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disciples of Jesus. This is nothing less that the glory of the Most High, and the than blasphemy against St. Paul. spirit of intelligence and sanctification, The other Apocryphal Books of the First shall descend upon this new priest; which

seems to foretel Jesus Christ. and Second Centuries.

The Letter of Abgarus, a pretended The Book of Enoch, the seventh man King of Edessa, to Jesus Christ, and Jesus after Adam, which mentions the war of the Christ's answer to King Abgarus. It is, rebellious angels, under their captain Sa- indeed, believed that, in the time of Timasia, against the faithful angels led by } berius, there was a toparch of Edessa, Michael. The object of the war was, to who had passed from the service of the enjoy the daughters of men, as has been Persians into that of the Romans ; but his said in the article ANGEL.

epistolary correspondence has been con

sidered by all good critics as a chimera. The Acts of St. Thecla and St. Paul, written by a disciple named John, attached The Acts of Pilate. Pilate's letters to to St. Paul. In this history, Thecla es- Tiberius on the Death of Jesus Christ. capes from her persecutors to go to St. The Life of Procula, Pilate's wife. Paul, disguised as a man. She also baptizes a lion ; but this adventure was after- The Acts of Peter and Paul, in which wards suppressed. Here, too, we have } is the history of St. Peter's quarrel with the poi trait of Paul :-Staturá brevi, cal- } Simon the magician. Abdias, Marcellus, vastrum, cruribus curvis, surosum, super- { and Hegesippus, have all three written ciliis junctis, naso aquilino, plenum gratiá this story. St. Peter first disputed with Dei.

Simon, which should resuscitate one of Although this story was recommended the Emperor Nero's relatives, who was by St. Gregory Nazianzen, St. Ambrose, just dead; Simon half restored him, and St. John Chrysostom, &c., it had no re- St. Peter finished the resurrection. Siputation among the other doctors of the mon next few up in the air ; but Peter church.

brought him down again, and the magician

broke his legs. The Emperor Nero, inThe preaching of Peter. This writing censed at the death of his magician, had is also called the Gospel or Revelation of St. Peter crucified with his head downPeter. St. Clement of Alexandria speaks wards, and St. Paul decapitated, as one of it with great praise; but it is easy to of St. Peter's party. perceive that some impostor had taken that apostle's name.

The Acts of Blessed Paul the Apostle

and Teacher of the Nations. In this book, The Acts of Peter, a work equally sup- St. Paul is made to live at Rome for two posititious.

years after St. Peter's death. The author

says, that when St. Paul's head was cut The Testament of the Twelve Patri- off, there issued forth milk instead of archs. It is doubted whether this book blood; and that Lucina, a devout woman, is by a Jew or a Christian of the primitive had him buried twenty miles from Rome, ages ; for it is said in the Testament of { on the way to Ostia, at her country house. Levi, that at the end of the seventh week there shall come priests given to idolatry, The Acts of the Blessed Apostle An-bellatores, urari, scriba iniqui, impu- drew. The author relates, that St. Andici, puerorum corruptores et pecorum ; { drew went to the city of the Myrmidons, that there shall then be a new priesthood; { and that he baptized all the citizens. A that the heavens shall be opened ; and young man named Sostratus, of the town




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of Amarea, which is at least better known fainted ; the serpent killed him, as also than that of the Myrmidons, came and the domestic who was his accomplice, and said to the blessed Andrew, “ I am so { coiled itself round his body. St. John handsome, that my mother has conceived arrives with the husband, and, to their a passion for me. I abhorred so execra- | astonishment, they find Callimachus alive. ble a crime, and have fled. My mother, St. John orders the serpent to depart, and in her fury, accuses me, to the proconsul the serpent obeys. He asks the young of the province, of having attempted to man how he has been resuscitated. Calviolate her. I can make no answer, for { limachus answered, that an angel had apI would rather die than accuse my mo- { peared to him, saying, “ It was necessary ther.” While he was yet speaking, the that thou shouldst die, in order to revive guards of the proconsul came and seized a Christian.” He immediately asked to him. St. Andrew accompanied the son { be baptized, and begged that John would before the judge, and pleaded his cause. resuscitate Drusilla. The apostle having The mother, not at all disconcerted, ac- } instantly worked this miracle, Callimacused St. Andrew himself of having insti- chus and Drusilla prayed that he would gated her son to the crime. The procon- also be so good as to resuscitate the dosul immediately ordered St. Andrew to mestic. The latter, who was an obstinate be thrown into the river ; but, the apostle { Pagan, being restored to life, declared that having prayed to God, there came a great he would rather die than be a Christian, earthquake, and the mother was struck by } and, accordingly, he incontinently died a thunderbolt.

again; on which St. John said, that a bad After several adventures of the same } tree always bears bad fruit. sort, the author has St. Andrew crucified Aristodemus, high-priest of Ephesus, at Patras.

though struck by such a prodigy, would

not be converted; he said to St. John, The Acts of St. James the Greater. "Allow me to poison you; and, if you The author has him condemned to death do not die, I will be converted.” The at Jerusalem by the pontiff

, and, before apostle accepted the proposal; but he his crucifixion, he baptizes the registrar. chose that Aristodemus should first poison

two Ephesians condemned to death. The Acts of St. John the Evangelist. { Aristodemus immediately presented to The author relates that, at Ephesus—of them the poison, and they instantly exwhich place St. John was bishop-Dru- pired. St. John took the same poison, silla, being converted by him, desired no which did him no harm. He resuscitated more of her husband Andronicus's com- } the two dead men, and the high-priest pany, but retired into a tomb. A young { was converted. man named Callimachus, in love with her, St. John having attained the age of 97 repeatedly pressed her, even in her tomb, years, Jesus Christ appeared to him, and to consent to the gratification of his pas- said, “ It is time for thee to come to my sion. Drusilla, being urged both by her table, and feast with thy brethren;" and husband and her lover, wished for death, soon after the apostle slept in peace. and obtained it. Callimachus, when informed of her loss, was still more furious The History of the Blessed James the with love; he bribed one of Andronicus's Less, and the brothers Simon and Jude. domestics, who had the keys of the tomb;} These apostles went into Persia, and perhe ran to it, stripped his mistress of her formed things as incredible as those reshroud, and exclaimed, “What thou lated of St. Andrew. wouldst not grant me living, thou shalt grant me dead.” A serpent instantly The Acts of St. Matthew, Apostle and issued froin the tomb; the young man Evangelist. St. Matthew goes into Ethi









opia, to the great town of Nadaver, where is the less true and sacred. It is said in he restores to life the son of Queen Can- this Homily, in Rufinus and afterwards in dace, and founds Christian churches. Isidorus, that ten days after the Ascen

sion, the aposties being shut up together The Acts of the Blessed Bartholomew for fear of the Jews, Peter said, "I bein India. Bartholomew went first to the lieve in God the Father Almighty ;" Antemple of Astaroth. This goddess de- drew," and in Jesus Christ his only son;" livered oracles, and cured all diseases. James," who was conceived by the Holy Bartholomew silenced her, and made sick Ghost ;" and that thus, each apostle havall those whom she had cured. King, ing repeated an article, the Creed was Polimius disputed with him; the devil completed. declared, before the king, that he was con- This story not being in the Acts of the quered ; and St. Bartholomew consecrated { Apostles, our belief in it is dispensed with King Polimius bishop of the Indies. —but not our belief in the Creed, of

which the apostles taught the substance. The Acts of the Blessed Thomas, Truth must not suffer from the false ornaApostle of India. St. Thomas entered ments in which it has been sought to array India by another road, and worked more her. miracles than St. Bartholomew. He at last suffered martyrdom, and appeared to The Apostolical Constitutions. The Xiphoro and Susani.

Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, which

were formerly supposed to have been diThe Acts of the Blessed Philip. He gested by St. Clement the Roman, are went to preach in Scythia. They wished now ranked among the apocryphal writings. to make him sacrifice to Mars; but he {The reading of a few chapters is sufficient caused a dragon to issue from the altar, { to show that the apostles had no share in and devour the children of the priests. this work. He died at Hierapolis, at the age of In the eleventh chapter, women are eighty-seven. It is not known what town ordered not to rise before the ninth hour. this was, for there were several of the In the first chapter of the second book,

it is desired that bishops should be learned: All these histories are supposed to have { but in the time of the apostles there was been written by Abdias, Bishop of Baby- } no hierarchy—no bishop attached to a lon, and were translated by Julius Afri- single church. They went about teachcanus.

ing from town to town, from village to vil

lage; they were called apostles, not To these abuses of the Holy Scriptures bishops ; and, above all things, they did was added one less revolting—one which { not pride themselves on being learned. did not fail in respect for Christianity, In the second chapter of the second like those which have just been laid before book it is said, that a bishop should have the reader, viz. the Liturgies attributed to but one wife, to take great care of his St. James, St. Peter, and St. Mark, the household ; which only goes to prove that falsehood of which has been shown by the at the close of the first, and the comlearned Tillemont.

mencement of the second century, when

the hierarchy was beginning to be estaFabricius places among the apocryphal }blished, the priests were married. writings the Homily (attributed to St. Au- Through almost the whole book, the gustine) on the manner in which the bishops are regarded as the judges of the Symbol was formed. But he certainly faithful; but it is well known that the does not mean to insinuate that this Sym- apostles had no jurisdiction. bol or Creed, which we call the Apostles', It is said, in chapter xxi., that both





parties must be heard ; which supposes {This was the first time that the Christians an established jurisdiction.

admitted the verses of the Sibyls, which In chapter xxvi. it is said, “ The bishop } they continued to do for more than three is your prince, your king, your emperor, hundred years. your God upon earth.These expres- In chapter v. of the eighth book, are sions are somewhat at variance with the these words :—“O God Almighty, give humility of the apostles.

to the bishop, through Christ, the particiIn chapter xxviii., "At the feasts of the pation of the Holy Spirit.” Agapæ, there must be given to the deacon In chapter iv., “Commend yourself double of that which is given to an old to God alone, through Jesus Christ;" woman; and to the priest double the gift { which does not sufficiently express the to the deacon, because the priests are the divinity of our Lord. counsellors of the bishops and the crown In chapter xii., is the Constitution of of the Church. The reader shall have a James the brother of Zebedee. portion, in honour of the prophets, as also In chapter xv., the deacon is to say the chanter and the door-keeper. Such aloud, “ Incline yourselves before God of the laity as wish to receive anything, through Christ.” shall apply to the bishop through the At the present day, these expressions deacon.'

are not very correct. The apostles never used any term answering to laity, or marking the difference The Apostolical Canons. The sixth between the profane and the priesthood. canon ordains that no bishop or priest shall

In chapter xxxiv., “ You must rever- separate himself from his wife on pretence ence the bishop as a king, honour him as of religion ; if he do so, he is to be exa master, and give him your fruits, the communicated ; and if he persist, he is to works of your hands, your first fruits, your be driven away. tenths, your savings, the presents that are The Seventh-that no priest shall ever made to you, your corn, your wine, your meddle with secular affairs. oil, your wool,” &c. This is a strong The nineteenth—that he who has mararticle.

ried two sisters, shall not be admitted into In chapter lvii., “Let the church be the clergy. long ; let it look towards the East; let it The twenty-first and twenty-secondresemble a ship; let the bishop's throne that eunuchs shall be admitted into the be in the middle ; let the reader read the priesthood, excepting such as have casbooks of Moses, Joshua, Judges, Kings, trated themselves. Yet, Origen was a Chronicles, Job,” &c.

priest, notwithstanding this law. In chapter xvii., of the third book- The fifty-fifth-that if a bishop, a priest, “ Baptism is administered for the death of a deacon, or a clerk, eat flesh which is not Jesus ; oil for the Holy Ghost. When clear of blood, he shall be displaced. we are plunged into the water, we die; It is quite evident that these canons when we come out of it, we revive. The could not be promulgated by the apostles. Father is the God of all. Christ is the only son of God, his beloved son, and the The Confessions of St. Clement to lord of glory. The Holy Spirit is the James, brother of the Lord, in ten books, Paraclete, sent by Christ the teacher, translated from Greek into Latin, by preaching Christ Jesus.”

Rufinus. This doctrine would now be explained

This book commences with a doubt in more canonical terms.

respecting the immortality of the soulIn chapter vii. of the fifth book, are Utrùmne sit mihi aliqua vita post mor quoted some verses of the Sibyls, on the tem, an nihil omnino posteà sim futurus coming of Jesus, and the Resurrection. St. Clement, disturbed by this doubt,




and wishing to know whether the world the presence of all the faithful ; and that was eternal had been created— he said to him, “ Fail not to write to my whether there were a Tartarus and a brother James as soon as I am dead." Phlegethon, an Ixion and a Tantalus, This letter seems to prove, that it was &c., resolved to go into Egypt to learn not then believed that St. Peter had sufnecromancy; but having heard of St. fered martyrdom, since it is probable that Bartholomew, who was preaching Chris- this letter, attributed to St. Clement, tianity, he went to him in the East, at the would have mentioned the circumstance. time when Barnabas was celebrating a } It also proves, that Cletus and Anacletus Jewish feast. He afterwards met St. were not reckoned among the bishops of Peter at Cæsarea with Simon the magi- Rome. cian and Zachæus. They disputed together, and St. Peter related to them all St. Clement's Homilies, to the number that had passed since the death of Jesus. of nineteen. He says in his first homily, Cleinent turned Christian, but Simon re- } what he had already said in his conmained a magician.

fessions—that he went to St. Peter and Simon fell in love with a woman named } St. Barnabas at Cæsarea, to know whether Luna; and, while waiting to marry her, the soul was immortal, and the world he proposed to St. Peter, to Zachæus, to eternal. Lazarus, to Nicodemus, to Dositheus, and In the second homily, No. xxxviii. we to several others, that they should become find a much more extraordinary passage. his disciples. Dositheus answered him at St. Peter himself, speaking of the Old once with a blow from a stick; but the Testament, expresses himself thusstick having passed through Simon's body “The written law contains certain as if it had been smoke, Dositheus wor- false things against the law of God, the shipped him and became his lieutenant;} Creator of heaven and earth : the devil after which Simon married his mistress, } has done this, for good reasons; it has and declared that she was Luna herself, also come to pass through the judgments descended from heaven to marry him. of God, in order to discover such as

But enough of the Confessions of St. would listen with pleasure to what is Clement. It must however be remarked, { written against him," &c. &c. that in the ninth book the Chinese are In the sixth homily, St. Clement meets spoken of under the name of Seres, as { with Appian, the same who had written the justest and wisest of mankind. After against the Jews in the time of Tiberius. them come the Brahmins, to whom the { He tells Appian that he is in love with an author does the justice that was rendered | Egyptian woman, and begs that he will them by all antiquity. He cites them as { write a letter in his name to his pretended models of soberness, mildness, and jus- } mistress, to convince her, by the example tice.

of all the gods, that love is a duty. Ap

pian writes a letter, and St. Clement anSt. Peter's Letter to St. James, and St. swers it in the name of his pretended Clements Letter to the same St. James, mistress; after which they dispute on the brother of the Lord, governor of the Holy nature of the gods. Church of the Hebrews at Jerusalem, and of all churches.St. Peter's Letter Two Epistles of St. Clement to the contains nothing curious, but St. Cle- Corinthians. It hardly seems just to ment's is very remarkable. He asserts have ranked these epistles among the that Peter declared him Bishop of Rome apocryphal writings. Some of the learned before his death, and his coadjutor ; that may have declined to recognise them he laid his hands upon his head, and because they speak of “the Phenix of made him sit in the episcopal chair, in Arabia, which lives five hundred years,



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