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the little fiery crosses which all the work- { to be found worthy of God in following men found on their bodies when they } their footsteps in his kingdom, after the went to bed. They would have made an example of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joadmirable figure along with the globes. seph, Isaiah, and the other prophets of

The fact is, that the temple of the Jews Peter and Paul, and the apostles who was not rebuilt, and it may be presumed { were married.” never will be so. Here let us hold, and Some of the learned assert, that the not seek useless prodigies. Globi flam- name of St. Paul has been interpolated in marum-globes of fire, issue neither from this famous letter : however, Turrian and stones nor from earth. Ammianus, and all who have seen the letters of Ignatius those who have quoted him, were not in the library of the Vatican, acknowledge natural philosophers. Let the Abbé de that St. Paul's name appears there. And la Blétrie only look at the fire on St. Baronius does not deny that this passage John's day, and he will see that flame { is to be found in some Greek manuscripts : always ascends with a point, or in a cloud, } Non negamus in quibusdam græcis codiand never in a globe. This alone is suffi- cibus. But he asserts that these words cient to overturn the nonsense which he have been added by modern Greeks. comes forward to defend with injudicious In the old Oxford library, there was a criticism and revolting pride.

manuscript of St. Ignatius's letters in After all, the thing is of very little im- } Greek, which contained these words; but portance. There is nothing in it that it was, I believe, burned with many other affects either faith or morals; and histori- } books at the taking of Oxford by Cromcal truth is all that is here sought for.

well. There is still one in Latin in the

same library, in which the words Pauli et APOSTLES.

apostolorum have been effaced, but in such Their Lives, their Wives, their Children. a manner that the old characters may be

AFTER the article Apostle in the Ency- easily distinguished. clopedia, which is as learned as it is or

It is however certain, that this passage thodox, very little remains to be said. exists in several editions of these letters. But we often hear it asked—Were the } This dispute about St. Paul's marriage is, apostles married ? Had they any chil- } after all, a very frivolous one.

What dren? if they had, what became of those inatters it whether he was married or not, children? Where did the apostles live? } if the other apostles were married ? His Where did they write ? Where did they first Epistle to the Corinthians is quite die? Had they any appropriated dis- } sufficient to prove that he might be martricts? Did they exercise any civil min- ried, as well as the rest:istry? Had they any jurisdiction over

“Have we not power to eat and 10 the faithful ? Were they bishops? Had drink? Have we not power to lead abo it they an hierarchy, rites, or ceremonies ? a sister, a wife, as well as other apostles,

and as the brethren of the Lord, and CeWere the apostles married ?

phas? Or I only and Barnabas, have

not we power to forbear working ? Who There is extant a letter attributed to St. } goeth a warfare any time at his own Ignatius the Martyr, in which are these charges?" decisive words :

It is clear from this passage, that all “I call to mind your sanctity as I do the apostles were married, as well as St. that of Elias, Jeremiah, John the Baptist, Peter. And St. Clement of Alexandria and the chosen disciples Timothy, Titus, } positively declares that St. Paul nada wife. Evadius, and Clement; yet I do not The Roman discipline has changed, blame such other of the blessed as were which is no proof that the usage of the bound in the bonds of marriage, but hope primitive ages was not different.

I.

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Children of the Apostles. Where did the Apostles live? Where did Very little is known of their families.

they die ? St. Clement of Alexandria says that Peter According to Eusebius, James, surhad children, that Philip had daughters, named the Just, brother to Jesus Christ, and that he gave them in marriage. was in the beginning placed the first on the

The Acts of the Apostles specify St. } episcopul throne of the city of Jerusalem ; Philip, whose four daughters prophesied, these are his own words. So that, acof whom it is believed that one was cording to him, the first bishoprick was married, and that this one was St. Her- that of Jerusalem-supposing that the mione.

Jews knew even the name of bishop. It Eusebius relates that Nicholas, chosen does, indeed, appear very likely that the by the apostles to co-operate in the sacred brother of Jesus Christ should have been ininistry with St. Stephen, had a very } the first after him, and that the very city handsome wife, of whom he was jealons. { in which the miracle of our salvation was The apostles having reproached him with worked, should have become the metrohis jealousy, he corrected himself of it, polis of the Christian world. As for the brought his wife to them, and said, “ Í } episcopal throne, that is a term which Euam ready to yield her up; let him marry sebius uses by anticipation. We all know her who will.” The apostles, however, that there was then neither throne nor did not accept his proposal. He had by see. his wife a son and several daughters. Eusebius adds, after St. Clement, that

Cleophas, according to Eusebius and the other apostles did not contend with St. Epiphanius, was brother to St. Jo- St. James for this dignity. They elected seph, and father of St. James the Less, } him immediately after the Ascension. and of St. Jude, whom he had by Mary, {“Our Lord” says he, “after his resursister to the Blessed Virgin. So that St. rection, had given to James surnamed the Jude the Apostle was first cousin to Jesus Just, to John, and to Peter, the gift of Christ.

knowledge:"-very remarkable words. Hegesippus, quoted by Eusebius, tells Eusebius mentions James first, then John, us, that two grandsons of St. Jude were and Peter comes last. It seems but just informed against to the Emperor Domi- that the brother and the beloved disciple tian, as being descendants of David, and of Jesus should come before the man who having an incontestable right to the throne had denied him. Nearly the whole Greek of Jerusalem. Domitian, fearing that church and all the reformers ask, Where they might avail themselves of this right, } is Peter's primacy? The Catholics anput questions to them himself, and they swer-If he is not placed first by the Faacquainted him with their genealogy. The {thers of the Church, he is in the Acts of emperor asked them what fortune they the Apostles. The Greeks and the rest had. They answered, that they had thirty- reply, that he was not the first bishop; nine acres of land, which paid tribute, and the dispute will endure as long as the and that they worked for their livelihood. churches. He then asked them when Jesus Christ's St. James, this first bishop of Jerusakingdom was to come, and they told him, lem, always continued to observe the Mo“At the end of the world.” After which, saic law. He was a Rechabite ; he walked Domitian allowed them to depart in barefoot, and never shaved; went and peace; which goes far to prove that he prostrated himself in the Jewish temple was not a persecutor.

twice a day, and was surnamed by the This, if I mistake not, is all that is Jews Oblia, signifying the just. They at known about the children of the apostles. length applied to him to know who Jesus

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Christ was ; and, having answered that { chair, so splendidly inlaid, in the church Jesus was the son of man, who sat on the at Rome, can hardly have belonged to right hand of God, and that he should St. Peter : wood does not last so long ; come in the clouds, he was beaten to nor is it likely that St. Peter delivered his death. This was St. James the Less. lessons from this chair as in a school tho.

St. James the Greater was his uncle, roughly formed, since it is averred that brother to St. John the Evangelist, and the Jews of Rome were violent enemies son of Zebedee and Salome. It is asserted to the disciples of Jesus Christ. that Agrippa, king of the Jews, had him The greatest difficulty perhaps is, that beheaded at Jerusalem.

St. Paul, in his epistle written to the CoSt. John remained in Asia, and go- lossians from Rome, positively says that verned the church of Ephesus, where, it he was assisted only by Aristarchus, Maris said, he was buried.

cus, and another bearing the name of St. Andrew, brother to St. Peter, quitted { Jesus. This objection has, to men of the school of St. John for that of Jesus the greatest learning, appeared to be inChrist. It is not agreed whether he surmountable. preached among the Tartars or in Argos; In his letter to the Galatians, he says but, to get rid of the difficulty, we are that he obliged James, Cephas, and John, told that it was in Epirus. No one knows who seemed to be pillars, to acknowledge where he suffered martyrdom, nor even himself and Barnabas as pillars also. If whether he suffered it at all. The Acts be placed James before Cephas, then Ceof his martyrdom are more than suspected } phas was not the chief. Happily, thesc by the learned. Painters have always re- disputes affect not the foundation of our presented him on a saltier-cross, to which } holy religion. Whether St. Peter ever his name has been given. This custom was at Rome or not, Jesus Christ is no has prevailed without its origin being } less the son of God and the Virgin Mary; known.

he did not the less rise again ; nor did he St. Peter preached to the Jews dispersed } the less recommend humility and poverty; in Pontus, Bithynia, Cappadocia, at An- } which are neglected, it is true, but about tioch, and at Babylon. The Acts of the { which there is no dispute. Apostles do not speak of his journey to Callistus Nicephorus, a writer of the Rome, nor does St. Paul himself make } fourteenth century, says, that “ Peter was any mention of it in the letters which he tall, straight, and slender, his face long wrote from that capital. St. Justin is the and pale, his beard and hair short, curly, first accredited author who speaks of this and neglected—his eyes black, his nose journey, about which the learned are not long, and rather flat than pointed.” So agreed. St. Irenæus, after St. Justin, } Calmet translates the passage. expressly says, that St. Peter and St. Paul St. Bartholomew, a word corrupted came to Rome, and that they entrusted its from Bar. Ptolomaios, son of Ptolemy.government to St. Linus. But here is The Acts of the Apostles inform us that another difficulty: if they made St. Linus } he was a Galilean. Eusebius asserts that inspector of the rising Christian society at he went to preach in India, Arabia Felix, Rome, it must be inferred that they them- {Persia, and Abyssinia. He is believed selves did not superintend it, nor remain to have been the same with Nathanaël. in that city.

There is a gospel attributed to him : but Criticism has cast upon this matter a} all that has been said of his life and of his thousand uncertainties. The opinion that death is very uncertain. It has been asSt. Peter came to Rome in Nero's reign, serted that Astyages, brother to Polemon, and filled the pontifical chair there for King of Armenia, had him flayed alive; twenty-five years, is untenable, for Nero { but all good writers regard this story as reigned only thirteen years. The wooden fabulous.

St. Philip.--According to the apocry- { in Lybia, and thence into England. phal legends, he lived eighty-seven years, Others make him suffer martyrdom in and died in peace, in the reign of Trajan. Persia.

St. Thomas Didymus.-Origen, quoted St.Thaddæu or Lybeus.--the same with by Eusebius, says that he went and St. Jude, whom the Jews, in St. Matthew, preached to the Medes, the Persians, the call brother to Jesus Christ, and who, acCaramanians, the Baskerians, and the cording to Eusebius, was his first cousin. Magi—as if the Magi had been a people. All these relations, for the most part vague It is added, that he baptized one of the and uncertain, throw no light on the lives Magi, who had come to Bethlehem. The of the apostles. But if there is little to Manichees assert, that a man who had gratify our curiosity, there is much from stricken Thomas was devoured by a lion. 3 which we may derive instruction. Some Portuguese writers assure us that Two of the four gospels, chosen from he suffered martyrdom at Meliapour, in among the fifty-four composed by the first the peninsula of 1ndia. The Greek church Christians, were not written by apostles. believes that he preached in India, and St. Paul was not one of the Twelve that from thence his body was carried to Apostles; yet he contributed more than Edessa. Some monks are further induced any other to the establishment of Christiato believe that he went to India, by the nity. He was the only man of letters circumstance, that, about the end of the among them. He had studied under Gafifteenth century, there were found, near maliel. Festus himself, the governor of the coast of Ormuz, some families of Nes- } Judea, reproaches him with being too torians, who had been established there learned ; and, unable to comprehend the by a merchant of Moussoul, named sublimities of his doctrine, he says to hiin, Thomas. The legend sets forth that he Insanis, Paule, multa te litteræ ad inbuilt a magnificent palace for an Indian ? saniam convertunt”-Paul, thou art beking, named Gondaser : but all these side thyself; much learning doth make stories are rejected by the learned. thee mad.

St. Matthias. No particulars are In his first epistle to the Corinthians, known of him. His life was not found he calls himself sent :until the twelfth century, by a monk of “ Am I not an apostle? Am I not the abbey of St. Matthias of Treves. He free? Have I not seen Jesus Christ our said, he had it from a Jew, who translated Lord ? Are ye not my work in the Lord ? it for him from Hebrew into Latin. If I am not an apostle unto others, yet,

St. Matthew.-According to Rufinus, { doubtless, I am unto you," &c. Socrates, and Abdias, he preached and He might, indeed, have seen Jesus, died in Ethiopia. Heracleon makes him while he was studying at Jerusalem under live a long time, and die a natural death. { Gamaliel. Yet it may be said, that this But Abdias says, that Hyrtacus, King of was not a reason which could authorise his Ethiopia, brother to Eglypus, wishing to apostleship. He had pot been one of the marry his niece Iphigenia, and finding that disciples of Jesus ; øn the contrary, he he could not obtain St. Matthew's per- had persecuted them, and had been an inission, had his head struck off, and set accomplice in the death of St. Stephen. fire to Iphigenia's house. He, to whom It is astonishing that he does not rather we owe the most circumstantial gospel justify his voluntary apostleship by the that we possess, deserved a better histo- miracle which Jesus Christ afterwards rian than Abdias.

worked in his favour-by the light from St. Simon the Canaanite, whose feast is heaven which appeared to him at midcommonly joined with that of St. Jude.- day and threw him from his horse, and Of his life nothing is known. The mo- } by his being carried up to the third dern Greeks say, that he went to preach } heaven.

St. Epiphanius quotes Acts of the Acts of the Apostles, which were inspired Apostles, believed to have been com- by the Holy Ghost, and therefore outposed by those Christians called Ebio-weigh the testimony of St. Jerome, nites, or poor, and which were rejected { learned as he might be. by the church-acts very ancient, it is Every particular relative to St. Peter true, but full of abuse of St. Paul. and St. Paul is interesting. If Nice

In them it is said that St. Paul was phorus has given us a portrait of the one, born at Tarsus of idolatrous parents, the Acts of St. Thecla, which, though utroque parente gentili procreatus—that, not canonical, are of the first century, having come to Jerusalem, where he re- have furnished us with a portrait of the mained some time, he wished to marry other. He was, say these Acts, short in the daughter of Gamaliel ; that, with this stature, his head was bald, his thighs were design he became a Jewish proselyte, and } crooked, his legs thick, his nose aquiline, got himself circumcised; but that, not his eyebrows joined, and he was full of obtaining this virgin (or not finding her a { the grace of God.-Staturà brevi, &c. virgin) his vexation made him write These Acts of St. Paul and St. Thecla against circumcision, against the sabbath, were, according to Tertullian, composed and gainst the whole law.

by an Asiatic, one of Paul's own disci“Quumque Hierosolymam accessisset, ples, who at first put them forth uner ibidem aliquandiù mansisset, pontificis ( der the Apostle's name; for which he filiam ducere in animum induxisse, et was called to account and displaced, eam ob rem proselytum factum, atque that is, excluded from the assembly; for circumcisum esse ; posteà quòd virginem } the hierarchy, not being then established, eam non accepisset, succensuisse, et ad- no one could, properly speaking, be disversus circumcisionem, ac sabbathum, } placed. totamque ltyem scripsisse."

These injurious words show, that these Under what Discipline did the Apostles primitive Christians, under the name of the poor, were still attached to the sab- and Primitive Disciples live ? bath and to circumcision, resting this at- It appears that they were all equal. tachment on the circumcision of Jesus Equality was the great principle of the Christ and his observance of the sabbath;} Essenians, the Rechabites, the Therapuand that they were enemies to St. Paul, tæ, the disciples of John, and especially regarding him as an intruder who sought} those of Jesus Christ, who inculcated it to overturn everything. In short, they more than once. were heretics : consequently, they strove St. Barnabas, who was not one of the to defame their enemies, an excess of Twelve Apostles, gave his voice along which party spirit and superstition are too with theirs. St. Paul, who was still less often guilty.

a chosen apostle during the life of Jesus, St. Paul, too, calls them“ false apos- not only was equal to them, but had a Les, deceitful workers," and loads them sort of ascendancy; he rudely rebukes with abuse. In his Letter to the Philip- St. Peter. pians, he calls them dogs.

When they are assembled together, we St. Jerome asserts that he was born at { find among them no superior. There was Gisceala, a town of Galilee, and not at no presiding, not even in turn. They did Tarsus. Others dispute his having been not at first call themselves bishops. St. a Roman citizen : because at that time Peter gives the name of bishop, or the where were no Roman citizens at Tarsus, equivalent epithet, only to Jesus Christ, nor at Galgala, and Tarsus was not a whom he calls the inspector of souls. Roman colony until about a hundred This name of inspector or bishop was afyears after. But we must believe the į terwards given to the ancients, whom we

IV.

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