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The belief in this nation's antiquity is the second chapter of the Koran, which favoured by the circumstance that no his- Mahomet had posted, he fell on his knees torian speaks of its having been subju- ( before him, and said, “O Mohammed, gated. It was not subdued even by son of Abdallah, son of Motalib, son of Alexander, nor by any king of Syria, nor Achem, thou art a greater poet than 1by the Romans. The Arabs, on the con- , thou art doubtless the prophet of God.” trary, subjugated a hundred nations, from The Arabs of Maden, Naid, and Sanaa, the Indus to the Garonne ; and, having were no less generous than those of the afterwards lost their conquests, they re- desert were addicted to plunder. Among tired into their own country, and did not them, one friend was dishonoured if he mix with any other people.

had refused his assistance to another. Having never been subject to nor mixed In their collection of verses, entitled with other nations, it is more than proba- Tograïd, it is related that, “ one day, in ble that they have preserved their man- the temple of Mecca, three Arabs were ners and their language. Indeed, Arabic { disputing on generosity and friendship, is, in some sense, the mother-tongue of all and could not agree as to which, among Asia as far as the Indus; or rather the those who then set the greatest examples prevailing tongue, for mother-tongues of these virtues, deserved the preference. have never existed. Their genius has some were for Abdallah, son of Giafar, never changed. They still compose their į uncle to Mahomet; others for Kaïs, son Nights' Entertainments, as they did when of Saad ; and others for Arabad, of the they imagined one Bac or Bacchus, who tribe of As. After a long dispute, they passed through the Red Sea with three agreed to send a friend of Abdallah to millions of men, women, and children ; him, a friend of Kaïs to Kaïs, and a friend who stopped the sun and moon, and made of Arabad to Arabad, to try them all streams of wine issue forth with a blow of three, and to come and make their report his rod, which, when he chose, he changed to the assembly.

“ Then the friend of Abdallah went and A nation so isolated, and whose blood said to him, “Son of the uncle of Mahoremains unmixed, cannot change its cha- met, I am on a journey, and am destitute racter. The Arabs of the desert have of everything.' Abdallah was mounted always been given to robbery, and those on his camel loaded with gold and silk; inhabiting the towns been fond of fables, { he dismounted with all speed, gave him poetry, and astronomy.

his camel, and returned home on foot. It is said, in the historical preface to “The second wentand made application the Koran, that when any one of their to his friend Kaïs, son of Saad. Kaïs tribes had a good poet, the other tribes was still asleep, and one of his domestics never failed to send deputies to that one asked the traveller what he wanted. The on which God had vouchsafed to bestow traveller answered, that he was the friend so great a gift.

of Kaïs, and needed his assistance. The The tribes assembled every year, by domestic said to him, “I will not wake representatives, in an open place named { my master; but here are seven thousand Ocad, where verses were recited, nearly pieces of gold, which are all that we at in the same way as is now done at Rome } present have in the house. Take also a in the garden of the academy of the Arca- camel from the stable, and a slave ; these dii'; and this custom continued until the will, I think, be sufficient for you until time of Mahomet. In his time, each one you reach your own house.' When Kaïs posted his verses on the door of the temple awoke, he chid the domestic for not havof Mecca.

ing given more. Labid, son of Rabia, was regarded as "The third repaired to his friend Arathe Homer of Mecca ; but, having seen bad, of the tribe of As. Arabad was blind,

into a serpent.

and was coming out of his house, leaning | teuch; it was a Chaldean word ;-a fresh on two slaves, to pray to God in the tem- proof that the Arabian author was in the ple of Mecca. As soon as he heard his neighbourhood of Chaldea. friend's voice, he said to him, I possess It has been thought that he might be a nothing but my two slaves; I beg that {Jew, because the Hebrew translator has you will take and sell them ; I will go to put Jehovah instead of El, or Bel, or the temple, as well as I can, with my Sadaï. But what man of the least inforstick.'

mation does not know that the word Je“ The three disputants, having returned hovah was common to the Phænicians, to the assembly, faithfully related what | the Syrians, the Egyptians, and every had happened. Many praises were be- people of the neighbouring countries ? stowed on Abdallah, son of Giafar-on A yet stronger proof-one to which Kaïs, son of Saad—and on Arabad, of the there is no reply—is the knowledge of tribe of As : but the preference was given astronomy which appears in the book of to Arabad."

Job. Mention is here made of the conThe Arabs have several tales of this stellations which we call Arcturus, Orion, kind; but our western nations have none. the Pleiades, and even of those of "the Our romances are not in this taste. We chambers of the south.” Now, the Hehave indeed, several which turn upon brews had no knowledge of the sphere; trick alone, as those of Boccacio, Guzman they had not even a term to express d'Alfarache, Gil Blas, &c.

astronomy; but the Arabs, like the Chal

deans, have always been famed for their On Job, the Arab.

skill in this science. It is clear that the Arabs at least pos- It does, then, seem to be thoroughly sessed noble and exalted ideas. Those proved, that the book of Job cannot have who are most conversant with the oriental been written by a Jew, and that it was anguages, think that the book of Job, anterior to all the Jewish books. Philo which is of the highest antiquity, was and Josephus were too prudent to count composed by an Arab of Idumea. The it among those of the Hebrew canon. It most clear and indubitable proof is, that is incontestibly an Arabian parable or the Hebrew translator has left in his trans- allegory. lation more than a hundred Arabic words, This is not all : we derive from it which, apparently, he did not understand. some knowledge of the customs of the

Job, the hero of the piece, could not be ancient world, and especially of Arabia. a Hebrew; for he says, in the forty- Here we read of trading with the Indies; second chapter, that having been restored {a commerce which the Arabs have in all to his former circumstances, he divided ages carried on, but which the Jews never his possessions equally among his sons even heard of. and daughters, which is directly contrary Here, too, we see that the art of writing to the Hebrew law.

was in great cultivation, and that they It is most likely that, if this book had already made great books. been composed after the period at which It cannot be denied that the commenwe place Moses, the author-who speaks } tator Calmet, profound as he is, violates of so many things, and is not sparing of all the rules of logic in pretending that examples—would have mentioned some } Job announces the immortality of the soul one of the astonishing prodigies worked and the resurrection of the body, when he by Moses, which were, doubtless, known says :to all the nations of Asia.

“For I know that my Redeemer liveth. In the very first chapter, Satan appears And though after my skin-worms debefore God, and asks permission to tempt stroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I Job. Satan was unknown in the Pente- see God. But ye should say, Why per


secute we him ?—seeing the root of the bius, and repeated word for word by matter is found in me. Be ye afraid of George Syncellus. From these fragthe sword : for wrath bringeth the punish- ments we find, that the Orientals of the ment of the sword, that ye may knowborders of the Euxine, in ancient times, there is a judgment.'

made Armenia the abode of their Gods. Can anything be understood by those in this they were imitated by the Greeks, words, other than his hope of being cured? who placed their deities on Mount OlymThe immortality of the soul, and the re-pus.

Men have always confounded surrection of the body at the last day, are

human with divine things. Princes built truths so indubitably announced in the their citadels upon mountains; therefore New Testament, and so clearly proved by they were also made the dwelling place the Fathers and the Councils, that there of the Gods, and became sacred. The is no need to attribute the first knowledge summit of Mount Ararat is concealed by of them to ai. Arab. These great myster in those mists, sometimes vouchsafing to

mists; therefore the Gods hid themselves ries are not explained in any passage of the Hebrew Pentateuch ; how then can appear to mortals in fine weather. they be explained in a single verse of

A God of that country, believed to Job, and that in so obscure a manner? have been Saturn, appeared one day to Calmet has no better reason for seeing in Xixuter, tenth king of Chaldea,--accordthe words of Job the immortality of the ing to the computation of Africanus, soul, and the general resurrection, than Abydenus, and Apollodorus, and said to he would have for discovering a disgrace

himful disease in the malady with which he

“On the fifteenth day of the month was afflicted. Neither physics nor logic Oësi, mankind shall be destroyed by a take the part of this commentator.

deluge. Shut

up close all your writings As for this allegorical book of Job:

in Sipara, the city of the sun, that the it being manifestly Arabian, we are at memory of things may not be lost. Build liberty to say that it has neither justness,

a vessel ; enter it with your relatives and method, nor precision. Yet it is perhaps

take with you birds and beasts; the most ancient book that has been stock it with provisions: and, when you written, and the most valuable monument

are asked, Whither are you going in that has been found on this side the Eu- { that vessel ? answer, “To the Gods, to phrates.

beg their favour for mankind.'”

Xixuter built his vessel, which was ARARAT.

two stadii wide, and five long ; that is, A MOUNTAIN of Armenia, on which the its width was two hundred and fifty geoArk rested. The question has long been metrical paces, and its length six hundred agitated, whether the Deluge was univer- and twer. ty-five. This ship, which was sal—whether it inundated the whole earth to go upon the Black Sea, was a slow without exception, or only the portion of sailer. The flood came. When it had the earth which was then known. Those ceased, Xixuter let some of his birds fly who have thought that it extended only out; but, finding nothing to eat, they reto the tribes then existing, have founded turned to the vessel. A few days aftertheir opinion on the inutility of flooding wards, he again set some of his birds at unpeopled lands, which reason seems liberty, and they returned with mud in very plausible. As for us, we abide by their claws. At last they went, and rethe Scripture text, without pretending to turned no more. Xixuter did likewise : explain it. But we shall take greater he quitted his ship, which had perched liberty with Berosus, an ancient Chaldean upon a mountain of Armenia, and he was writer, of whom there are fragments pre- seen no more : the Gods took him away, served by Abydenus, quoted by Euse- There is probably something historic in


this fable. The Euxine overflowed its thenes, Archimedes, have said, had they banks, and inundated some portions of witnessed the subtle cavillings which have territory ; and the King of Chaldea hast- cost so much blood ? tened to repair the damage. We have Arius has, even at this day, the honour in Rabelais tales no less ridiculous, of being regarded as the inventor of his founded on some small portion of truth. opinion, as Calvin is considered to have The ancier historians are, for the most been the founder of Calvinism The part, serious Rabelais.

pride in being the head of a sect, is the As for Mount Ararat, it has been as- second of this world's vanities; for that serted, that it was one of the mountains of conquest is said to be the first. Howof Phrygia, and that it was called by a ever, it is certain that neither Arius nor name answering that of ark, because it } Calvin is entitled to the melancholy glory was enclosed by three rivers

of invention. The quarrel about the There are thirty opinions respecting | Trinity existed long before Arius took this mountain. How shall we distinguish part in it, in the disputatious town of the true one ? That which the monks Alexandria, where it had been beyond now call Ararat, was, they say, one of the the power of Euclid to make men think limits of the terrestrial paradise,-a para- calmly and justly; There never was a dise of which we find but few traces. It eop more frivolous than the Alexanis a collection of rucks and precipices, drians; in this respect, they far exceeded covered with eternal snows. Tournefort even the Parisians. went thither by order of Louis XIV. to There must already have been warm seek for plants. He says that the whole } disputes about the Trinity ; since the paneighbourhood is horrible, and the moun- triarch, who composed the Alexandrian tain itself still mere so, that he found } Chronicle, preserved at Oxford, assures snow four feet thick, and quite chrys- { us, that the party embraced by Arius was tallised ; and that there are perpendicular supported by two thousand priests. precipices on every side.

We will here for the reader's conveThe Dutch traveller, John Struys, pre- nience, give what is said of Arius in a tends that he went thither also. He tells small book which every one may not have us that he ascended to the very top, to

at handcure a hermit afflicted with a rupture.

Here is an incomprehensible question, “ His hermitage,” says he, “was so { which, for more than sixteen hundred distant from the earth, that we did not years, has furnished exercise for curiosity reach it until the close of the seventh day, – for sophistic subtlety-for animositythough each day we went five leagues." }for the spirit of cabal—for the fury of If, in this journey, he was constantly as- dominion--for the rage of persecutionænding, this Mount Ararat must be for blind and sanguinary fanaticism-for thirty-five leagues high. In the time of barbarous credulity—and which has prothe Giants' war, a few Ararats piled one duced more horrors than the ambition of upon another would have made the ascent princes, which ambition has occasioned to the moon quite easy. John Struys, not a few. Is Jesus the Word? If he moreover, assures us, that the hermit be the Word, did he emanate from God whom he cured, presented him with a in Time or before Time? If he emanated cross, made of the wood of Noah's ark. } from God, is he co-eternal and consubTournefort had not this advantage.

stantial with him, or is he of a similar ARIANISM.

substance? Is he distinct from him, or

is he not? Is he made or begotten? The great theological disputes, for Can he beget in his turn? Has he patwelve hundred years, were all Greek. ternity? or productive virtue without What would Homer, Sophocles, Demos- paternity? Is the Holy Ghost made ?

or begotten? or produced ? or proceeding When he saw the flames of civil war from the Father or proceeding from the lighted among the scholastic brains, he Son? or proceeding from both? Can he sent the celebrated Bishop Osius with beget? can he produce ? is his hypostasis dissuasive letters to the two belligerent consubstantial with the hypostasis of the parties. “You are great fools,” he exFather and the Son ? and how is it that, pressly tells them in this letter, “to having the same nature—the same essence quarrel about things which you do not as the Father and the Son, he cannot do understand. It is unworthy the gravity the same things done by these persons of your ministry to make so much noise who are himself?

about so trifling a matter." These questions, so far above reason, By “so trifling a matter," Constantine certainly needed the decision of an infal- meant not what regards the Div.nity, but lible church.

the incomprehensible manner in which The Christians sophisticated, cavilled, they were striving to explain the nature of hated, and excommunicated one another, the Divinity. The Arabian patriarch, for some of these dogmas inaccessible to who wrote the history of the Church of human intellect, before the time of Arius Alexandria, makes Osius, on presenting and Athanasius. The Egyptian Greeks the Emperor's letter, speak in nearly the were remarkably clever; they would { following words-split a hair into four; but on this occa- “My brethren, Christianity is but just sion they split it only into three. Alex- beginning to enjoy the blessings of peace, andros, Bishop of Alexandria, thought and you would plunge it into eternal disproper to preach that God, being neces- cord. The Emperor has but too much sarily individual-single-a monade in reason to tell you, that you quarrel about the strictest sense of the word, this mo- a very trifling matter. Certainly, had the nade is trine.

object of the dispute been essential, Jesus The priest Arius, whom we call Arius, Christ, whom we all acknowledge as our was quite scandalised by Alexandros's } legislator, would have mentioned it. God monade, and explained the thing in quite would not have sent his son on earth, to a different way. He cavilled in part like { return without teaching us our catechism. the priest Sabellius, who had cavilled | Whatever he has not expressly told us, like the Phrygian Praxeas, who was a is the work of men, and error is their great caviller.

portion. Jesus has commanded you to Alexandros quickly assembled a small { love one another; and you begin by hating council of those of his own opinion, and one another, and stirring up discord in excommunicated his priest.' Eusebius, the empire. Pride alone has given birth bishop of Nieomedia, took the part of to these disputes ; and Jesus your master Arius. Thus the whole church was in a has commanded you to be humble. Not flame.

one among you can know whether Jesus The Emperor Constantine was a vil- is made or begotten. And in what does lain ; I confess it :-a parricide, who had } his nature concern you, provided your smothered his wife in a bath, cut his son's own is to be just and reasonable? What throat, assassinated his father-in-law, his has the vain science of words to do with brother-in-law, and his nephew ; I can- | the morality which should guide your not deny it:-a man puffed up with actions? You cloud our doctrines with pride, ar dimmersed in pleasure ; granted : { mysteries—you, who were designed to a detestable tyrant, like his children; strengthen religion by your virtues. Would transeat :--but he was a man of sense. you leave the Christian religion a mass of He would not have obtained the empire, sophistry? Did Christ come for this ? and subdued all his rivals, had he not Cease to dispute, humble yourselves, reasoned justly.

edify one another, clothe the naked, feed

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