanagave the chapels of those who did not sius was removed by the Tyrian fathers, believe in the consubstantiality, to those } and banished to Treves. Thus Arius, who did believe in it; confiscated the pro- and Athanasius his greatest enemy, were perty of the dissenters to his own profit, condemned in turn by a man who was and used his despotic power to exile Arius not yet a Christian. and his partisans, who were not then the The two factions alike employed arti strongest. It has even been said, that office, fraud, and calumny, according to the his own private authority, he condemned old and eternal usage. Constantine lett to death whosoever should not burn the } them to dispute and cabal, for he had writings of Arius; but this is not true. other occupations. It was at that timo

that this good prince assassinated his son, { reigned in Italy, Illyria, and Africa, as his wife, and his nephew, the young guardian of the young Valentinian, proLicinius, the hope of the empire, who scribed the great Council of Nice; and was not yet twelve years old.

soon after, the Goths, Vandals, and BurUnder Constantine, Arius's party was gundians, who spread themselves over constantly victorious. The opposite party so many provinces, finding Arianism estahave unblushingly written, that one day blished in them, embraced it in order to St. Macarius, one of the most ardent fol- govern the conquered nations by the lowers of Athanasius, knowing that Arius religion of those nations. was on the way to the cathedral of Con- But the Nicean faith having been restantinople, followed by several of his ceived by the Gauls, their conqueror brethren, prayed so ardently to God to Clovis followed that communion for the confound this heresiarch, that God could } very same reason that the other Barbarinot resist the prayer : and immediately ans had professed the faith of Arius. all Arius's bowels passed through his fun- In Italy, the great Theodoric kept dament—which is impossible. But at peace between the two parties; and, at length Arius died.

last, the Nicean formula prevailed in the Constantine followed him a year after- East and in the West. wards; and, it is said, he died of leprosy. Arianism re-appeared about the midJulian, in his Cæsars, says that baptism, dle of the sixteenth century, favoured by which this emperor received a few hours the religious disputes which then divided before his death, cured no one of this Europe ; and it re-appeared, armed with distemper.

new strength and a still greater increduAs his children reigned after him, the } lity. Forty gentlemen of Vicenza formed Aattery of the Roman people, who had an academy, in which such tenets only long been slaves, was carried to such an were established as appeared necessary to excess, that those of the old religion made make men Christians. Jesus was achim a god, and those of the new made } knowledged as the Word, as Saviour, and him a saint. His feast was long kept, as judge; but his divinity, his consub together with that of his mother. stantiality, and even the Trinity, were

After his death, the troubles occasioned } denied. by the single word consubstantial, agitated Of these dogmatisers, the principal the empire with renewed violence. Con- } were Lælius, Socinus, Ochin, “Pazuta, stantius, son and successor to Constantine, and Gentilis, who were joined by Serimitated all his father's cruelties, and like vetus. The unfortunate dispute of the him held councils; which councils ana- } latter with Calvin is well known; they thematized one another. Athanasius went { carried on for some time an interchange over all Europe and Asia, to support his of abuse by letter, Servetus was so imparty; but the Eusebians overwhelmed prudent as to pass through Geneva, on him. Banishment, imprisonment, tumult, } his way to Germany. Calvin was cowardly murder, and assassination, signalized the enough to have him arrested, and barbarclose of the reign of Constantius. Julian, } ous enough to have him condemned to be the Church's mortal enemy, did his ut- roasted by a slow fire—the same punishmost to restore peace to the Church, but ment which Calvin himself had narrowly was unsuccessful. Jovian, and after him escaped in France. Nearly all the theoValentinian, gave entire liberty of con- } logians of that time were by turns perscience; but the two parties accepted it secuting and persecuted, executioners and only as the liberty to exercise their hatred } victims. and their fury.

The same Calvin solicited the death of Theodosius declared for the Council of } Gentilis at Geneva. He found five adNice : but the Empress Justina, who vocates to subscribe that Gentilis deserved

to perish in the flames. Such horrors covered by Newton, and the metaphysical were worthy of that abominable age. wisdom of Locke. Disputes on consub Gentilis was put in prison, and was onstantiality appear very dull to philosothe point of being burnt like Servetus: phers. The same thing happened to but he was better advised than the Newton in England as to Corneille in Spaniard; he retracted, bestowed the { France, whose Pertharite, Théodore, and inost ridiculous praises on Calvin, and } Récueil de Vers, were forgotten, while was saved. But he had afterwards the Cinna was alone thought of. Newton ill-fortune, through not having made was looked upon as God's interpreter, in terms with a bailiff of the canton of the calculation of Auxions, the laws of Berne, to be arrested as an Arian. There gravitation, and the nature of light. On were witnesses, who deposed that he had } his death, his pall was borne by the peers said that the words, trinity, essence, hy- and the chancellor of the realm, and his postusis, were not to be found in the remains were laid near the tombs of the Scriptures; and, on this deposition, the kings—than whom he is more revered. judges, who were as ignorant of the Servetus, who is said to have discovered meaning of hypostasis as himself, con- the circulation of the blood, was roasted demned him, without at all arguing the } by a slow fire, in a little town of the question, to lose his head.

Allobroges, ruled by a theologian of Faustus Socinus, nephew to Lælius { Picardy. Socinus, and his companions, were more

ARISTEAS fortunate in Germany; they penetrated into Silesia and Poland, founded churches Shall men for ever be deceived in the there, wrote, preached, and were success

most indifferent as well as the most seriful: but at length, their religion being ous things ? A pretended Aristeas would divested of almost every mystery, and a

į make us believe that he had the Old philosophical and peaceful rather than a Testament translated into Greek for the militant sect, they were abandoned ; and į use of Ptolemy Philadelphus – just as the the jesuits, who had more influence, per- Duke de Montausier had commentaries secuted and dispersed them.

written on the best Latin authors for the The remains of this sect in Poland, use of the Dauphin, who made no use of Germany, and Holland, keep quiet and them. concealed; but. in England, the sect has According to this Aristeas, Ptolemy, re-appeared with greater strength and burning with desire to be acquainted with eclât. The great Newton and Locke em- the Jewish books, and to know those laws braced it. Samuel Clarke, the celebrated { which the meanest Jew in Alexandria rector of St. James's, and author of an could have translated for fifty crowns, excellent book on the existence of God, determined to send a solemn embassy to openly declared himself an Arian, and the high-priest of the Jews of Jerusalem; his disciples are very numerous. He {to deliver a hundred and twenty thouwould never attend his parish church on sand Jewish slaves, whom his father the day when the Athanasian Creed was Ptolemy Soter had made prisoners in recited. In the course of this work will | Judea; and, in order to assist them in be seen, the subtleties which all these performing the journey agreeably, to give obstinate persons, who were not so much them about forty crowns each of our Christians as philosophers, opposed to money—amounting in the whole to fourthe purity of the Catholic faith.

teen millions, four hundred thousand of Although among the theologians of our livres, or about 576,0001. London there was a large flock of Arians, Ptolemy did not content himself with the public mind there has been more occu- }this unheard of liberality : he sent to the pied by the great mathematical truths dis- temple a large table of massive gold, en.


riched all over with precious stones, and } of thirty talents of silver—that is, of the had engraved upon it a chart of the Me- weight of about sixty thousand crowns, ander, a river of Phrygia, the course of { with ten purple robes, and a hundred which river was marked with rubies and pieces of the finest linen. emeralds. It is obvious how charming Nearly all this fine story is faithfully such a chart of the Meander must have } repeated by the historian Josephus, who been to the Jews. This table was loaded never exaggerates anything. St. Justin with two immense golden vases, still more improves upon Josephus; he says that richly worked. He also gave thirty other Ptolemy applied to King Herod, and not golden and an infinite number of silver } to the high-priest Eleazar. He makes

Never was a book so dearly paid { Ptolemy send two ambassadors to Herod for ; the whole Vatican library might be { —which adds much to the marvellousness had for a less amount.

of the tale ; for we know that Herod was Eleazar, the pretended high-priest of { not born until long after the reign of Jerusalem, sent ambassadors in his turn, } Ptolemy Philadelphus. who presented only a letter written upon It is needless to point out the profusion fine vellum in characters of gold. It was of anachronisms in these and all such an act worthy of the Jews, to give a bit romances, or the swarm of contradictions of parchment for about thirty millions of and enormous blunders into which the livres.

Jewish author falls in every sentence : Ptolemy was so much delighted with yet this fable was regarded for ages as an Eleazar's style, that he shed tears of joy. incontestable truth ; and, the better to

The ambassador dined with the king exercise the credulity of the human mind, and the chief priests of Egypt. When every writer who repeated it added or grace was to be said, the Egyptians { retrenched in his own way—so that, to yielded the honour to the Jews.

believe it all, it was necessary to believe With these ambassadors came seventy- { it in a hundred different ways. Some two interpreters, six from each of the smile at these absurdities which whole twelve tribes, who had all learned Greek { nations have swallowed, while others sigh perfectly at Jerusalem. It is really a over the imposture. The infinite diversity pity that of these twelve tribes ten were en- of these falsehoods multiplies the followtirely lost, and had disappeared from the ers of Democritus and Heraclitus. face of the earth so many ages before ;

ARISTOTLE. but Eleazar the high-priest, found them again, on purpose to send translators to It is not to be believed that AlexanPtolemy.

der's preceptor, chosen by Philip, was The seventy-two interpreters were shut wrong-headed and pedantic. Philip was up in the island of Pharos ; each of them assuredly a judge, being himself wellcompleted bis translation in seventy-two informed, and the rival of Demosthenes days, and all the translations were found in eloquence. to be word for word alike. This is called

Aristotle's Logic. the Septuagint or translation of the Seventy, though it should have been called Aristotle's logic- his art of reasoning, the translation of the Seventy-two. is so much the more to be esteemed, as

As soon as the king had received these } he had to deal with the Greeks, who books, he worshipped them—he was so were continually holding captious argugood a Jew. Each interpreter received | ments; from which fault his master three talents of gold ; and there were sent Plato was even less exempt than others. to the high-sacrificer, in return for his Take, for example, the article by which, parcament, ten couches of silver, a crown in the Phædon, Plato proves the imınorof gold, censers and cups of gold, a vase tality of the soul :

“Do you not say that death is the The master retorted the argument, sayopposite of life? Yes. And that they } ing—If you lose, you must pay; if you spring from one another? Yes. What gain, you must also pay ; for our bargain then is it that springs from the living ? is, that you shall pay me after the first The dead. And what from the dead ? cause that you have gained. The living. It is, then, from the dead It is evident that all this turns on an that all living things arise. Consequently, ambiguity. Aristotle teaches how to resouls exist after death in the infernal re- move it, by putting the necessary terms gions."

in the argumentSure and unerring rules were wanted A sum is not due until the day apto unravel this extraordinary nonsense, pointed for its payment:which through Plato's reputation, fasci- The day appointed is that when a cause nated the minds of men.

shall have been gained :It was necessary to show that Plato No cause has yet been gained :gave a loose meaning to all his words. Therefore the day appointed has not

Death does not spring from life; but yet arrived :the living man ceases to live.

Therefore the disciple does not yet owe The living springs not from the dead, anything. but from a living man who subsequently But not yet does not mean never. So dies.

that the disciple instituted a ridiculous Consequently, the conclusion that all } action. living things spring from dead ones, is The master, too, had no right to demand ridiculous. From this conclusion you anything, since the day appointed had not draw another, which is no way included arrived. He must wait until the disciple in the premises—that souls are in the in- bad pleaded some other cause. fernal regions after death.

Suppose a conquering people were to It should first have been proved that stipulate that they would restore to the dead bodies are in the infernal regions, conquered only one half of their ships ; and that the souls accompany them. then to have them sawed in two, and havThere is not a correct word in your ar- } ing thus given back the exact half

, were gument. You should have said—That to pretend that they had fulfilled the which thinks has no parts; that which } treaty. It is evident that this would be a has no parts is indestructible : therefore, very criminal equivocation. the thinking faculty in us, having no parts, Aristotle did, then, render a great seris indestructible.

vice to mankind, by preventing all ambiOr—the body dies because it is divisi- guity; for this it is which causes all misble; the soul is indivisible; therefore it understandings in philosophy, in theology, does not die. Then you would at least and in public affairs. have been understood.

The pretext for the unfortunate war of It is the same with all the captious rea- 1756 was an equivocation respecting sonings of the Greeks. A master taught } Acadia. rhetoric to his disciple, on condition that It is true that natural good sense, comhe should pay him the first cause that he }bined with the habit of reasoning, may guined.

dispense with Aristotle's rules. A man The disciple intended never to pay him. { who has a good ear and voice may sing He commenced an action against his well without musical rules; but it is better master, saying- I will never pay you any to know them. thing; for, if I lose my cause, I was not to pay you until I had gained' it; and if

His Physics. I gain it, my demand is, that I may not They are but little understood; but it pay you.

is more than probable that Aristotle un

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