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XXVII.

and burns itself in Egypt in the city of “ All the things which you have learned Heliopolis." But there is nothing extra- from John are true: believe in thein ; ordinary in St. Clement's having believed persevere in your belief; keep your vow this fable which so many others believed, } of Christianity. I will come and see nor in his having written letters to the you with John, you and those who are Corinthians.

with you. Be firm in the faith ; act It is known that there was at that time like a man ; let not severity and persecua great dispute between the church of tion disturb you; but let your spirit be Corinth and that of Rome. The church strengthened and exalted in God your of Corinth, which declared itself to have Saviour. Amen." been founded the first, was governed in It is asserted that these letters were common: there was scarcely any dis- written in the year 116 of the Christian tinction between the priests and the secu- era, but they are not therefore the less lars, still less between the priests and the false and absurd. They would even have bishop; all alike had a deliberative voice; been an insult to our holy religion, had so, at least, several of the learned assert. they not been written in a spirit of simSt. Clement says to the Corinthians in plicity, which renders everything pardonhis first epistle“ You have laid the first able. foundations of sedition; be subject to your priests,correct yourselves by penance, bend

Fragments of the Apostles. - We find the knees of your hearts, learn to obey." } in them this passage—“ Paul, a man of It is not at all astonishing that a bishop short stature, with an aquiline nose and of Rome should use these expressions. an angelic face, instructed in heaven, said

In the second epistle we again find that to Plantilla, of Rome, before he died, answer of Jesus Christ, on being asked. Adieu, Plantilla, thou little plant of when his kingdom of heaven should come eternal salvation ; know thy own nobility; _“When two shall make one, whenthou art whiter than snow; thou art rethat which is without shall be within, gistered among the soldiers of Christ; when the male shall be female, when thou art an heiress to the kingdom of there shall be neither male nor female." heaven.'” This was not worthy to be re

futed. Letter from St. Ignatius the martyr to the Virgin Mary, and the Virgin's An- Eleven Apocalypses, which are attriswer to St. Ignatius :

buted to the patriarchs and prophets, to “ To Mary the Mother of Christ her Stephen the first martyr, two to St. John,

St. Peter, Cerinthus, St. Thomas, St. devoted Ignatius.

differing from the canonical one, and “ You should console me, a neophite, three to St. Paul. All these Apocalypses and a disciple of your John. I have have been eclipsed by that of St. John. heard several wonderful things of your Jesus, at which I have been much astonished. I desire with all my heart to be The Visions, Precepts, and Similitudes informed of them by you, who always of Hermas. Hermas seems to have lived in familiarity with him, and knew } lived about the close of the first century. all his secrets. Fare you well. Com- They who regard his book as apocryphal, fort the neophytes, who are with me from are nevertheless obliged to do justice tó you and through you. Amen." his morality. He begins by saying, that

his foster-father had sold a young woman The Holy Virgin's Answer to her dear at Rome. Hermas recognised this young Disciple Ignatius.

woman after the lapse of several years, « The humble servant of Jesus Christ. and loved her, he says, as if she had been

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XXVI.

XXVIII.

XXIX.

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tains many;

his sister. He one day saw her bathing mandments without these maidens, who n the Tiber : he stretched forth his hand, it is plain typify the virtues. drew her out of the river, and said in his This list would become immense if we heart, “How happy should I be, if I had were to enter into every detail. We will

wife like her in beauty and in man- } carry it no further, but conclude with the hers.” Immediately the heavens opened ; Sibyls. and he all at once beheld this same wife, who made him a curtsey from above, and The Sibyls.—What is most apocryphal said, “Good morning, Hermas." This { in the primitive church is, the prodigious wife was the Christian Church; she gave number of verses in favour of the Chrishim much good advice.

tian religion attributed to the ancient A year after, the spirit transported him sibyls. Diodorus Siculus_knew of only to the same place where he had seen this one, who was taken at Thebes by the beauty, who nevertheless was old; but { Epigoni, and placed at Delphos before she was fresh in her age, and was old the Trojan war. Ten sibyls—that is, ten only because she had been created from prophetesses, were soon made from this the beginning of the world, and the world one. She of Cuma had most credit had been made for her.

among the Romans, and the sibyl EryThe Book of Precepts contains fewer threa among the Greeks. allegories; but that of Similitudes con- As all oracles were delivered in verse,

none of the sibyls could fail to make “One day," says Hermas, “when Iverses; and to give them greater authowas fasting and was seated on a hill, giv- }rity, they sometimes made them acrosing thanks to God for all that he had donetics also. Several Christians, who had for me, a shepherd came, sat down be- not a zeal according to knowledge, not side me, and said, 'Why have you come only misinterpreted the ancient verses here so early ? . Because I am going supposed to have been written by the sithrough the stations,' answered I. "What byls, but also made some themselves, is a station ? asked the shepherd. “It is and which is worse, in acrostics, not a fast.' And what is this fast ?' 'It is dreaming that this difficult artifice of my custom.' 'Ah!'replied the shepherd, acrosticising had no resemblance what‘you know not what it is to fast; all this ever to the inspiration and enthusiasm of is of no avail before God. I will teach a prophetess. They resolved to support you that which is true fasting and pleasing the best of causes by the most awkward to the Divinity. Your fasting has nothing } fraud. They accordingly made bad to do with justice and virtue. Serve God | Greek verses, the initials of which signiwith a pure heart; keep his command-fied in Greek — Jesus, Christ, Son, ments : admit into your heart no guilty de- } SavioUR ; and these verses said, that signs. If you have always the fear of { with five loaves, and two fishes, he should God before your eyes—if you abstain feed five thousand men in the desert, and from all evil, that will be true fasting, } that with the fragments that remained he that will be the great fast which is accept- { should fill twelve baskets. able to God.'”

The millenium, and the New JerusaThis philosophical and sublime piety is lem, which Justin had seen in the air for one of the most singular monuments of forty nights, were, of course, foretold by the first century. But it is somewhat the sibyls. strange that, at the end of the Similitudes, In the fourth century, Lactantius colthe shepherd gives him very good na- } lected almost all the verses attributed to tured maidens--valdè affabiles,—to take the sibyls, and considered them as concare of his house, and declares to him vincing proofs. The opinion was so well that he cannot fulfil God's command authorised and so long held, that we still

sing hymns, in which the testimony of the philosophers, who were of the ancient resibyls is joined with the predictions of ligion of Rome. It is very probable that Darid:

he professed that of his uncle ConstanSolvet saeclum in favillà,

tius only to avoid assassination. Julian Teste David cum Sibyllà. This catalogue of errors and frauds has was obliged to conceal his mental powers,

as Brutus had done under Tarquin. He been carried quite far enough. A hundred might be repeated—so constantly

was the less likely to be a Christian, has the world been composed of deceiv- as his uncle had forced him to be a monk, ers, and of people fond of being deceived. and to perform the office of reader in the But let us pursue no further so dange- of his persecutor, especially when the

church. A man is rarely of the religion rous a research. The elucidation of one great truth is worth more than the disco | latter wishes to be ruler of his conscience.

Another circumstance which renders very of a thousand falsehoods.

Not all these errors—not all the crowd this probable is, that he does not say, in of apocryphal books, have been sufficient any of his works, that he had been a to injure the Christian religion, because, of the pontiffs of the ancient religion.

Christian. He never asks pardon for it as we all know, it is founded upon im- He addresses them in his letters, as if he mutable truths. These truths are sup- } had always been attached to the worship ported by a church militant and trium- of the senate. It is not even proved that phant, to which God has given the power he practised the ceremonies of the Tauof teaching and of repressing. In several countries, it unites temporal with spi

robolium, which might be regarded as a ritual authority. Prudence, strength,

sort of expiation, and that he desired to

wash out with bull's blood that which he wealth, are its attributes; and although it

so unfortunately called the stain of his is divided, and its divisions have sometimes stained it with blood, it may be baptism. However, this was a pagan compared to the Roman commonwealth form of devotion, which is no more a proof -constantly torn by intestine dissensions,

than the assembling at the mysteries of

Ceres. but constantly triumphant.

In short, neither his friends por

his enemies relate any fact, any words, APOSTATE.

which can prove that he ever believed in It is still a question among the learned, } Christianity, and that he passed from that whether the Emperor Julian was really sincere belief to the worship of the gods an apostate, and whether he was ever of the empire. truly a Christian.

If such be the case, they who do not He was not six years old when the speak of him as an apostate, appear very Emperor Constantius, still more barba- { excusable. rous than Constantine, had his father, his Sound criticism being brought to perbrother, and seven of his cousins mur- }fection, all the world now acknowledges dered. He and his brother Gallus with that the Emperor Julian was a hero and difficulty escaped from this carnage ; but a wise man—a stoic, equal to Marcus he was always very harshly treated by Aurelius. His errors are condemned, Constantius. His life was for a long } but his virtues are admitted. He is now time threatened ; and he soon beheld his regarded as he was by his contemporary only remaining brother assassinated by Prudentius, author of the hymn Salvete the tyrant's order. The most barbarous flores martyrum. He says of Julianof the Turkish sultans have never, I am sorry to say it, surpassed in cruelty or

Consultor patriae ; sed non consultor habenda in villainy the Constantine family. From his tenderest years, study was Julian's

Though great in arms, in virtues, and in laws,only consolation. He communicated in Though ably zealous in his country's cause, secret with the most illustrious of the Rejecting God while benetitting man,

Ductor fortissimus arın is, Conditor et legum celeberrimus; ore manuque

Religionin, amans tercentum millia divům
Pertidus ille Deo, sed oon est pe: hdus orbi.

He spurned religio in his lofty plan,

His detractors are reduced to the mise- { with anger ! You have been guilty of the rable expedient of striving to make him same excesses with which you reproaca appear ridiculous. One historian, on the your enemies ! George deserved to be so authority of St. Gregory Nazianzen, re- } treated, but it was not for you to be his proaches him with having worn too large executioners. You have laws; you should a beard. But, my friend, if nature gave have demanded justice," &c. him a long beard, why should he wear it Some have dared to brand Julian with short ? He used to shake his heud. Carry the epithets intolerant and persecutingthy own better. His step was hurried. { the man who sought to extirpate persecuBear in mind that the Abbé D'Aubignac, {tion and intolerance! Peruse his fiftythe king's preacher, having been hissed at second letter, and respect his memory. the play, laughs at the air and gait of the { Is he not sufficiently unfortunate in not great Corneille. Couldst thou hope to having been a Catholic, and consequently turn Marshal De Luxembourg into ridi- } in being burned in hell, together with the cule, because he walked ill and his figure innumerable multitude of those who have was singular? He could march very well not been Catholics, without our insulting against the enemy. Let us leave it to the him so far as to accuse him of intolerance? ex-jesuit Patouillet, the ex-jesuit Nonotte, &c., to call the Emperor Julian—the } On the Globes of Fire said to have issued Apostate. Poor creatures! His Christian

from the Earth to prevent the re-buildsuccessor, Jovian, called him Divus Ju- ing of the Temple of Jerusalem under lianus.

the Emperor Julian. Let us treat this mistaken emperor as It is very likely that, when Julian rehe himself treated us. He said, “We solved to carry the war into Persia, he wantshould pity and not hate them : they are ed money. It is also very likely that the already sufficiently unfortunate in erring Jews gave him some for permission to reon the most important of questions.” build their temple, which Titus had partly

Let us have the same compassion for destroyed, but of which there still remained him, since we are sure that the truth is on the foundations, an entire wall, and the our side.

Antonine tower. But is it as likely that He rendered strict justice to his sub-globes of fire burst upon the works and jects; let us then render it to his memory. } the workmen, and caused the undertaking Some Alexandrians were incensed against { to be relinquished? a bishop, who, it is true, was a wicked Is there not a palpable contradiction in man, chosen by a worthless cabal. His what the historians relate? name was George Biordos, and he was the 1. How could it be that the Jews began son of a mason. His manners were lower { by destroying (as they are said to have than his birth. He united the basest per- done) the foundations of the temple, which fidy with the most brutal ferocity, and it was their wish and their duty to rebuild superstition with every vice. A calum- on the same spot? The temple was neniator, a persecutor, and an impostor- cessarily to be on Mount Moriah. There avaricious, sanguinary, and seditious, he it was that Solomon had built it. There was detested by every party, and at last { it was that Herod had rebuilt it, with the people cudgelled him to death. The greater solidity and magnificence, having following is the letter which the Emperor previously erected a fine theatre at JeruJulian wrote to the Alexandrians, on the salem, and a temple to Augustus at subject of this popular commotion. Mark, } Cæsarea. The foundations of this temple, how he addresses them, like a father and enlarged by Herod, were, according to a judge :

Josephus, as much as twenty-five feet “What !" said he, instead of reserving broad. Could the Jews, in Julian's time, for me the knowledge of your wrongs, you possibly be mad enough to wish to dishave suffered yourselves to be transported arrange these stones, which were so well

prepared to receive the rest of the edifice, {cal probability, then, from the Emperor's and upon which the Mahometans after- own words, is, that unfortunately holding wards built their mosque? What man the Jewish books, as well as our own, in was ever foolish and stupid enough thus abhorrence, he at length resolved to make to deprive himself, at great cost and ex- } the Jewish prophets lie. cessive labour, of the greatest advantage The Abbé de la Blétrie, the historian that could present itself to his hands and of the Emperor Julian, does not undereyes ? Nothing is more incredible. stand how the temple of Jerusalem was

2. How could eruptions of flame burst destroyed three times. He says that apforth from the interior of these stones! parently Julian reckoned as a third deThere might be an earthquake in the struction the catastrophe which happened neighbourhood, for they are frequent in during his reign. A curious destruction Syria : but that great blocks of stone this !--the non-removal of the stones of should have vomited clouds of fire! Is an old foundation. What could prevent not this story entitled to just as much this writer from seeing that the temple. credit as all those of antiquity ?

having been built by Solomon, recon3. If this prodigy, or if an earthquake, } structed by Zorobabel, entirely destroyed which is not a prodigy, had really hap- by Herod, rebuilt by Herod himself with pened, would not the Emperor Julian so much magnificence, and at last laid in have spoken of it in the letter in which ruins by Titus, manifestly made three dehe says, that he had intended to rebuild {structions of the temple? The reckoning this temple? Would not his testimony is correct. Julian should surely have have been triumphantly adduced ? Is it escaped calumny on this point. not infinitely more probable that he The Abbé de la Blétrie calumniates changed his mind ? Does not this letter | him sufficiently by saying, that all his contain these words ?

virtues were only seeming, while all his “Quid de templo suo dicent, quod, { vices were real." But Julian was not hyquùm tertiò sit eversum, nondum hodier- pocritical, nor avaricious, nor fraudulent, nam usque diem instauratur? Hæc ego, nor lying, nor ungrateful, nor cowardly, non ut illis exprobarem, in medium ad- nor drunken, nor debauched, nor idle, nor duxi, utpotè qui templum illud tanto vindictive. What then were his vices ? intervallo à ruinis excitare voluerim; sed 4. Let us now examine the redoubtable ideò commemoravi, ut ostenderem deli- ; argument made use of to persuade us rasse prophetas istos, quibus cum stolidis } that globes of fire issued from stones. aniculis negotium erat."

Ammianus Marcellinus, a pagan writer, “ What can the Jews say of their tem- } free from all suspicion, has said it. ple, which has been destroyed for the Be it so : but this Ammianus has also third time, and is not yet restored ? I said, that when the Emperor was about speak of this, not for the purpose of re- to sacrifice ten oxen to his gods for proaching them, for I myself intended to his first victory over the Persians, nine of have raised it once more from its ruins, them fell to the earth before they were but to show the extravagance of their pro- presented to the altar. He relates a hunphets, who had none but old women to dred predictions—a hundred prodigies. deal with.”

Are we to believe in them? Are we to Is it not evident that the Emperor believe in all the ridiculous miracles rehaving paid attention to the Jewish pro-lated by Livy? phecies, that the temple should be rebuilt Besides, who can say that the text of more beautiful than ever, and that all the Ammianus Marcellinus has not been nations of the earth should come and wor- } falsified ? Would it be the only instance ship in it, thought fit to revoke the per- in which this artifice has been employed ? mission to raise the edifice? The histori- I wonder that no mention is made of

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