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THE PARTS OF A PLANT-THE LEAVES (Continued).
P. WE will talk to-day of the position of the leaves on their stem. Here is a piece of geranium, Ion. Take it in your hand, and tell me how the leaves are arranged. Do they all grow from the same side of the stalk? Ion. No. This bottom leaf grows on the side of the stalk nearest to me; the next grows on the opposite-no! not the opposite side, but a little to the side of the part where the first grows; and the next leaf is a little to the side of that; and the next, ah! the next is on the side exactly opposite to that of the first leaf; and here, higher up, we have come round again to one on exactly the same side of the stalk as the first leaf.
What difference do you observe in them?
L. One consists of several small leaves.
P. These we call leaf-lets. A leaf consisting of leaflets is called compound; and the other, which has only one broad lobe, is called simple. Sometimes the leaflets are so large that it might be difficult to say whether they are distinct leaves or not. You may, however, easily know when the leaves begin to fall: if each leaflet fell off separately, it would be termed a leaf, but when they still continue joined to one stalk, and thus fall off together, this shows that they are only parts of one large leaf.
Let us look at one or two different compound leaves, and learn their names. This leaf
Bi-pinnate and Tri-pinnate Leaves.
L. Yes; the side veins also become stalks, and bear leafconsists of three leaflets, and is lets, just as the midrib of the pinnate leaf does.
P. And it is therefore called
Here are some leaves with more than three leaflets; they are said to be pinnate leaves.
a "bi-pinnate leaf." Here is another, which is yet more complicated; it is called a tripinnate leaf.
W. Yes, it seems to be made of a number of bi-pinnate leaves joined to a great midrib. Thus ternate and pinnate leaves consist of leaflets; bi-pinnate leaves are made up of pinnate leaves; and tri-pinnate leaves are made up of bi-pinnate leaves joined to a large midrib.
"Leaves differ in their shape, being either simple or compound. Thus we have ternate, pinnate, bi-pinnate, tri-pinnate, and
forwards like those of a saw, serrate; when they are rounded, crenate. If the margin is waved, as in No. 16, they are said to
be sinuate; No. 17 is lyre-tire, dentate, serrate, crenate, shaped, or lyrate; No. 18, fiddle-shaped, or panduriform; and No. 19 is pinnatifid.
W. What a number of hard names we shall have to learn! I will count them up.
We have also
WHEN is a man less than a man?
Or at a woman aims a blow;
Then is a man less than a man ;
Then we pity him all we can.-C. MACKAY.
We shall have to be very careful to learn all these names, and to remember their mean
ings also. If you please, papa, may we go into the garden?
P. If you like. And find
me some oblong leaves.
HENRY VIII. THE REFORMATION.
P. THE Pope's sentence of ex- | he was of humble origin; he communication against Henry was the son of a blacksmith. was passed, but it was not sent He was the confidential servant forth immediately. Before of Wolsey, and after the Cardoing so, the Pope tried every dinal's death the king found means to make up the quarrel. him to be as useful as his master had been.
In the year 1535, in which Henry was declared the "Head of the Church," and Sir Thomas More was beheaded, Cromwell was ordered to begin the work of reform, by visiting the monasteries of England. Accordingly, in 1536, Cromwell appointed several men, as his commissioners, to travel through England, and enter these religious houses, so that they might bring a report of their condition. These men, and Cromwell himself, reported that the monks therein lived most irreligious and disgraceful lives; that they committed all kinds of wickednesses, which were even as great as those of the men of Sodom.
Henry, however, had gone too far to go back; and he had several reasons for not doing so. One was, that his new office as "Head of the Church" increased his riches; for, as I told you, he now received the money which used to flow into the Pope's coffers. He saw, too, that the priests of his church still had too much money, and he determined to have some of it himself. Again, he saw that they still had too much power; and he determined to take it from them. Again, he saw that many were still very wicked men, whilst some were disobedient to himself; he therefore determined to punish them. Thus Henry, as head of the Church, could gratify his covetousness, his pride, and his anger, which he could not do if he allowed the Pope to have power again.
To execute his plans was very easy, for Henry had assistants who faithfully obeyed all his commands. The men to whom the work of Reformation was entrusted, were Cranmer, who had become Archbishop of Canterbury; and Thomas Cromwell, the Secretary of State. The latter man is worthy of notice: like Wolsey,
When their account of the crimes and deceptions of the monks was read, a general horror was expressed by the people, and it was determined that the so-called "religious houses" should be suppressed. The lesser monasteries England were then entirely abolished; their yearly revenue, which amounted to £32,000, and their gold and silver plate, and other riches, were handed over to the king as the head of the Church. Thus the king